Evaluation of Distance Education Programmes of Nigerian Universities
Administration of Extension Education in Imo State: A Case Study of Imo State University Continuing Education Programme. (ICEP).
Assessment Of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Activities In Adults Education In The South-East Geopolitical Zone Of Nigerian
Assessment Of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Activities In Adults Education In The South-East Geopolitical Zone Of Nigerin
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the Arts Education programme of the National Open University of Nigeria in the South East study centres. The study used the Context, Input, Process, Product evaluative model. The population of the study comprised of 1492 subjects viz 57 academic staff, 75 senior administrative staff and 1360 Arts Education students of the NOUN. Using stratified random sampling a sample size of 424 respondents made of all 57 academic staff, all 75 senior administrative staff and 292 students was drawn for the study. Each stratum of the subjects was served a set of questionnaire for data collection. Both checklist and observation schedule were also used to collect data for the study. The validity and reliability of the instruments were established through face validation and the use of Cronbach Alpha. Means and standards were used to answer the research questions while t-test statistic was used to test hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study showed that facilities in use in the NOUN study centres for arts education degree programme are adequate; Course materials in use for the implementation of the arts education degree programme of the NOUN in the South East study centres were found to be adequate; support services rendered to the students of arts education degree programme in the NOUN South East study centres are of high extent; senior administrative staff showed a high extent of administration of arts education degree programme while the students indicated a very high extent of administration of the same programme in the South East study centres; there was low extent of compliance to National Universities Commission benchmark with respect to teaching methods used for facilitating arts education degree programme of NOUN in South East study centres; the South East study centres of NOUN had fairly adequate personnel used in the implementation of the arts education degree programme; that funding of the arts education degree programme of NOUN in the South East study centres was found out to be of low extent while the number and graduation pattern of arts education degree programmes are encouraging. These findings and their educatinal implications were discussed based on which recommendations were made. The researcher also drew attention to the limitations of the study and made suggestions for further study.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the strategies for effective management of adult education agency in Enugu-State. Six specific purposes, each with corresponding research questions, were posed and six hypotheses postulated. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study is 828. A sample of 508 was purposively drawn for the study. The instrument for data collection was a 24 item structured questionnaire tagged Strategies for Effective Adult Education Agency Management Questionnaire (SEAEAMQ), modeled on a four point rating options as follows: very appropriate (VA), appropriate (A), inappropriate (IA), very inappropriate (VI). The instrument was validated by three experts; two from Adult Education Department and one from the Department of Education Foundation. The grand reliability co-efficient of .896 was obtained.
Data collected was analyzed using mean, standard deviation and T-test. The findings of the study revealed that for management strategies in adult education agency in Enugu State to be effective, funding strategies should include: government at federal and state levels dedicating at least 3 percent of their education budget to adult education; NGOs in the community should assist in funding adult education in form of cash, facilities and supplies. The findings further revealed among others that experts in adult education should be involved in planning the programmes. The findings also revealed that motivational strategies for management of adult education agency should include: the state agency to pay facilitator stipends equivalent to their counterparts in primary and secondary schools as stipulated in international adult literacy benchmark; the state agency should provide adequate infrastructural facilities in adult education centres. The data analyzed revealed among others that in staff retention strategies, the state agency should organize workshops seminars and conference regularly for coordinators, facilitators and other staff members. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that government should provide allowances for the supervisors.
Moreover, the evaluation strategies among others for management of adult education agency, the programme monitoring teams should usually visit adult education personnel regularly to evaluate their performances.
The study was embarked upon to find out the strategies for improving the integration of ICT in the distance education programmes of National Teachers’ Institute in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria. Four specific objectives with four corresponding research questions were formulated, and four null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Literature pertinent to the study was reviewed. The population for the study consisted of five thousand seven hundred and twenty two (5,722) instructors and students of NTI programmes in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States. The multi stage sampling technique was used to select two hundred and ninety seven (297) respondents across both states, comprising 282 instructors and 15 students used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a forty-four (44) item questionnaire (SIIICTDEP). Five experts from Adult Education and Science Education Departments, University of Nigeria, Nsukka validated the instruments. The reliability of the instrument was established using Cronbach Alpha method on 20 subjects and a correlation co efficient of .72 was obtained and was adjured reliable for embarking on the study. Two hundred and ninety seven (297) copies of the questionnaires were administered to the respondents and returned dully filled, giving 100 percent return rate. Percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while t-test statistics was used to test the null hypothesis at.05 level of significance. The result of the study showed that continuous training and retraining of NTI instructors and students on ICT skills acquisition programmes; increasing fund allocation for procurement of ICT facilities for NTI DE programmes; donations of ICT facilities to NTI institutions; formulating policies to reduce cost of newer technologies by the government among others were some of the strategies that can improve ICT integration in their NTI DE programmes to a high extent. It was also found that the challenges that militate against the effective integration of ICT in the NTI DE programmes of these states to a very high extent were poor funding of NTI institutions; high cost of ICT facilities; and non- availability of ICT facilities in NTI institutions. There was no significant difference between the mean responses of instructors and students across both states on economic strategy of providing special grants to NTI institutions for installation of ICT facilities; and on the challenge of non- availability of ICT facilities in NTI institutions. The major implication of the findings of this study is that if the strategies are adopted, the integration of ICT will be improved to a high extent hence, their mode of delivery and quality of their programmes will be improved thereby reducing their drop-out rates. Based on the findings, the major recommendations among others were that Federal Government should increase fund allocation for the procurement of ICT for NTI DE programmes; and budgetary allocation for education should cover provision of ICT to NTI institutions. Also, Federal and State Government, NGOs and philanthropists should give special grants and also donate ICT to NTI institutions; this will make available funds for ICT integration and also enhance the availability of ICT facilities for effective integration. Again, policy makers should formulate policies to reduce cost of newer technologies, and also policies that will bring about reduction in tax and rate payable for the procurement of ICT facilities, by so doing the cost of ICT facilities will be reduced making it affordable and accessible, this will in turn enhance its effective integration in the NTI programmes of these states.
The purpose of the study was to appraise the level of attainment of MDG-5 (maternal health) in North Central Nigeria. The study is carried in this area as a result of the endemic nature of the region on the issues of maternal mortality rate with an estimated ratio of 1549 per 100000 live births. To investigate this problem, six research questions were formulated to determine the extent to which family planning, antenatal and postnatal services were delivered in NCN. The study also determine the strategies put in place to reduction childbearing adolescent birth rate, adequacy of skilled health personnel and extent of maternal mortality rate reduction in NCN. Three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and tested at an alpha level 0.05. Evaluative design was adopted for the study with a population of 10,610 consisting of 1,315 Doctors, 6,039 Nurses, 1,739 Midwives and 1,517 expectant/nursing mothers. A sample of 1070 respondents was drawn from the population using multi stage sampling procedure, purposive, proportionate and simple random sampling techniques. Structured questionnaire instrument was used for data collection titled maternal health questionnaire (MAHEQ). It was face validated by three experts and trial tested with an overall reliability index of 0.83 using cronbach alpha. Mean, standard deviation and percentages were used in the analysis of the data collected. The real limit of numbers at which the responses were accepted was at 2.50-3.49 and above. The three null hypotheses were analysed using ANOVA and tested at an alpha level of 0.05. The findings of the study show that the need for family planning services, antenatal care services, and post natal care services were delivered to a high extent in North Central Nigeria. The findings of the study also show that strategies were adopted to reduce adolescent birth rate and rated to a high extent in North Central Nigeria. This result shows that high effort was made in reducing the high maternal mortality ratio. The adequacy of skilled health personnel was to low extent. This result shows some degree of hindrance in the effort to achieve the desired result of 75% reduction by 2015. However the rate at which maternal mortality rate reduced from 2005 to 2013 was to a high extent. It is based on the above result that the following recommendation were made: that more medical personnel should be recruited, enlightenment campaigns should be intensified to show the advantages of MH services, continuous training of medical personnel on various methods of contraceptives use and administration for optimum service delivery should be intensified, introduction of sex education through outreach programmes to help the adolescents and improving laboratory facilities to reduce the burden of cost on the poor pregnant mothers.
The study focused on implementation of Millennium Development Goal 1 projects towards alleviating poverty in Enugu State, Nigeria. The study aims at providing useful information on MDG 1 initiative on poverty alleviation. Specifically, the study sought to ascertain the: extent of implementation of MDG 1 projects, level of participation of the communities in the implementation of MDG 1 projects, extent of success of MDG 1 projects in alleviating poverty, constraints to effective implementation of MDG 1 projects and strategies for enhancing the implementation of MDG 1 projects in Enugu state. The research was carried out in 32 Autonomous Communities randomly selected from six (6) local government areas purposively selected out of the seventeen (17) local government Areas that made up Enugu state. Five research questions guided the study. Five null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. A 76 item structured questionnaire developed by the researcher and titled Millennium Development Goal 1 Projects Questionnaire (MDG1PQ) was used for data collection. The population of the study was 1035 made up of 345 traditional rulers, 345 town union presidents and 345 presidents of Christian women organizations. A sample of 288 was drawn using Yaro Yamane formula. The sample is made up of 96 traditional rulers, 96 town union presidents and 96 presidents of Christian women organizations. The data collected were analyzed using Mean and Standard Deviation for Research Questions while Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The questionnaire was face validated by three experts: Two of the validates were from the Department of Adult Education and Extra-Mural Studies while the third validate is from Measurement and Evaluation unit, Department of Science Education University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The Reliability Coefficient was obtained through Cronbach Alpha reliability technique for the clusters: Cluster A = 0.78, Cluster B = 0.76, Cluster C = 0.79, Cluster D = 0.77, and Cluster E = 0.82 with an overall Reliability Coefficient of 0.78. The findings of the study showed that MDG 1 projects are implemented to a very low extent, and communities participated to low extent in the implementation of MDG 1 projects, MDG 1 projects are succeeding to a low extent in alleviating poverty in the communities because of identified constraints to MDG 1 projects. However, some strategies for enhancing the implementation of MDG 1 projects in the communities were explored. In conclusion, the Means and Standard Deviations showed that the respondents agreed that: MDG 1 projects are implemented to very a low extent, communities participated to a low extent in the implementation of MDG 1, MDG 1 projects are succeeding in alleviating poverty to a low extent, there are constraints to implementation of MDG 1 projects and various strategies for enhancing the effective implementation of MDG 1 projects in Enugu State. Based on the findings the researcher recommended that the community development experts should create awareness on the value of MDG 1 projects for sustainable community development, and that members of the communities should be involved in planning and implementation of MDG 1 projects among others. The researcher made some suggestions for further research including, Implementation of MDG 1 projects through Public and Private Partnerships in Nigeria.
This study examined the Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSRs) of Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) and Nigeria Agip Oil Company (NAOC) for Sustainable Community Development in Rivers State. Five research questions and three null hypotheses were posed for the study. The research design adopted was the survey design. The population of the study comprised of the Community Development Committee (CDC), Shell and Agip Community Liaison Officers (CLOs) who were the indigenes of the oil communities. The populationalso include staff of the Corporate Community Relation Department of SPDC and NAOC. The total sampled size was 731 respondents representing 35% of the targeted population. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaire, focus group discussion and interview. The research questions were analyzed using percentages and mean statistic. T test was utilized in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study revealed that Shell CSR was not well known by the host communities, while Agip have CSR for sustainable development of their host communities. Shell and Agip through CSR contributed positively in resolving conflicts in their host communities. Shell through CSR could not contribute much too socio-economic development of the host communities while Agip through CSR contributed to socio-economic development of their host communities. The companies (Shell and Agip) through CSR could not mitigate the environment of their host communities. Based on the findings the following recommendations were made: Oil companies should recognize their responsibilities, the host communities’ expectations and develop partnership as preferred model for their community development activities for peaceful co-existence. The oil bearing communities should try as much as possible to be a good host to these oil multinational companies by providing a safe and conflict free environment for them. The government should provide an enabling environment for sustainable development through CSR principles and practices and also leading by examples.
This study was designed to develop a benchmark for effective partnership among the government, non-governmental organization, and donor agencies for effective administration of adult education programmes in the South East zone of Nigeria. The purposes of the study were to ascertain forms of partnership among the government, NGOs and donor agencies in decision making process, financial provision, human resources provision and management, material resources provision, monitoring and supervision of adult education programmes in the South East-geo-political zone. Five research questions were posed and five hypotheses were stated to guide the study. The study was a descriptive survey research design. The simple random sample technique was used for sample composition. The sample of the study consisted of 394 respondents made up of 62 proprietors of adult education centres, five directors of state agencies for mass education, 15 coordinators of the state donor agencies and 312 instructors of adult education in the five states of the study. Questionnaire for Developing Benchmark for Effective Partnership in the Administration of Adult Education Programmes (QDBEAAEP) was the main instrument used for data collection. The instrument was validated by experts and its reliability coefficient was 0.91. The data were analyzed using mean scores to answer the five research questions while the ANOVA and post-hoc test were used to test the five hypotheses formulated. The data analyses revealed among others that there is need to consult non-governmental organizations and donor agencies in problem identification in decision making process of adult education programmes. There was an agreement among respondents that government should sponsor instructors from NGos adult education centres on regular training and extend financial subsidy to NGOs adult education centres in order to reduce the fees paid by learners. Adult education centres managed by NGOs should submit quarterly the records of their staff strength to NMEC for planning purposes, among others. Based on the findings, it was recommending among others that state agencies for mass education, NGOs and donor agencies should be involved in the problem identification and cooperate in policy implementation system in adult education. They should also organize regular conference programmes on adult education for their staff.
Harmful cultural practices have been identified as significant causes of disability and deaths particularly among women of reproductive age in developing countries. Hence, the researcher conducted this study on the assessment of harmful cultural practices (HCPs) affecting the health of women in Ebonyi State using community women organizations as target population. To guide this study, five research questions were posed and three null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey design was adopted in this study. The population for this study comprised 11,424 members of the three hundred and twenty seven registered communities based women organizations in the thirteen Local Government Areas that make up the three senatorial zones of Ebonyi State. The sample consisted of sixty-five purposively selected community based association which has 1,962 registered members drawn from six out of the thirteen LGA’S selected for the study. The study employed multi-staged sampling technique. The selection of the sample was based on 40 per cent of the entire population from the purposively selected local government Areas in Ebonyi State. For the qualitative data a systematic sample size of twelve women from each group of Community Based Organization were used for Focus Group Discussion (FGD). A one hundred and sixty two questionnaire items on the Assessment of Harmful Cultural Practices (AHCPs) arranged in five sections was developed, validated and used for quantitative data collection. A Focus Group Discussion guide (FGDG) based on the five research questions were constructed by the researcher for data collection. Data collected were analysed using percentages, weighted means and standard deviation. The Focus Group Discussions were qualitatively analyzed. Among the major findings were that majority of the respondents were educationally disadvantaged. (2) it was confirmed from the study that harmful cultural practices such as early marriage, female genital mutilation, widowhood practices and nutritional taboos existed and were practiced in their different locations. The opinions of respondents to the questionnaire were similar to those of the discussants during the ( F G D) sessions. It was recommended among other things that women should be educationally empowered. This would enable them to challenge those discriminatory attitudes and cultural practices which has held them captive, such as not participating in decision-making process in issues concerning their welfare which has hindered them from being integrated into the whole spectrum of community development programmes. Education empowerment of women will pave way to their social economic and political empowerment.
This work dealt with the Assessment of Strategies for Rural Development in Isi-uzo Local Government Area of Enugu State. To carry out the study effectively, the researcher formulated six (6) research questions and one (1) null hypothesis. The population for the study is four hundred (400) made up of both female and male members of Community Based Organizations in Isi-uzo Local Government Area. The major instrument used for the collection of the data for the study was questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed by the use of simple percentage, weighted means and T-test statistical tool. The major findings include: That objectives of rural development; reduce inequality and ignorance; to provide basic amenities, full employment. That construction of rural roads and culverts, provision of agricultural activities, rural electrification, health centres and so are the types of rural development projects carried out in Isi-uzo Local Government Area. That the initiators of rural development projects in Isi-uzo Local Government Area include the community, the Government, Non-Governmental Organizations, among others. That Government contributes toward the promotion of rural development through provision of amenities like electricity, roads and culverts, health facilities, water and so on. That the strategies adopted by the rural dwellers to implement their projects include community efforts or non-directive strategy, the use of direct strategy or Government, among others. That the problems facing rural development in Isi-uzo Local Government include lack of fund, illiteracy, power tussle/politics and so on. In view of the findings, recommendations were made; finally suggestions for further research were made.
This study investigated the students’ perception of NTI – NCE distance education programme in South East, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Five research questions were formulated for the study. Five research hypotheses were posed for the study. Using the stratified random sampling technique a total of 588 NTI – NCE distance learners from Ebonyi and Enugu states were randomly sampled, and stratified along state and gender. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. A sample size of 588 NTI – NCE distance learners was used for data collection. The reliability coefficients of 0.70, 0.72, 0.77, 0.76 and 0.74 respectively with a grand mean of 0.73 were obtained using Cronbach Alpha method of determining internal consistency of the instrument while two experts, in Distance Education and Measurement and Evaluation carried out face validation of the instrument. Five research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while the five hypotheses which guided the study were tested at 0.05 level of significance using the t-test statistic. It was found out that the quality of teaching activities offered in NTI distance learning programme was high; the learning activities involved in the NTI programme were adequate and effective; the NTI – NCE programme was found to be convenient; the NTI – NCE programme was found to be capital intensive, and the programme was found to be useful. The use of effective distance teaching skills; programmes to be learner - centred rather than teacher-controlled; use of multi-media approach in course delivery; the establishment of more open and distance learning (ODL) institutions; and adequate recognition of distance learning programmes in Nigeria were the recommendations made.
Distance Education (DE) according to Holmberg (1989:12), covers the various forms of the study at all levels which are not under the immediate supervision of the tutors (with the learners in lecture rooms or on the same premises) but which nevertheless, benefit from planning, guidance and teaching of supporting organization.
Moore (1985:21), on the other hand defines DE as a family of instructional methods in which the teaching behaviours are executed apart from the learning behaviours. He adds that DE includes those educational activities that in a contiguous situation would be performed in the learner’s presence, so that communication between the facilitators and the learners must be facilitated by print, electronic, mechanical and other devices.
Every educational endeavour, according to Lehner (1989:14), such as DE, has the purpose of widening of consciousness and liberation from restriction in the cognitive and emotional fields. This opening of the mind has consequences from the understanding conditions in the external objective world for acquisition of knowledge and for subjective development. New social circumstances, economic efficiency and democracy cannot develop without people.