University of Nigeria OER Competition | Register Here
Ten plant samples were screened for topical anti-inflamniaory activity. Pdi.ra/n hi~w,u leaf
(Fmily: Commelinaceae) gave the highest nctlvlty. A gradient solvent extraction of the leaf
wils conducted using petroleum ether (40" - 60"). cliloroforcn and methanol respectivel~.T he
dit'fcrent fractions were tested for anti-~nflarnrnalot-y activ~ty,a nd the chlorofor~n estract
showed the highest effcct. It was thcn subjected to f~~rtlieanr ti-inflanimatory and analgesic
tec15. using both topical and oral routes. All doses ofthe extract (1 00. 200, 300 and 400 pgikg)
A cwtrpururivr r.yerirtret~rol srurly r,j' 'l'rypi~lrowuia brucci brucci urul Trypanosoma congolense infecrioti of adulr crossbred boars revealed subclitrical~ndc hronic courses wirh accompanying rek~psingp yrexiu (range of 38.6 "Ct o 41.2 OC) utrd sigtriJieu1111,~ (P< 0.01) elevated scrotul tetnperururt reaching a peak of 42.J°C. One ucute cuse due . ro T. br, brucei predisposed a boar ro symptom of the central nervous and deutti. Syn~protrrsa nd courses of rhe disease were niunifesred eurlier and appeured more severe utnong boars infecred wirh T. br. brucei rhut~ those irtjecled wirh "r. congolense. Flucruaring low pbrasitemia (Log 5.2 ro &'.a), debilirarion, perechiarion and oedertru of rhe scrora characrerized rhe subcli.nica1p hase. Scubs/ulcerurions of rhe scrora und recumbency were prevaletlr sympronrs ar chronic phase anorexia. Necrolq exatnitra~iotrsr eveuled regiot~ual dhesion berween resriculur tunics and u sigtrijicunt (P < 0.01) decrease in resrcs weighrs. Hisroparhological finclings included desquamation and degetrerarion of rtre suniniferous rubules and parenchynral rissues, cytoplasmic vacuoles, mononuclear irrfilrrurion and [issuef ibrosis/calcificarion. lmplicarions of pig rrypanosomo.sis in rhe area itrclude low reproducrive perJormance Ieaditrg lo low produc/ivi/y urrd poor economic returns.
This study was carried out to examine the adoption of Oba 98 maize production technologies by farmers in Delta State. Specifically, the study ascertained major sources of information on Oba 98 maize production technologies; determined the extent of adoption of Oba 98 maize production technologies; determined factors influencing the adoption of Oba 98 maize pro-duction technologies; and identified perceived constraints to adoption of Oba 98 maize pro-duction technologies. The study was carried out in Delta State. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the sample size for the study. In the first stage, six (6) LGAs were purpos-ively selected out of 25 LGAs based on their popularity on maize farming. In the second stage two (2) towns farming communities that are popular in maize production were randomly selected from the six (6) LGAs giving a total of twelve (12) town farming communities. In the third stage, ten (10) maize farmers were selected from a list of maize farmers from the twelve communities through simple random sampling technique, giving a total of one hundred and twenty (120) maize farmers. Data collected on socio economic characteristics were ana-lyzed using descriptive statistics consisting of percentages, frequency and mean scores. Ob-jectives 1 and 2 were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Objective 3 was analyzed using multiple regression, while objective 4 was analyzed using mean score and standard de-viations. The statistical products and service solutions (SPSS) version 20.0 constituted the software package used for the analysis. The study revealed that greater proportion (27.5%) of the respondents were within the age range of 31-40 years. Majority (65.8%) were male. About 43% had household size of between 8-11 persons. Majority (72.5%) were married. About 35% had more than 10 years farming experience. Also, 30% acquired primary school educa-tion. Majority (91.7%) were Christians. Furthermore, 45.8% received between N 10,000 and N 100,000 as income realized from the sale of maize. Majority (95%) cultivated less than 3 ha of land. A greater proportion (65.8%) inherited their farmland. Majority (61.7%) did not have access to credit facilities, but 38.8% received credit from institutional sources. Greater proportion (29.7%) had thrift savings as non-institutional source of credit. Majority (69.2%) of the respondents used hired labour as their major source of labour for maize production. Al-so, majority (73.3%) had been visited by extension agents. Majority (87.5%) belonged to one or more social organizations. Data collected on sources of information revealed that majority (33.3%) received information from radio. Technologies mainly adopted included use of planting space of 75cm by 25cm with adoption mean score of 3.48, use of post emergence herbicides with adoption mean score of 2.45and use of insecticides to control pest with adop-tion mean score of 3.38. Major constraints to adoption of innovations were poor access to sources of agricultural information with a mean score of 2.87, poor accessibility to institution-al credits with a mean score of 2.86, inadequate rural roads with a mean score of 2.84 , inade-quate extension contact with a mean score of 2.81, in adequacy of modern storage and pro-cessing facilities with a mean score of 2.77, poor health status of rural farmers with a mean score of 2.71, weak market information with a mean score of 2.67, scarcity and high cost of inputs with a mean score of 2.62 and ignorance of usefulness of the technologies with a mean score of 2.53. Conclusively, mean age was 37 years, mean household size was 10 family members, mean farming experience was 11 years and mean number of years spent in school was 12 years. The only personal characteristic that influenced adoption was annual income realized from the sale of maize. It is recommended that farmers should be encouraged to par-ticipate actively in farmers/social organizations and co-operative societies in order to strength-en their group action and as such act as effective channels for extension information delivery system to farmers, when maize farmers are in cooperative societies they take advantage of government policies and programmes and attract more funds to themselves. Also, farmers should be linked to sources of affordable credit so as to enable them purchase necessary in-puts and their complementary need.
Poultry products are among the most valuable sources of animal protein, and offer a means of meeting the animal protein needs of the population. Compounded poultry feed, physical inactivity of the birds due to overcrowding and certain unhealthy habits like pecking are major setbacks to intensive poultry production. The result is high cost and high cholesterol content of products. The later has been a cause for concern to health-conscious consumers. High blood cholesterol levels have been associated with chronic diseases of high public health importance such as atherosclerosis, stroke, and obesity. Healthy dieting has been found to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. Plant based food sources generally contain lower levels of cholesterol and are known to promote cholesterol excretion from the body. Talinum traingulare (TT) is a highly nutritive vegetable associated with favourable blood lipid profile in humans and broilers. However, there is paucity of information in available literature on its use on pullets. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of TT as a nutraceutical to improve the quantity and quality of egg produced. The Specific objectives of the study were to evaluate: (i) the nutrient and phytochemical components of TT, (ii) the effects of supplementation of pullet diets with varied forms and doses of TT extract on egg production, characteristics, and cholesterol content and (iii) the effects of supplementation of pullet diets with varied forms and doses of TT exract on haematology and serum biochemistry of the pullets. The study adopted the experimental design. Talinum triangulare used for the study was sourced from Nsukka and identified by a plant taxonomist. Dried and freshly harvested samples of TT were used for the study. The plant was harvested, washed, and drained and (for the dried sample) was further dried under shade and pulverized. Extraction was done using cold maceration method with water over a period of 48 hours. In experiments one and two extracts for the study were subjected to quantitative nutrient analyses and qualitative phytochemical analyses following standard procedures. The animal study was in two phases – pullet supplementation (experiment three), and layer supplementation (experiment four). For experiment three, 90 chick pullets were randomly assigned into three groups (PA, PB, and PC) of 30 pullets each. Pullets in PA were given 1000 mg of the dried extract of TT/L of water; those in PB were given 1000 mg of the fresh extract of TT/L of water while those in PC were the unsupplemented control. Haematology and serum biochemistry were evaluated at two months interval within the six months of supplementation. In Experiment four, 210 laying birds were randomly assigned into seven groups (LA1, LA2, LA3, LB1, LB2, LB3 and LC) of 30 layers each. The TT extracts were given at 62.5, 250, and 1000 mg/l doses in dried form for LA1 LA2, and LA3 and fresh form for LB1, LB2, and LB3, respectively. Layers in the LC group served as unspplemented control. The egg quality and quantity, cholesterol content, haematology, and serum biochemistry of the birds were determined using standard procedures at two months interval during the 12 months of supplementation. Data generated from the study were subjected to one way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and variant means were separated using the Least Significant Difference (LSD) method. Significance was accepted at P < 0.05. The proximate composition of the TT extract were 21.96% protein, 28.09% ash, 17.38% crude fibre, 26.37% carbohydrate, 1.66% fat, 4.54% moisture and 208.27 kcal/kg energy. The mineral constituents (mg/100 g TT) were Calcium (856.53), Magnesium (1076.38), Iron (42.11), Potassium (6063.66), Sodium (39.78), Phosphorus (241.24), Zinc (10.67), and Copper (0.96). The qualitative phytochemical constituents were alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and glycosides. Hen-Day-Rate (HDR) of egg production revealed that birds in LA (LA1, LA2, and LA3) groups laid significantly (p < 0.05) more eggs than birds in LB groups (LB1, LB2, and LB3), and the control groups (LC). The total cholesterol (TChol) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of the eggs from layers in groups LA2 and LA3 were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the untreated group especially by the 2nd, 4th, and 6th months of lay. The egg high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) of the LA2, LA3, LB2, and LB3, were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of other supplemented groups and the control especially by the 4th, and 8th months of lay. The packed cell volume, red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, total and differential leukocyte counts as well as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and total protein activities did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all the groups. The serum Tchol and LDL-C of groups LA2 and LA3 were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of other groups. The serum HDL-C of LA2 and LA3 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control at 4th month of lay. Dietary supplementation with TT had no significant impact on haematology and liver enzymes; and had no adverse effect on health and production status of treated pullets. Specific egg-laying production parameters like hen day rate of production, Haugh Unit and Yolk Index increased following treatment of TT. Supplementation with TT reduced the concentration of LDL-C and increased HDL-C in the sera of treated pullets and in the eggs they laid. There was a significant increase in triacylglycerol level of over 600 per cent which occurred with the chick - pullets at the fourth month of life and was sustained in the laying birds till the end of the experiment (12th month of lay). Almost in all cases the dried sample had advantage over the freshly harvested sample and the high dose over the medium and low doses in that order. Aqueous extract from dried and freshly harvested Talinum triangulare (waterleaf) plant showed high potential of nutritional and phytochemical relevance and supports possible medicinal and dietary application in pullets. Use of TT extract for the prevention and treatment of CVD in poultry and production of designer – eggs low in cholesterol for human consumption is proposed based on the outcome of this study.
Twenty-five intensively managed mature West African Dwarf goats were used for the experiment comprising 20 Does (dams) and 5 bucks (sires). The goats were classified into 5 mating pens of 4 Does (dams) and one buck (sire) randomly assigned per pen. Fresh water and forage were provided ad libitum in addition to 1kg concentrates Cajanus cajan to each animal per day. Data were collected on weights at birth and weaning; litter size and linear body measurements. Body weight gain was calculated. The data were subjected to analysis of variance in completely randomized design using the statistical package of social science (SPSS) computer package. The Paternal Half-sib Analysis model was used to estimate sire component of variance from which the additive genetic variance and heritability were calculated. The descriptive statistics (mean ±S.E) and Coefficient of Variation for birth weight, litter size, body weight gain and body weight showed that birth weight of the offspring were significantly different (P0.05). Body weight gain of sires group recorded significant differences (P
The effect of seasons on aflatoxins loads of selected pig’s feedstuffs in the humid tropics was investigated, the feedstuffs sampled were cassava peels, bambara nut waste, palm kernel cake and brewer spent grains. The study lasted for thirty-two weeks. These feedstuffs were collected in two piggery farms in each of the six LGAs that make up Nsukka zone of Enugu State, in both dry and rainy seasons.The collected feedstuffsamples were analyzed in the laboratory for aflatoxins concentration levels using AOAC method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC)with some modifications. Data were collected from the aflatoxins laboratory analysis of these feedstuffs and with a structured questionnaire.The results of this study indicated the presence of aflatoxins in all the sampled feedstuffs, however the lowest concentration of aflatoxins which is 0.011ppb is obtained in cassava peels and bambara nut wastes while the highest concentration of aflatoxins obtained is 0.055ppb in brewer spent grains,these values are within the tolerance limit in Nigeria for total aflatoxins (B1+B2+G1+G2),which is 20ppb.The obtained aflatoxins levels are within range and poses less risk to pigs and pork consumers.The results also shows that there were no significant difference (P > 0.05) on the aflatoxins concentration levels of the feedstuffs at their sources, across the piggery farm locations, in the season and source of feeds interactions, season and the piggery farm locations interactions, as well as season and feedstuffs interactions. However the main effect of seasonon aflatoxins level which is 0.022ppb and 0.044ppb in the dry and rainy seasonrespectively were highly significant (P < 0.01).Also the main effect of aflatoxins of the feedstuffs were highly significant (P < 0.01) except in brewer spent grains were it is significant (P < 0.05). It follows that the aflatoxins levels according to season in the comparison between the source of feedstuffs and the piggery farm locations for the sampled feedstuffs were highly significant (P< 0.01) especially in the rainy season, except bambara nut wastewhich is highly significant (P< 0.01) in the dry season. There were higher values in the aflatoxins levels in all the feedstuffs sampled in the rainy season than in the dry season.It was therefore concluded that season has an effects on the aflatoxins level of pig’s feedstuffs with rainy season favouring toxigenic mould metabolism and growth in the feedstuffs which produces aflatoxins as their metabolites than in the dry season in this study, hence adequate preservative measures, proper feed handling and storage should be adopted. It is therefore recommended that piggery farmers should adopt adequate preventive measures and also apply the various preservative storage methods in order to reduce the aflatoxins levels infeedstuffs especially in the rainy season for better performance of the pigs and safety of pork consumers.
The effect of processing methods on the chemical composition, proximate, mineral, vitamin and microbiological quality of vegetable drink extract of Irvingia gabonensis was studied. The processing methods included drying (shade and solar drying), blanching (at 0, 2, 4 and 6 minutes) as well as blanching and drying of the leaves. Aqueous extracts were obtained from the leaves and the analysis carried out using standard methods. The result showed that whereas some parameters analyzed varied with processing, others remained unaffected. The moisture, protein and fat content did not vary significantly (p
Yoghurt was produced and flavoured with graded levels of watermelon pulp and juice. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice and pulp was used to substitute 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of yoghurt. The chemical, sensory and microbiological properties of the yoghurts were determined. The results showed that the pH of the yoghurt ranged from 4.68 to 4.90. The protein, ash, and fat content decreased with increase in watermelon juice and pulp. The fiber content increased with the watermelon pulp while the moisture content increased with increase in watermelon juice. Micro-nutrient (vitamin A and C) increased with increased level watermelon juice and pulp in the yoghurt while sodium decreased with increased level watermelon juice and pulp in the yoghurt. Lactose content increased with increased watermelon juice and pulp content of the formulated yoghurt. The total viable count and lactic acid bacteria ranged from 1.15×105 to 2.1 ×105cfu/ml and 3.8×103 to 1.3 x 104cfu/ml, respectively. High mean values (8.35) were obtained for the plain yoghurt (control) for all sensory attributes (colour, flavour, taste, aftertaste, consistency and mouthfeel), therefore making the plain yoghurt most preferred sample with an overall acceptability of 8.35. Sample PY+ WMJ (90:10) had the highest mean for general acceptability (7.00) compared to the other flavoured yoghurt in overall preference. Samples containing 10 and 20 % of watermelon pulp and juice in yoghurt were generally acceptable while samples containing 30, 40 and 50 % of the juice were generally unacceptable. There was no significant (p
This research was carried out to determine the effect of different processing methods on physicochemical and anti-nutrient properties of flour produced from tamarind (tamarindus indica) seeds. the seeds were processed through roasting, boiling and autoclaving. The flours produced were analyzed for proximate composition, functional properties, selected mineral contents, anti-nutrients and pasting properties. There were significant differences (p
The study evaluated the chemical composition, nutrient adequacy, shelf life and organoleptic properties of complementary mixes based on “acha” (Digitaria exilis), benne seed (Sesamum indicum) and soybean (Glycine max). The staples (acha, benne seed and soybean) were purchased from Central Market Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Acha was fermented for 48hours and sundried for 2days, benne seed was washed and roasted with gas cooker on low heat at 80oC for 10 minutes and soybean boiled for 60 minutes at 100oC, fermented for 24 hours and roasted under low heat at 80oC for 10 minutes before milling separately into flours. The flours were combined at different ratios on protein basis to produce five complementary mixes namely D70S30 (acha70/benneseed30), D70G30 (acha70/soybean30), D70S15G15 (acha70/benneseed15/soybean15), D70S20G10 (acha70/benneseed20/soybean10 and D70S10G20 (acha70/benneseed10/soybean20). Each derived 70% of its dietary Nitrogen (N) from cereal (acha) and 30% from legume and or oil seed (soya been and or benne seed). The multi-mixes were analyzed for their nutrient, anti-nutrient and phytochemical composition before being used to prepare porridges. The nutrient content of the quantity of each porridge to be consumed daily by a child (6-24months old), who is breastfeeding was calculated and compared with recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for the age group. Nutritional adequacy of the porridges was assessed based on the percentage of the RNI met. Shelf life (keeping quality) of the complementary mixes was evaluated using free fatty acids (FFA), pH, water and microbial load for 60days. All analysis was done in triplicate using standard methods. The organoleptic properties the porridges made from the mixes were also evaluated. A commercial product (Nutrend) was used as control. A nine point hedonic scale was used to rate the organoleptic attributes of the porridges made from the mixes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range tests were used to separate and compare the means. Differences were considered significant at p0.05), phytate ranged from 2.3mg/100g in D70G30 to 2.7mg/100g in D70S30 and haemagglutinin values was in traces in D70S30 while D70G30, D70S15G15, D70S20G10 D70S10G20 had comparable (p>0.05) values (0.1HU/mg – 0.2HG/mg). These values were within safe levels (oxalate was 80– 120mg/day, phytate