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Recently, war has been percieved as a public health problem against the previous philosophy that holds it to be a social problem. This is beause the substantial proportion of the costs of war results from its impact on victims' health and the burden it places on health institutions.
No doubt, the whole world is engulfed with this pandemic disease called war, and its effects on human health is horrifying and devastating.
The lifespan of this our generation is really in danger since only one atom of chlorine can destroy up to 100,000 ozone atoms in the atmosphere and can still remain there for a decade or more. Ozone being the most important and the smallest gas in the stratosphere is really something to preserve if life is to go on normally.
This research's execution is aimed at realising a more suitable method for longitude determination in low latitude areas like Nigeria. This has been done by comparing the Tsinger's method with a modified version of Mayer's method with a view to ascertaining which of the two can be more advantageously adopted for use in Nigeria.
The demand for palm fruit products such as edible oil, soap, margarine and so on has led to the need for more efficient mechanized and automated methods of processing palm fruits to substitute the traditional and crude methods of digesting palm fruits, with its bulk of demerits ranging from low production capacity, unhygienic nature, large consumption of time and energy.
This research work is all about corruption of our leaders in embezzlement of public funds and treasury. It is titled insatiable accumulation of wealth by modern crop of leaders; what future for the nation.
Small and medium scale enterprises contrary to general opinion
of the public as a petty trader is any incorporated or
unincorporated enterprises, privately owned indigenous or with
foreign multinational participation as subsidiary, could be quoted
on the Nigerian Stock Exchange under Second Tier Market with
the following characteristics :
(i) Work force should be more than 50 but less than 500 (ii) Net asset should be between W5 tdllion - W30 million
(iii) ~nnhal turnover of between W5 million - W50 million.
The study of working capital management has gained prominence
in recent time. This is not unconnected with problems of
liquidity which is now facing most managers of business
organisations. A company comes into existence through
provision of long term capital which leads to acquisition of
fixed assets. The survival and growth of any business
enterprise especially small and medium scale depends on the
effective management of its working capital. Terms like
under-trading or over-trading which are problems of surplus
fund or shortage of fund in an organisation are symptoms of
working capital management problem.
Working Capital according to Brown and Howard may be defined
as assets held for current use within business less the amount
due to those awaiting settlement in short term in whatever form. 1
In other words, working capital is the excess of current assets
over current liabilities, I.e, operational net business fund
available for day to day operations of the business.
Business exestence is one thing whlle its long term survival and
growth is another. The role of effective working capital
management in the long term survival and growth of business
organisation is one of the maj~r reasons for increased study in
the management of working capital. The mortality rate of small
and medium scale enterprises in developing countries is quite
increasing, Studies of this nature fs usually aimed at identifying
areas of assistance to the management of such enteprises on
survival strategies through working capital management.
Working capital management problem is common to all business .
establishments but the problem is more pronounced in small
3 and medium size knterpris& due to their low credit rating
in the economy.
The potential uses of pharmaceutical grade cellulose in the pharmaceuticaI
industry is the raison d itre for this work. Cellulose was extracted from sawdust
obtained from the tropical tree Gmelinu ai.borea Family Verbenaceae by means of
the classical soda process.
The pure a -cellulose produced was then treated with various concentrations
of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) 0. I%, I%, 2%, 5%, 15%, and 20% . The trona
treated cellulose named "tronated microfine cellulose "(TMFC) along with
untronated a-cellulose was subsequently subjected to physico-chemical
evaluation. Properties evaluated included microscopical characteristics ,densification
behaviour ,elemental analysis, simple sugar composition, and swelling characteristics
Next, the cellulose powders were then investigated to ascertain their
compatibility with two model drugs namely acetaminophen and ascorbic acid by
means of the temperature stress technique. The celluloses were then employed as
channelling agents in waxy matrix drug delivery systems .These extrusion matrices
were produced using a locally designed and fabricated matrix making unit(MMU).
The matrix forming materials used were dika fat and paraffin wax. Physical
properties of representative samples of the matrices such as weight, dimensions and
friability were determined . Drug release studies were then conducted in 0.1 HCL.
Results of the physicochemical studies revealed that TMFC has the typical
MFC microscopic morphology, bulk volume of between 3.02-5.10cm3 ,bulk density
of 0.28-0.57gl cm3 ,Hausner9s ratio of 1.20-1 .SO and percentage compressibility
of between 34-42 %. The drug compatibility studies revealed no degradation
products. The matrices weighed 400mg on the average, had dimensions of 12mm by
3mm and had friability of O.OS%.The results of the drug release studies indicated that
release followed a diffusion controlled matrix mode!, where the quantity of drug
released is proportional to the square root of time. Further analysis of the release data
revealed that release rate tended to increase with increasing amounts of the
channelling agent. A 15-50% quantity of acetaminophen was released in the first
hour of study with matrices containing higher proportions of channelling agent
having correspondingly higher rates of release. A similar behaviour was observed
with the matrices containing ascorbic acid though at Iower concentration levels.
The results obtained in this study convincingly indicate that cellulose can be
extracted from sawdust, the cellulose so produced can be transformed into a grade of
MFC using trona as an artificial chaperon. It was also found that TMFC can be
successfully employed as a channelling agent in waxy matrix drug delivery system
(WDDS) for oral sustained release formulations.
To improve Maternal and Child Health services especially in the rural areas, a programme to train traditional birth attendants (Ungo Zoma) was established by the Sokoto State government of Nigeria in 1975.
Communication is vital to all human endeavors especially service oriented business
such as banking. Communication is very essential, it could make or mare the business
depending on how effective it is used. Communication has been identified as one of
the major causes of banking distress especially merchant banking, wqich is wholesale
banking dealing with people who are highly knowledgeable about the business. Many
organizations encounter various problems in communication within and outside their
organizations. Due to this fact, the researcher deemed it necessary to research into
the various aspects of communication techniques, methods, channels and directions
of communication adopted in the achievement of the aims and objectives of the
The aim of the researcher is to determine the impact of effective communication in
Merchant Banking operations, especially as it concerns intra and inter personal
communication. In addition to finding out possible barriers, which hinder effective
communication with a view to providing solutions
carrying out this research, a review of related literature was carried out, in the areas
of importance of ccrnmunication process, channellmethods, barriers and most
importantly principles of effective communication.
Data for this research was collected through questionnaire, personal interview and
From the questionnaire, presentation, analysis and interpretation of date were drawn
.It was observed after the analysis that communication is very vital for the achievement
of the aims and objectives of an organization since it is the link for the co-ordination of
all activities in the organisation.
Certain barriers such as noise, distortion, delays, wrong use of words etc. were also
found to militate against effective communication.
Some recommendation based on findings were given by the researcher, such as
encouraging feedback, writing clearly, gave some recommendations based on findings
good listening habit, clarification when in doubt etc. can improve organization's
effective communication system.
Without communication civilization as we know it today will be impossible .We live in a
very complex, sophisticated and dynamic world, every organization depends on
communication which has grown over the years and which has projted indispensable
in the achievement of the organizational goal and objectives especially Merchant Banking operations.
The study focused on women's reading habits for newspapers and magazines and highlighted the implications to media illiteracy in the school curriculum.