;

University of Nigeria OER Competition | Register Here

STUDIES ON THE MORPHOLOGY, PHENOLOGY AND EFFECTS OF LOCATION ON THE SEED GERMINATION OF TRECULIA AFRICANA DECNE (AFRICAN BREADFRUIT)

By

Abstract

Studies on the morphology, phenology and effects of location on the seeds germination of Treculia africana Decne (African breadfruit) in five Southeastern States of Nigeria on mature and juvenile stands were undertaken in two seasons; dry and wet. A town in each State namely; Isulabor (IS) in Abia, Agulu (AG) in Anambra, Ezzamgbo (EZ) in Ebonyi, Nenwe (NE) in Enugu and National Horticultural Research Institute, Mbato (MB) Okigwe in Imo was chosen and the study in each season lasted for five months. The experiment was conducted in the Botanic Garden of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology (PSB), University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN), which also served as the control site. The experimental design for germination studies was a Completely Randomized Design. The tree morphology had no variations with respect to rooting, branching, fruit bearing pattern, leaf and flower features. The tree morphology showed variations between the mature and juvenile in their trunk due to the plant age but not on the seasons and location. Mature plants had small sized infructescence and leaves with fluted boles, that were highly significant (P < 0.05) than the juvenile plant stands. Seeds sown in Petri dishes and polythene bags sprouted irrespective of location, seed sizes and seasons. Variations were observed in the periods of initial and final seed germination, time of photosynthetic leaf formation, percentage seed germination and germination rate. The earliest seed germination in petri dishes occurred as from 4 days after sowing for EZ seeds, 5 days after for seeds from IS, NE and MB respectively, and 6 days for AG seeds. Seeds accomplished germination between 16 - 18 days after planting. IS, NE, MB shortest period, 16 days, EZ, 17 days while AG seeds took the longest period, 18 days to accomplish germination. Results showed similar pattern in their germination rate resulting in varying germination peaks and accomplishment period. Percentage germination range was 67% to 77% (P < 0.05). AG had 77% + 3.84; followed by MB 75% + 3.84, while EZ had the least percentage germination (67% + 3.84). In seeds sown in polythene bags, seedling emergence occurred between 6 - 9 days after sowing. IS and MB seeds emerged in 7 days while EZ seeds took 9 days to emerge. Seedlings accomplished their emergence between 21 - 24 days after sowing. NE seeds took shortest period, 21 days after sowing, while AG seeds took 24 days to accomplish their emergence. The results showed differences in percentage seedling emergence, with range 88.8% to 96.8% (P < 0.05). AG seeds produced the highest percentage emergence (96.8% + 3.08), while EZ produced the least (88.8% + 3.08). Morphological features of the seedlings showed no difference in that the pattern was increase in seed size, protrusion of micropylar region, emergence of the radicle and development of hook-shaped hypocotyl that later carried the seed above the germination medium. Results of the phenological phases had no significant difference irrespective of the locations. The flowering and fruiting intensities had two periods, which alternated with no distinct pattern. Heavy flowering and fruiting periods occurred from December – April and January – June, while lean periods were from June-September and July-November respectively. Results showed that the soils contained physico-chemical properties but they occurred in different proportion.