University of Nigeria OER Competition | Register Here
since the introduction of the Structural ~djustment
Programme (SAP) in 1986, no serious study has been
conducted to evaluate the impact of SAP on the
productivity of Merchant Banks in ~igeria. This
study has been designed to bridge this qap in knowledge,
The study has been partitioned into five chapters,
Chapter 1 covers the introductory phase of the inquiry
which includes statement of the problem, objectiveof
the study, significance of the study, literature review
In chapter 2, we examined the oriqin and deve-
lopment of merchant banks in ~iqeria, In addition,
the functions and services rendered by merchant banks
were critically analysed,
Tn chapter 3, we examined the oriqin and deve-
lopment of the Structural Adjustment Programme in
Nigeria and its impact on the performance of the
merchant banks in the country.
Chapter 4, which is the main chapter, concentrated
on the impact of SAP on the productivity of merchant
banks in ~igeria. The profit marqin and productivity
of these banks before SAP was introduced were compared
to the performance of these banks since 1986 when
SAP came into operation.
We summarized and concluded in chapter 5.
One of the major themes of Igbo history which is yet to be written is the development of the slave trade and its political and social impact on the former Eastern Region of Nigeria. Unfortunately, the evidence necessary for undertaking this study has not been assembled so that a general overview can be taken.
Historically, a community's sense of identity has always been traced to the
spirit of communal interaction of one form or the other among people. This fact in
recent times is further demonstrated in elaborate festivals, numerous lectures,
seminars, symposia, workshops organized by government and non-governmental
organization as well as private individuals to support community centre development.
Community centres provides a healthy and attractive atmosphere in which all its
inhabitant have equal opportunity to participate in programmes despite their fast
expanding economic and socia1 life style as against the allien system which
encourages individualization in activity and life style.
A community Centre is therefore the proper venue for such emphasised
communal lifestyle and activity focus point. Such a centre plays effectively the
historic role of stimulating and deepening the sense of identity and spirit of self-help
to tackle community problems based on local needs and interest. Our communities
are growing very fast and our youths are imbibing this Western Culture and way of
life rather too fast to the detriment of our own cuIture and social value, which if left
unchecked will leave us as a people without history and way of life not only for our
own immediate generations but also generations to come.
Based on these reasons and many others, the need for a community centre for
a fast gowing town like Nnewi is not only timely but long awaited. For purpose of
literature this project is divided into section called chapters.
Chapter one deals with the proposal which highlight the introduction of the
subject matter, stating the aims, objectives, motivations and also highlighting some
architectural problems, scope and limitation of study. It also states research
methodology and limitation, importance of study, sources of hnds and management.
The second chapter talks more on definition of conceptual issues in
Community Centres tracing the origin of Community Centres in Greece, Rome,
United Kingdom, United States of America and the Traditional Nigerian Community.
Recent trends in Community Centres is also discussed.
Chapter three deals proper with historical development of Nnewi Town where
the Community Centre is to be provided. Brief history of Nnewi Town is discussed
The activities of Nigerian Bank officials especially the commercial
Banks have been criticised by all classes of people in Nigeria. The
accusations range from reckless and arrogant attitudes of the bank staff to
bank indifference to social environments.
For a commercial bank to succeed, it has to be creative and responsive
to its markets' specific needs. This it can' achieve by establishing good
customer relationship marketing. It is against this background and in a bid
to give room for an effective bank retailing management that the researcher
took the challenge of carrying out this research work.
In carrying out the work, four research questions were posed and three
hypotheses formulated to guide the study. The objective of the work was to
determine if the commercial banks are under-staffed and also to find out to
what extent they have applied information technology in their operations.
The study was limited to the commercial banks in Enugu urban. A
survey method was used for the data collection with secondary data playing a
supplementary role. A total of 398 customers from these banks were sampled
with 227 staff members of these banks.
Two questionnaires were prepared for the staff and customers. The
answers to the questions were analysed using tables and charts. Three
hypotheses were formulated and were tested using the chi-square method.
At the end, some findings and recommendations were made for the
improvement of good customer relationship in our commercial banks.
The study investigated the effects of angles of orientation, mental distance and crowding on mental rotation rate. Seventy two undergraduates from the University of Nigeria with mean age of 23.59 participated in the study. under a 3x2x3 mixed nested design, they memorized an image medium containing any of the nine upper-case old-bookman style alphabets (A, B, L, R, K, P, F, T, E) and later decided whether the alphabets rotated into 3 different angles of orientation (0, 30, 90), within 2 crowding conditions (Crowding or no crowding) and 3 levels of mental distance (0cm, 6cm, 12cm) were the same with those earlier memorized.
A proposed mass-production method for an internal
combustion engine piston is presented reflecting Nigerian
situation. In proceeding with the research presentation a review
of the literature materials is made. Considering the working
principles and the expected performance of the engine piston,
aluminium alloy containing 92.2% aIuminium, 4.0% copper,
1.8% magnesium and 2.0% nickel is recommended. Gravity
casting method is chosen as the proper choice for the production
technique. Some samples of 87.5 mm (nominal diameter) pistons
were produced. Recommended procedures, equipment and
machinery necessary to achieve the desired quality of finished
pistons and dimensiond accurncys from casting to finishing
processes, gauging and storage form an integral part of the
project report. Finally economic factors influencing the
recommended production method, which include adaptability of
locally available equipment and machinery, for competitive
pricing of the productions are discussed and analysed.
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is the transfer of HIV virus from an infected mother to her baby either in utero or after birth through breastfeeding. most of the transmission occurs at the time of labor and delivery, while transmission in early pregnancy is less common.
Interest in this study arose because (.I tlin-: widespread concern in t1i1: Country today wt r
tlie growing incidence of distress in banks a:!d .he need to urgc~illy evolve an enduring panacea
to check the spread of the disease.
The consensus among financial/eco~~ol:.ic pundits is that if not cl-ecked, the distress
problem would lead to complete erosion of wnfidence in the bankillg sy5rl:m with delererioi s
spill-over effects on the already traumatized Nigerian economy.
Bank distress however, is not peculiar o Nigeria. h4ost Countries oft it: World, inclucing
the developed ones like IJSA, IJK etc, have, ai one titlie or the olller expt:i iellced one fornl of
banking distress or the otlier. I~ldeecl, one can i~rgue that a ccrtai~i degree ol distress is wcessar y
in order to maintain sanity and srability in thc Banking systetn.
'The problem therefore, IS not distress par se, but (he seenlingly unco~itrollable spread of
tlie virus in Nigeria.
Consequently, the issue iiwestigated is ilie nature alitl intensity of banking distres!; in
Nigeria, its implication for the banking inu~rst y and the ecoiiolny and the various teclinirlu~s
adopted by the regulatory authorities to grypl~ with the proble~n.
To carry out this, a number of tools wer employed. First, a I0 yex trend analysis wzs
conducted of aggregate banks performance ~!JII; the assessmew parameters of CAMEL - (lapitid
Adequacy, Asset quality, Management efficic ncy, Ear~iings allti l.iquidit> . This covered I he
period tiom 1985 to 1994.
From this, it was observed tliiit IIK tli~!r.:ss shock I'irst hi1 ~lic indus~r y between 1989 ad
1990 which was the period following the withdrawal of treasury funds from banks by
Government. This was followed by a period ~1' rccovery until I093 tvllen lllc currellt wavt: (lt
distress seemed to permeate [lie entire iutlusrr!~ I'abric.
Again, out of the 27 officially declared distressed Banks, a total of 10 made up of 6
Commercial and 4 Merchant Banks were selected for further investigation along the wne
CAMEL indicators. Coincidentally, all the 6 Commercial banks are those with Governrnt,r~t
interests while the Merchant Banks are privately owned.
The causes of Bank distress were traced to 6 main issues namely, Inadequate regulatc~ry
framework; Deterioration in assert quality and earning; Poor Management; Fraudulent cond 1c.t
of Managers and owners; Under Capitalization, and Adverse Economic Condirions.
Finally, recommendations were made on how to effectively monitor banks in order to
preventlcontrol the incidence of banking distress. These were based on interviews conducted
with officials of the concerned banks, the regulatory agencies and other economic commentawl s
and the experience of other Countries.
It is believed that if these recommendations are adopted. the incidwce of bank distress
will be drastically reduced and this will i11 turn instil sanity and stability in the Banking industry with obvious salutary effect on the Nigerian economy.
The introduction of student industrial work experience Scheme [SIWES]
was in 1973 by the Federal Government of'Nigeria, its purpose is to
I)' provide necessary practical work experience for the std&ht before
graduation, this report is aimed at writing every practical work done during
my stay at the place of attachment which is Lagos State Physical Planning
Development Authori ty [LASPPDA], Apapa District Oilice.
REASON FOR SIWES
The reason for this programme is to give student a practical experience of
their course of study - - and to let - them know the industrial life which is made -
up of the professional ways of doing the work [styles and methods] and the
safety ways both for staff and the machinery.
The programme scheme is made up of the University, their students and the
- - industries and this usu& last hventyLfour (24) weeks. It is
I -- I
founded by the Federal Government and -coordinated by the National
University Commission (NUC) and the Industrial Training Fund (ITF).
I I These are the individual functions of the agencies involved in the Scheme