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The main purpose of this study was to assess the effect of maternal nutrition knowledge and nutritional status on pregnancy outcome in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to describe the general characteristics of pregnant women in rural and urban areas of Ebonyi State, to assess the nutrition knowledge of the respondents; assess their dietary practices and their perception of the effect of poor nutrition on pregnancy outcome in rural and urban areas of Ebonyi state; determine the mortality rate of neonates in the study area; determine the nutritional status of the respondents and anthropometric indices of their neonates; determine the effect of mother’s nutrition knowledge and nutritional status on pregnancy outcome in Ebonyi State. The population for this study was made up of all the pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in hospitals and maternity homes in Ebonyi State. Ebonyi state was stratified into three strata. Simple random sampling was used to draw four hundred pregnant women who participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Information from focus group discussion was used to produce the questionnaire. A three day weighed food intake was conducted on a sub-sample of 60 respondents. Their height and weight were also taken and compared with standards. Anthropometric indices of neonates and haemoglobin status of the respondents were collected from their hospital folders (records).