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In 1965, the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) embarked on a series of African case studies designed to shed light upon several major problems confronting educational planners in developing countries. These problems included the integration of educational and economic planning, the costing and financing of educational development, the supply of and demand for teachers, the effect of rapid expansion on the quality of education, the planning of adult education, the bearing of educational planning upon external aid, and the administrative aspects of planning, including implementation. The task was undertaken in three stages. The first involved the collection and analysis of documentation on three English-speaking countries, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda, and two French-speaking countries, Ivory Coast and Senegal, where the studies were to be undertaken, followed by the drafting and critical review of provisional reports. The second stage consisted of field investigations by staff members and expert consultants, lasting one to three months in each case. In several instances reports were prepared by experts on the scene in accordance with outlines jointly designed and agreed to. The last stage involved the drafting, criticism, revision and final editing of the reports for publication. Two senior staff members of the IIEP directed the studies in the English-speaking and French-speaking countries respectively, from initial design to find editing. Altogether, eighteen field studies were carried out with the help of officials and advisers of the countries concerned. To the extent possible, the same problem was examined on a similar basis in different countries so that it could later be subjected to comparative analysis. Although the IIEP intends later to synthesize certain of the studies in book form, it considers that most of the full original reports should be made available promptly in monograph form for training, operational and research purposes. It should be emphasized, however, that the intent of these reports is not to give advice to the countries studied but rather to extract from their experiences lessons which might prove useful to others and possibly to themselves.
IIEP African studies
While gratitude is expressed to the governments, organizations and many indi- viduals whose co-operation made these studies possible, and to the Ford Founda- tion and the French Government for their help in financing them, it is emphasized that responsibility for the facts, analyses and interpretations presented rests with the authors. In making the decision to publish these studies, neither Unesco nor the IIEP necessarily endorses the views expressed in them, but they feel that their content is worthy of open and free discussion
The Oko-Amakon community in Sendel State is a farming
cosxnity majoring in rice production a3d animal husbandry.
* Agricultural activities, potentials and problems of the been co;l~t.:r?ity have / studied vhich indicate the need for the -
services of a community farmstead.
Available relevant literature on the various aspects
inte~rated farmstead for the above named community has been
desi~ned and costed. The farmstead incorporates a piggery
unit, a poultry unit, a fish pond, and z rice processing
The project is in two abh.,.ancc. The estimated cost of
structures for the initial phase is 3518.932.80. The
feasibility and viability analysis showed that the financial
efficiency for the initial phase is 156,18$
The estimated.cost for the required structures in phase
two is ~399,377~20 making a total of ~581,310.00 for the
entire project, In addition to economic benefits, others
benefits have bee^ discussed-
The study was carried out to investigate land degradation and farm
management practices among farmers in the Northern Agricultural Zone of
Cross River State, Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the
study. A total of 32 extension agents and 224 registered farmers was
randomly sampled, and stratified along local government areas. A structured
questionnaire was used for data collection. The reliability coefficient of the
instrument was 0. 92 using correlation analysis while three experts carried out
face validation of the instrument Five research questions and five
corresponding hypotheses tested at 0. 05 level of significance guided the
study. Means and standard deviation were employed to answer the research
questions, while t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses. It was fond
that, farmers showed high level of awareness of the effects of the various
forms of land degradation but showed low concern on conservation issues.
Certain activities of farmers have contributed to land degradation to a very
high extent; land degradation has very seriously affected agricultural
production; the continuous adoption of unsustainable farm management I I
practices by farmers in the study area is due largely to socio-economic factors
like poverty, population pressure, high market value of land and low and
unstable price for agricultural produce. It was recommended that farmers
should be encouraged to adopt more sustainable forms of land use including
diversified farming system with appropriate inclusion of livestock, multipurpose
trees, shrubs, land tenure systems which are incompatible with the
introduction of improved agriculture. Land management need to be reviewed
and extension agents' role must changed form implementer to facilitator for effective participation of laqd usen in all stages of aglicultural production.
Neoplasm or tumor according to eminent British Oncologist, Willis, is an
abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and in uncoordinated with
that of normal tissue and persist in the same excessive manner after cessation of
the stimulus which evoked the change1. All tumors are grouped into two broad
categories-benign and malignant depending on their level of anaplasia and
proliferation. Benign tumors are designated by attaching the suffix -oma to the
cell of origin. Tumors of epithelial origin or tumors derived from glands are
termed adenoma. Therefore pituitary adenoma is an abnormal growth of the
Owing to the fact that this growth is abnormal, it is purposeless and preys on
the host and above all. it disrupts the structure and function of the organ involved.
In pituitary adenoma, the functionality and structure of the pituita~y gland is
uttered. This impairment of pituitary gland function which is the master gland
whose secretion controls other endocrine gland results in a hydra- headed effect as
it lead to the impairment of growth, lactation, female reproduction functioning,
thyroid functioning and adrenal gland function. It is therefore imperative that
accurate diagnosis of pituitary adenoma be made at the early stage to forestall these ugly incidences.
Adapalm (Nfg) Ltd Is a mono-product Agro-Industry and
was studied to apprafse the extent to which manageinent
technfques of productfon plannfng and fnventory cor trol system
are employed in Its operattons. The study also fnvc stfgated
the impact of fnclusfon of production plannlng techn ques of
demand forecasting and capacfty Pevellfng on produc fon efffciency
and reductlon fn raw materlal waste.
Therefore an elabomte survey was carded out through
questlonafres, oral fntervfews and the more objective method of
partfcipant observation. Facts gafned from the rev!( w of related
literature guided the development of concepts and b: ckground
upon whlch the study objectfves were assessed.
Chf-square xZ was used as the test statfstks fc r the
several hypotheses developed from our problem state nent. The
result of the evaluatfon and test of hypothese revez led thk
1. Productfon plannfng fn Adapalm of! fndustry is riot demand
oriented but revolves more on evaflability of rav. material
and as such, the use of elaborate demand forec; st fn
productfon plannfng process is not gtven enougl attehtlon.
2. Capacity levellfng technfques are employed to m: fnly respond
to upward variation fn supply of Fresh Fruft Bunch [FFB) durfng harvest peak perfods. Shfft and overtfre are the i 1 predomfnantly used capacfty levellfng techniques ~Adapalm
Wfth the availabflity of FFB, 100% capaclty utfl zation can be
achleved by Adding shfff and uslng overthe ~frnultaneously.
Flow control Inventory system is used for raw material
fnventory, achievable through vertfcal lntegratfon. Thus
vertfcal fntegratfon is used as an inventory option. Whfle the
MRO inventories are controlled wfth the ffxed ~rder quantity
The test of our hypotheses shows that there f; no
signfficant relatlonshlp between the use of den and forecast
In productfon planning, and Increase in produ1:tfon efffclency
and reduction fn raw materlal waste. Whfle th :re was
slgnlffcant relationship between increase fn prt ductfon
efficiency, reductfon In raw material waste an'c the use of
capacfty levellfng technfques. Again our test ~f hypotheses
reveals that Increase fn production efficiency : nd reduction
In raw materlal waste Is sfgnfffcantly dependert on choice
of good and appropriate fnventory control sys?ern.
Finally, the study has only qualitatively asses ied the Impact
of the use of productfon planning technfques in Ad tpalm oil
Industry. It 1s therefore recommended that further studles on
quantftatlve profft data analysfs be carrfed out befc re a generalfsed ,
statement could be made as regards the benefits ac:urable from
the application of production planning techniques in Agro-based industries.
In the library and information sector, there are two methods of service
delivery namely the free service and fee-based service. Anyone of these
methods can be operated by either public or private sector. Rental
libraries and information centres promote information and national
development. These are also places where the library and information
professionals carry out private practice for skill development and
financial improvement. The following issues are discussed: rental
libraries as educational centres, conceptions of rental libraries and
information centres, rationale for rental library, types and their service
orientation, basic infrastructure for setting up rental libraries, feasibility
study and contributions of rental libraries to national development.
Man'. babies dic more than all other. specie,diarrheal disease:
Daily 5,000 infants die as a rcsult of diarrheal disease, 10,000-20,000
die of malnctrition and more than one million die every year because
they are no!. breastfed o'r are given other food too early. Millions
more live ill poor health, contract preventable diseases and battle
malnutritior ; the magnituae of this *death/disease is grcater in
Baby Friendly I Iospi tal Initiative is an international project
that aims t~ give every baby the best start in life by creating a
rind tllcir motllcr-.s ore followetl.,Tci~ steps to .szrcce.ss~il hi-etrsljectii~lg t is the gloDr:l standard lq~ which hospitnls arc asses~mcr-cditecf
The advantages are enormous and this high i~npac t strategy
has achievcd tremendous success since the Innocenti Declaration in
1990 and we can achieve more.
The research work studied the role of the Public CornpIaints Commission
to National Development,
The objective of the research identified and examined the importance but
salient role being played by the commission in which many people
including the elites and the rural populace are unaware. The study also
examined how conflicts amicably resolved creates the required
environment for the peaceful conduct of public affairs.
To achieve the objective, the researcher identified research problem on
power, functions and limitation of the commission in this onerous msk of
administering social justice.
Thus, the research work tested the vaIidity or otherwise of the following
1. Public complaint is a toothless bull-dog because it lack the
use of sanctions to seek compliance.
2. Despite the limitation of sanctions by public complaints
commission, it has helped through persuasion and reasoning
to protect the legitimate interest of the aggrieved citizens,
safe a lot of persons from exploitation by officials and
institutions and, the same time increased peopIe confidence
in their government.
3. The existence of public complaints commission has
cautionarv effects on the overhearing attitude of over zealous
public officers and their tendency to miss-use the power
invested in them.
Documentary design that deals with an evaluation of the written
materials on public complaints commission was the method
employed. The sources of data collected in chapter four were
through the secondary source. The activities of the commission,
the annual reports of the decree establishing the commission. The
sample for analytical frame work was drawn from the operational
statistics on Kogi State Branch of Public Complaints Commission from January - December 1999 annual report.
From the data collected and analysed we have the following
summarized find ing s :
The commission's efforts were been frustrated because of
lack of adequate cooperation by some various administrative
agencies and the commission lack adequate power to enforce
or exert authority.
Though it lack the power of sanction. Its approaches of
persuasion, reasoning devotion and tacks, yielded result in
resolving cases amicabIy.
The commission has become the last hope for the common
man because of its cheap and free access by the people.
It is a quasi-judicial regulatory agency, it vindicate the just
when wronsly accused, because some of the comphints
were based on simple misunderstanding of government
5. Some informed Ministry, organisation, parastatals are being
caution in the application of the rule of law
6. Large portion of the people within the organisation are not
even aware of its activities.
a. We recommended that PCC require more power
because some cases require force or coersion, to seek
b. Vigorous publicity campaign should be embarked
upon through the media in every state of the
c. The commission should be adequately financed
because its activities requires mobility to reach out to
d. Relevant staff training for investigation officers and
other staff in the commission should be encouraged to
enable them cope with the rudiments of the job.
e. Staff warfare should be given deserving attention by
placing staff on special salary.
The study focuses on the effects of advertising appeals on the company's
target market, which is made up of consumers of different educational levels.
Evans Medical PLC, a publicly quoted healthcare company with its major focus
on the manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceuticals of therapeutic
importance and baby food has been advertising its products without really
knowing the effects which it has on its target market made up of consumers of
different educational levels.
The objectives are:
To find out the nature of the responses of literate and illiterate consumers
of the company's products;
to determine the extent to which well-designed and executed advertising
can modify the buying behaviour of the consumers of the company's
to find out whether there are other factors apart from advertising affecting
the company's consumers' choice of its products; and
to proffer some recommendations that are in line with our observations.
The secondary source and survey method of data collection with structured questionnaire was used.
Industrialization depends on power being readily
and cheaply avililable. The present mineral resource8
of industrial power are mainly coal, oil and natural
gas. Despite advances made in the use of oil and gas,
these resources cannot replace seal,
Nigeria is richly endowed wi-th P .lot of. mineral
resources both in intensity and extensivemess, In
deciding en the use of oil, natural gas and coal, the
relative abundance of these- resources.,, must be considered.
In this regard, increased utilization of coal, the most
abundant resources seems justificable,
Coal is' mined in Nigeria by the Nigerian Coal
'Corporation (NCC), an arm of the Federal Ministry of
Solid ~inerals Development, Since its incorporation in
1952,alkhough it witnessed some boom in the late fifties,
the Nigerian Coal Corporation has been faced with numerous set - backs in the production and marketing
of coal minerals,
Theae'negative progress of the corporation in the 1 production and marketing of coal minerals have been
briefly described in Chapter one, The chapter also
embodies the objectives and the significance of the
Chapter two concentrates on the Review of Related
Literature, This chapter takes a look at the possible
uses of coal, Described also. is the concept of Marketing
Mix. The writer also took an indep* look at the concept
of Promotional Mix and its variables.
The design of the study, the sample size, and the
sources of data arc discussed under Research methodology "2 . . - in chapter three,
In chapter four data collected were presented,
nnrlysed and the hypothesis tested.
The study ended with the summary of findings,
recommendations and conclusion,