This research was on problems militating against the effective mobilization of women for participation in Community Development in Enugu North Senatorial Zone in Enugu State, Nigeria. The general purpose of the study was to access the problems militating against the effective mobilization of women for participation in community development. The study explored the education, economic, political and socio-cultural problems militating against the effective mobilization of women for participation in community development. It also investigated the strategies for effective mobilization of women for participation in community development. Resource mobilization theory and collective behaviour theory were used in theoretical framework. The researcher also covered the empirical study of the research. The empirical study include the studies by Ugwuzor (1999), Eneh (2007), Abiona (2006), Abari (2005) and Ezeh (2009). Survey research design was used. The research covered Enugu North Senatorial Zone in Enugu State. The population of the study was the entire functional registered community based women organization in Enugu North Senatorial Zone totaling one thousand eight hundred and seventeen. Simple random sampling was used and one thousand thirty five members were sampled. They responded to the questionnaire which was the instrument used for data collection. The instrument was given first to experts for validation. It was also administered to forty seven (47) Nwanne Di Namkpa Women, Amufe in Igbo Eze North to test the reliability and Cronbach Alfa method was used to determine its reliability co-efficient. Data were analyzed using the simple percentage for the bio-data of the respondent, weighted mean for the analysis of research question 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5, while T-test was used for the analysis of four hypothesis that are used in this study. The major findings of the research indicated that problems militating against the effective mobilization of women for participation in community development include: education, economic, political and socio-cultural problems. The implications of these findings are that more efforts should be made to mobilize women effectively for participation in community development. Adult Educators should organize workshops and seminars or campaign to sensitize women on the problems militating against their mobilization and way out of these problems.
This research work was aimed at finding out the socio-economic impact women education and empowerment on family life in Kogi Central Senatorial District of Kogi State. Toguide the study, seven research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was 5,200 which cut across five local government areas of the state. The major instruments used were structured questionnaire and oral interview for data collection. Sampling technique was adopted. The major findings were that women education can be a potent tool for family advancement and would enable women contribute to family life and the society at large. Based on the findings recommendation were made which included that women should be encouraged to contribute their quotas for the development of the home and family.
This study was designed to rate the training needs of adult education instructors in Anambra state. The specific purposes of the study were to ascertain the extent to which lack of adequate training on effective use of instructional materials; instructional development and methods of evaluation hinders the instructors’ educational outcome as well as the strategies for enhancing the competencies of adult education instructors in the adult learning centres in Anambra state. The study was guided by 4 research questions and two null hypotheses. The design of the study was a descriptive survey design; stratified random sampling technique by balloting was used in drawing the sample composition for the study. The sample consisted of 421 respondents made up of 107 male and 314 female instructors in the 163 state owned adult education centres in Anambra state. Rating of the Training Needs of Adult Education Instructors Questionnaire (RTNAEIQ) was the main instrument used for data collection. The instrument was validated by 4 research experts, two in Adult Education and two in Educational Measurement and Evaluation. The instrument overall reliability coefficient was 0.85 which showed that it was highly reliable. The data collected from the 4 research questions of the study were analyzed using mean scores and standard deviations while t-test analysis was used to test the two null-hypotheses formulated for the study. The data analyses revealed among others that: Lack of adequate training on effective use of instructional materials, instructional development and methods of evaluation to a high extent hinder the educational outcome of the instructors in their learning centres. It also revealed that adequate funding of adult education programmes by the government, sponsoring of the instructors to refresher courses/continuous training programmes and professionalization of the field of adult education are strategies for enhancing their competencies in the adult education learning centres. It was recommended among others that adult education instructors should be sponsored to workshops/conferences by the government, non-government organizations and stakeholders in the education sector, SAME, NMEC and NNCAE should organize regular refresher courses/continuous training programmes for the instructors to keep them updated on current issues in the field of adult education and also that instructors should be well remunerated like their counterparts in other governmental parastatals.
This study is survey. It has delved into the administrative barriers to community development programmes in Nsukka Local Government Area. The purpose of the study was mainly to find out problems emanating from development agencies. Major administrative barriers to community development programmes include - communication gap, top-down approach to community development programmes, neglect for some segments of the community, non-consultation with local leaders, inadequate awareness, inexperienced community development personnel, irrelevant projects, political instability/lack of programme continuity, bureaucratic delays, inadequate funds, etc. 203 people make up the population of the study. They are executive members of Town Unions/Development Unions from sixteen (16) communities that make up Nsukka Local Government Area. Questionnaire was administered to them on their meeting days. Data was analysed using mean and standard deviation. Almost all the respondents are males. Respondents fall within the age range of 41-50. Majority of them are married. Exco members are more in number. Most of the respondents are HND/Degree and NCE/OND holders.
This study assessed the extent of women’s participation in community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. Five research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study was 4200 while 420 constituted the sample using proportionate stratified random sampling. The instrument used was a fixed response type of questionnaire. Frequency, percentage and weighted mean were used to analyze the research questions, while t-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that the respondents are mostly fixed-income earners, majority of the projects listed were carried out by Nsukka women, participation of the women in most areas of the projects implementation is low: the constraints to effective participation in community development projects were many; majority of the factors listed enhance participation in community development projects among Nsukka women. There was no significant difference on the mean ratings of the responses of fixed-income earners and non-fixed income earners on four items on the level of participation, while there was no significant difference on five items. There was no significant difference on the mean rating of the response of literate and illiterate women on six items on the level of participation while there was significant difference on three. The major implication is that the women will not be able to harness to the fullest the human and material resources available towards effective project completion. The major recommendations were: awareness of programmes should be organized through seminars and workshops to sensitize women on the issues of self-help projects and to be aware of their rights; every member should be involved in all the processes of carrying out the projects; leaders should be penalized when found guilty of any act of corruption; people should be enlightened on the effects of their practices and beliefs that hinder women from participating in community development projects. The conclusions is that if all these major recommendations were to be practically, scientifically and methodically internalized by our societies especially Nsukka Local Government Area, women in the area would not only record tremendous progress in community development projects participation.
The study investigates problems of women’s marginalization in community development in Item, Bende Local Government Area of Abia State. The need for the study arose because of noticeable problems of women’s marginalization hindering effective community development in Item. A four research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. A 38 item questionnaire was developed and administered to 32 registered members of Item development union (women’s wing). The data collected were analyzed with respect to each research question using means scores. A mean of 2.50 was adopted as the cut of point. The t-test statistics was used to test the two hypotheses formulated for the study. The researcher found out that the factors that lead to marginalization of women included religious belief, poverty. Illiteracy unemployment early marriage, Gender sterotypes and Deprivation. The research found out also the consequences of women’s marginalization as it affects community development which included Abandonment of project, Disunity in community development, A project taking long time than necessary, lack of trust, mismanagement of community development fund, lack of access to land and other properties among others. It was found out that the ways of eliminating marginalization of women included access to education, access to ownership of land and other properties by women, Democracy in community development, support from government and other NGOs, public enlightenment about the consequences of marginalization in community development, women empowerment, making the women functionally literate for community development projects and introduction of good policies that will improve the well fare of women in community development. The study also found out that the various ways of promoting gender equity in community development include incorporating women in community development planning Raising consciousness of women about their rights and responsibilities in area of economic and political development, improvement of women’s educational status through literacy programmes, Abolish laws that marginalize women’s access to property and inheritance, and also incorporating women in decision making process in community development.
The widow groups of the Catholic Diocese of Nsukka were established as forums for widows to meet together for their common interest. The help being offered to these widows mostly come in form of welfare relief packages such as money, foodstuff, clothes and shelter, which are occasionally given to them. There are many problems that are associated with widowhood, which could make many of the widows see themselves as helpless. It is necessary for the widows to be empowered to enhance their potentials and exercise their individuality instead of waiting for the world to come to their rescue. How could these widows be empowered to cope with their problems? This could be possible through education. As women who are engaged in many activities, they need a type of education, which is non-formal in nature. This study therefore, aimed at investigating how the widows of the Catholic Diocese of Nsukka may be empowered to cope with their problems through non-formal education programmes. Five research questions and one null hypothesis were posed for the study and the research design was a survey. A total of one thousand and two widows who are registered members of the St. Rita’s Widows Association from the twenty-three parishes where the association exists constituted the population while three hundred and four was the sample. The study employed a simple random sampling. The drawing of the sample was based on one-third (1/3) of the entire population. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit some information form the widows. Copies of the questionnaire were administered and data collected and analysed. Simple percentage, weighted mean and ANOVA statistics were used to analyse and test the research questions and hypothesis respectively. The findings revealed among others that majority of the widows indicated interest in acquiring educational qualifications. There was a general agreement that the widows will be empowered through income-generating skills training, reproductive health, literacy, family life education and legal education programmes. There was significant deference among the coping strategies of the widows based on their educational qualifications. Therefore the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. Recommendations made based on the finding include among others that The Catholic Diocese of Nsukka should establish skills acquisition centres for their widows, at strategic parishes, which should integrate all the aspects of non- formal education programmes identified in this study.
This research work was on the factors motivating the participation of women in adult literacy programme in Oji-River Local Government Area of Enugu State. To carry out the study effectively, six research questions and two null hypotheses were posed. Some of them are: 1. What are the economic factors motivating women’s participation in adult literacy programme in Oji-River Local Government Area? 2. What are the education factors motivating women’s participation in adult literacy programme in Oji-River Local Government Area? Also, this study reviewed some literature that related to the research work. The population for the study is 816 registered women learners in adult education programmes in Oji-River Local Government Area of Enugu State. The major instrument used for data collection was a FMWPALPQ Questionnaire with 36 items. Among the major findings are: 1. that the greatest education factors motivating women’s participation in adult literacy programme are obtaining certificate for a better job, becoming literate, and improvement on communicative skills; 2. that the greatest psychological factors motivating women’s participation in adult literacy programme are being respected in the family and society, boosting of ego in the society, occupying higher positions of authority in the society, and overcoming inferiority complex. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were proffered. Some of them are: 1. that Enugu State Agency for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-Formal Education, in conjunction with Commission for Women Affairs, should embark on a realistic and holistic campaign for women’s education, emphasizing that age is no barrier to education. 2. that adult education administrators, supervisors, co-ordinators and other people involved in the provision of adult education programmes should ensure that the time and venue for the adult education programmes are conducive and friendly to the female adult learners. Finally, suggestions for further research were made.
This research work dealt with the Assessment of People’s Perception about Grassroots Community Development Projects in Ezza South L.G.A of Ebonyi State. To carry out the study effectively, five (5) research questions and 3 null hypotheses were formulated by the researcher. The population for the study consists of four thousand and twenty (4020) women and men members of town unions of the twelve (12) communities that make up Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The major instrument used for collection of data was questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentages, weighted mean and t-test statistical tools. The major findings of the study are: (1) that awareness creation through tradition or mass media, seminar, employing the services of traditional institutions and town unions/community-based organization and involving influential members in the community are effective strategies for mobilizing people for grassroots community development projects. (ii) that prioritizing the needs of the community, listing methods of achieving the objectives of the project, making a list of resources for the project implementation, people determining time and duration of implementing the project, involving people in projects formulation, making provisions for emergency situation and ensuring people’s trust through free flow of communication are effective procedure of planning grassroots community development projects (ii) that allowing community members to take active part during project implementation, allowing various groups in the community to work together, making maximal use of community resources, allowing one project to be handled at a time, making use of expert advice and welcoming aids from outside the community are the ways grassroots community development projects could be implemented. (iv) that involving the people in the decision making processes, allowing the people to join in the planning, execution, assessment and utilization allowing people to offer free services and resources to be provided by the people, and making people to donate or pay projects levy are the nature of participation of community people in grassroots community projects. (v) that factors militating against effective grassroots community development projects include, non-involvement of community members in the design, implementation and assessment of projects, conflicts among leaders, poor leadership and embezzlement of project fund, inadequate financial and materials, government lip service, poor targeting of projects, natural disasters, unwillingness of the community members to participate in project implementation and use of inappropriate communication network. Following these findings, some recommendations and suggestions were finally made.
This work dealt with the Assessment of Strategies for Rural Development in Isi-uzo Local Government Area of Enugu State. To carry out the study effectively, the researcher formulated six (6) research questions and one (1) null hypothesis. The population for the study is four hundred (400) made up of both female and male members of Community Based Organizations in Isi-uzo Local Government Area. The major instrument used for the collection of the data for the study was questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed by the use of simple percentage, weighted means and T-test statistical tool. The major findings include: That objectives of rural development; reduce inequality and ignorance; to provide basic amenities, full employment. That construction of rural roads and culverts, provision of agricultural activities, rural electrification, health centres and so are the types of rural development projects carried out in Isi-uzo Local Government Area. That the initiators of rural development projects in Isi-uzo Local Government Area include the community, the Government, Non-Governmental Organizations, among others. That Government contributes toward the promotion of rural development through provision of amenities like electricity, roads and culverts, health facilities, water and so on. That the strategies adopted by the rural dwellers to implement their projects include community efforts or non-directive strategy, the use of direct strategy or Government, among others. That the problems facing rural development in Isi-uzo Local Government include lack of fund, illiteracy, power tussle/politics and so on. In view of the findings, recommendations were made; finally suggestions for further research were made.
This study assessed the Personnel and Personnel development programme of Distance Education Institutes in Abia State. To carry out the research effectively, five (5) research questions and two (2) null hypotheses were formulated. The population for the study consist of 386 people, who are the 313 teaching staff and 73 non-teaching staff of Distance education institutes in Abia State as at August 2004. The major instrument used for collection of data was the questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using simple percentages, weighted mean to analyse the research questions, while t-test statistical tools was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The major findings of the study were: most of the personnel were available; most of the functions were performed; most of the staff development programmes and training needs are not found available; most of the problems are not solved. The above findings cut across the teaching and non-teaching staff of distance education institutions. The major implication of the findings of this study is that the point of using distance education methodology to increase access to education in Nigeria will be overcome if distance education facilities are supplied in our distance education universities. The major recommendations include, distance education institutes should undertake training and retraining of their technical staff. Distance education universities should encourage their personnel, so that they can carry out their functions very well. Allocation of more funds to institutions running distance education programmes by the government. Distance education universities should introduce staff development programme to help personnel to keep abreast with recent developments. Distance education universities should address the training needs of their staff.
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of maternal mortality on community development in Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra State. The major research questions developed for the study were as followed; 1. What are the causes of maternal mortality in Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra State? 2. In what ways does maternal mortality influence economic development of communities in Njikoka Government Area? 3.In what ways does maternal mortality influence educational development on communities? 4. In what ways does maternal mortality influence social lives of a community? 5. In what ways does maternal mortality influence health development of the people? Adults in Idemili Local Government Area of Anambra State between the ages of 18 – 51 years and above were used as the target population while four hundred (400) adults were sampled for the study using simple random sampling technique. In collecting data the structured questionnaire was used. The data obtained were organized and analyzed using percentage, mean score and standard deviation to answer the research questions. The hypothesis for the study was tested using the z-test statistics. The findings of the study included the following; 1. A close observation of the findings in section 1 of the questionnaire reveals that responses from males are more than responses from females. 2. Adults who were within the age range of 41 – 45 years formed majority, while those within the age range of 18 – 22 years old were fewer. 3. Those who obtained WAEC or O/L certificate formed majority of the respondents, while only few of the respondents have university qualification. 4. About 75% of the entire sampled population used for the study were married while singles, engaged, divorced and widowed represent only 25%. 5. Majority of the respondents were traders covering about 45% of the sampled population.
This research work was aimed at examining the utilization of the learning
materials used in Distance Education Programmes of Our Saviour Institute of Science, Agriculture and Technology (OSISATECH), Enugu.
To guide the study, four (4) Research Questions and two (2) Null hypotheses
were formulated and tested.
Also, this study reviewed some literature related to the work.
Case Study Method was used for the Design of the study. The population for
the study is three hundred and two (302) drawn from the students in Ordinary National Diploma, Nigerian Certificate in Education and Higher National Diploma
Programmes of Distance and Continuing Education in OSISATECH, Enugu.
Administration of Extension Education in Imo State: A Case Study of Imo State University Continuing Education Programme. (ICEP).
The study assessed the extent of women participation in self-help community development projects in Aboh Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State. Five research question and two hypotheses guided the study.