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The purpose of the study was to appraise the level of attainment of MDG-5 (maternal health) in North Central Nigeria. The study is carried in this area as a result of the endemic nature of the region on the issues of maternal mortality rate with an estimated ratio of 1549 per 100000 live births. To investigate this problem, six research questions were formulated to determine the extent to which family planning, antenatal and postnatal services were delivered in NCN. The study also determine the strategies put in place to reduction childbearing adolescent birth rate, adequacy of skilled health personnel and extent of maternal mortality rate reduction in NCN. Three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and tested at an alpha level 0.05. Evaluative design was adopted for the study with a population of 10,610 consisting of 1,315 Doctors, 6,039 Nurses, 1,739 Midwives and 1,517 expectant/nursing mothers. A sample of 1070 respondents was drawn from the population using multi stage sampling procedure, purposive, proportionate and simple random sampling techniques. Structured questionnaire instrument was used for data collection titled maternal health questionnaire (MAHEQ). It was face validated by three experts and trial tested with an overall reliability index of 0.83 using cronbach alpha. Mean, standard deviation and percentages were used in the analysis of the data collected. The real limit of numbers at which the responses were accepted was at 2.50-3.49 and above. The three null hypotheses were analysed using ANOVA and tested at an alpha level of 0.05. The findings of the study show that the need for family planning services, antenatal care services, and post natal care services were delivered to a high extent in North Central Nigeria. The findings of the study also show that strategies were adopted to reduce adolescent birth rate and rated to a high extent in North Central Nigeria. This result shows that high effort was made in reducing the high maternal mortality ratio. The adequacy of skilled health personnel was to low extent. This result shows some degree of hindrance in the effort to achieve the desired result of 75% reduction by 2015. However the rate at which maternal mortality rate reduced from 2005 to 2013 was to a high extent. It is based on the above result that the following recommendation were made: that more medical personnel should be recruited, enlightenment campaigns should be intensified to show the advantages of MH services, continuous training of medical personnel on various methods of contraceptives use and administration for optimum service delivery should be intensified, introduction of sex education through outreach programmes to help the adolescents and improving laboratory facilities to reduce the burden of cost on the poor pregnant mothers.
The study focused on implementation of Millennium Development Goal 1 projects towards alleviating poverty in Enugu State, Nigeria. The study aims at providing useful information on MDG 1 initiative on poverty alleviation. Specifically, the study sought to ascertain the: extent of implementation of MDG 1 projects, level of participation of the communities in the implementation of MDG 1 projects, extent of success of MDG 1 projects in alleviating poverty, constraints to effective implementation of MDG 1 projects and strategies for enhancing the implementation of MDG 1 projects in Enugu state. The research was carried out in 32 Autonomous Communities randomly selected from six (6) local government areas purposively selected out of the seventeen (17) local government Areas that made up Enugu state. Five research questions guided the study. Five null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. A 76 item structured questionnaire developed by the researcher and titled Millennium Development Goal 1 Projects Questionnaire (MDG1PQ) was used for data collection. The population of the study was 1035 made up of 345 traditional rulers, 345 town union presidents and 345 presidents of Christian women organizations. A sample of 288 was drawn using Yaro Yamane formula. The sample is made up of 96 traditional rulers, 96 town union presidents and 96 presidents of Christian women organizations. The data collected were analyzed using Mean and Standard Deviation for Research Questions while Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The questionnaire was face validated by three experts: Two of the validates were from the Department of Adult Education and Extra-Mural Studies while the third validate is from Measurement and Evaluation unit, Department of Science Education University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The Reliability Coefficient was obtained through Cronbach Alpha reliability technique for the clusters: Cluster A = 0.78, Cluster B = 0.76, Cluster C = 0.79, Cluster D = 0.77, and Cluster E = 0.82 with an overall Reliability Coefficient of 0.78. The findings of the study showed that MDG 1 projects are implemented to a very low extent, and communities participated to low extent in the implementation of MDG 1 projects, MDG 1 projects are succeeding to a low extent in alleviating poverty in the communities because of identified constraints to MDG 1 projects. However, some strategies for enhancing the implementation of MDG 1 projects in the communities were explored. In conclusion, the Means and Standard Deviations showed that the respondents agreed that: MDG 1 projects are implemented to very a low extent, communities participated to a low extent in the implementation of MDG 1, MDG 1 projects are succeeding in alleviating poverty to a low extent, there are constraints to implementation of MDG 1 projects and various strategies for enhancing the effective implementation of MDG 1 projects in Enugu State. Based on the findings the researcher recommended that the community development experts should create awareness on the value of MDG 1 projects for sustainable community development, and that members of the communities should be involved in planning and implementation of MDG 1 projects among others. The researcher made some suggestions for further research including, Implementation of MDG 1 projects through Public and Private Partnerships in Nigeria.
This study examined the Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSRs) of Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) and Nigeria Agip Oil Company (NAOC) for Sustainable Community Development in Rivers State. Five research questions and three null hypotheses were posed for the study. The research design adopted was the survey design. The population of the study comprised of the Community Development Committee (CDC), Shell and Agip Community Liaison Officers (CLOs) who were the indigenes of the oil communities. The populationalso include staff of the Corporate Community Relation Department of SPDC and NAOC. The total sampled size was 731 respondents representing 35% of the targeted population. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaire, focus group discussion and interview. The research questions were analyzed using percentages and mean statistic. T test was utilized in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study revealed that Shell CSR was not well known by the host communities, while Agip have CSR for sustainable development of their host communities. Shell and Agip through CSR contributed positively in resolving conflicts in their host communities. Shell through CSR could not contribute much too socio-economic development of the host communities while Agip through CSR contributed to socio-economic development of their host communities. The companies (Shell and Agip) through CSR could not mitigate the environment of their host communities. Based on the findings the following recommendations were made: Oil companies should recognize their responsibilities, the host communities’ expectations and develop partnership as preferred model for their community development activities for peaceful co-existence. The oil bearing communities should try as much as possible to be a good host to these oil multinational companies by providing a safe and conflict free environment for them. The government should provide an enabling environment for sustainable development through CSR principles and practices and also leading by examples.
This study was designed to develop a benchmark for effective partnership among the government, non-governmental organization, and donor agencies for effective administration of adult education programmes in the South East zone of Nigeria. The purposes of the study were to ascertain forms of partnership among the government, NGOs and donor agencies in decision making process, financial provision, human resources provision and management, material resources provision, monitoring and supervision of adult education programmes in the South East-geo-political zone. Five research questions were posed and five hypotheses were stated to guide the study. The study was a descriptive survey research design. The simple random sample technique was used for sample composition. The sample of the study consisted of 394 respondents made up of 62 proprietors of adult education centres, five directors of state agencies for mass education, 15 coordinators of the state donor agencies and 312 instructors of adult education in the five states of the study. Questionnaire for Developing Benchmark for Effective Partnership in the Administration of Adult Education Programmes (QDBEAAEP) was the main instrument used for data collection. The instrument was validated by experts and its reliability coefficient was 0.91. The data were analyzed using mean scores to answer the five research questions while the ANOVA and post-hoc test were used to test the five hypotheses formulated. The data analyses revealed among others that there is need to consult non-governmental organizations and donor agencies in problem identification in decision making process of adult education programmes. There was an agreement among respondents that government should sponsor instructors from NGos adult education centres on regular training and extend financial subsidy to NGOs adult education centres in order to reduce the fees paid by learners. Adult education centres managed by NGOs should submit quarterly the records of their staff strength to NMEC for planning purposes, among others. Based on the findings, it was recommending among others that state agencies for mass education, NGOs and donor agencies should be involved in the problem identification and cooperate in policy implementation system in adult education. They should also organize regular conference programmes on adult education for their staff.
Harmful cultural practices have been identified as significant causes of disability and deaths particularly among women of reproductive age in developing countries. Hence, the researcher conducted this study on the assessment of harmful cultural practices (HCPs) affecting the health of women in Ebonyi State using community women organizations as target population. To guide this study, five research questions were posed and three null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey design was adopted in this study. The population for this study comprised 11,424 members of the three hundred and twenty seven registered communities based women organizations in the thirteen Local Government Areas that make up the three senatorial zones of Ebonyi State. The sample consisted of sixty-five purposively selected community based association which has 1,962 registered members drawn from six out of the thirteen LGA’S selected for the study. The study employed multi-staged sampling technique. The selection of the sample was based on 40 per cent of the entire population from the purposively selected local government Areas in Ebonyi State. For the qualitative data a systematic sample size of twelve women from each group of Community Based Organization were used for Focus Group Discussion (FGD). A one hundred and sixty two questionnaire items on the Assessment of Harmful Cultural Practices (AHCPs) arranged in five sections was developed, validated and used for quantitative data collection. A Focus Group Discussion guide (FGDG) based on the five research questions were constructed by the researcher for data collection. Data collected were analysed using percentages, weighted means and standard deviation. The Focus Group Discussions were qualitatively analyzed. Among the major findings were that majority of the respondents were educationally disadvantaged. (2) it was confirmed from the study that harmful cultural practices such as early marriage, female genital mutilation, widowhood practices and nutritional taboos existed and were practiced in their different locations. The opinions of respondents to the questionnaire were similar to those of the discussants during the ( F G D) sessions. It was recommended among other things that women should be educationally empowered. This would enable them to challenge those discriminatory attitudes and cultural practices which has held them captive, such as not participating in decision-making process in issues concerning their welfare which has hindered them from being integrated into the whole spectrum of community development programmes. Education empowerment of women will pave way to their social economic and political empowerment.
This work dealt with the Assessment of Strategies for Rural Development in Isi-uzo Local Government Area of Enugu State. To carry out the study effectively, the researcher formulated six (6) research questions and one (1) null hypothesis. The population for the study is four hundred (400) made up of both female and male members of Community Based Organizations in Isi-uzo Local Government Area. The major instrument used for the collection of the data for the study was questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed by the use of simple percentage, weighted means and T-test statistical tool. The major findings include: That objectives of rural development; reduce inequality and ignorance; to provide basic amenities, full employment. That construction of rural roads and culverts, provision of agricultural activities, rural electrification, health centres and so are the types of rural development projects carried out in Isi-uzo Local Government Area. That the initiators of rural development projects in Isi-uzo Local Government Area include the community, the Government, Non-Governmental Organizations, among others. That Government contributes toward the promotion of rural development through provision of amenities like electricity, roads and culverts, health facilities, water and so on. That the strategies adopted by the rural dwellers to implement their projects include community efforts or non-directive strategy, the use of direct strategy or Government, among others. That the problems facing rural development in Isi-uzo Local Government include lack of fund, illiteracy, power tussle/politics and so on. In view of the findings, recommendations were made; finally suggestions for further research were made.
This study investigated the students’ perception of NTI – NCE distance education programme in South East, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Five research questions were formulated for the study. Five research hypotheses were posed for the study. Using the stratified random sampling technique a total of 588 NTI – NCE distance learners from Ebonyi and Enugu states were randomly sampled, and stratified along state and gender. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. A sample size of 588 NTI – NCE distance learners was used for data collection. The reliability coefficients of 0.70, 0.72, 0.77, 0.76 and 0.74 respectively with a grand mean of 0.73 were obtained using Cronbach Alpha method of determining internal consistency of the instrument while two experts, in Distance Education and Measurement and Evaluation carried out face validation of the instrument. Five research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while the five hypotheses which guided the study were tested at 0.05 level of significance using the t-test statistic. It was found out that the quality of teaching activities offered in NTI distance learning programme was high; the learning activities involved in the NTI programme were adequate and effective; the NTI – NCE programme was found to be convenient; the NTI – NCE programme was found to be capital intensive, and the programme was found to be useful. The use of effective distance teaching skills; programmes to be learner - centred rather than teacher-controlled; use of multi-media approach in course delivery; the establishment of more open and distance learning (ODL) institutions; and adequate recognition of distance learning programmes in Nigeria were the recommendations made.
Distance Education (DE) according to Holmberg (1989:12), covers the various forms of the study at all levels which are not under the immediate supervision of the tutors (with the learners in lecture rooms or on the same premises) but which nevertheless, benefit from planning, guidance and teaching of supporting organization.
Moore (1985:21), on the other hand defines DE as a family of instructional methods in which the teaching behaviours are executed apart from the learning behaviours. He adds that DE includes those educational activities that in a contiguous situation would be performed in the learner’s presence, so that communication between the facilitators and the learners must be facilitated by print, electronic, mechanical and other devices.
Every educational endeavour, according to Lehner (1989:14), such as DE, has the purpose of widening of consciousness and liberation from restriction in the cognitive and emotional fields. This opening of the mind has consequences from the understanding conditions in the external objective world for acquisition of knowledge and for subjective development. New social circumstances, economic efficiency and democracy cannot develop without people.
This research was on problems militating against the effective mobilization of women for participation in Community Development in Enugu North Senatorial Zone in Enugu State, Nigeria. The general purpose of the study was to access the problems militating against the effective mobilization of women for participation in community development. The study explored the education, economic, political and socio-cultural problems militating against the effective mobilization of women for participation in community development. It also investigated the strategies for effective mobilization of women for participation in community development. Resource mobilization theory and collective behaviour theory were used in theoretical framework. The researcher also covered the empirical study of the research. The empirical study include the studies by Ugwuzor (1999), Eneh (2007), Abiona (2006), Abari (2005) and Ezeh (2009). Survey research design was used. The research covered Enugu North Senatorial Zone in Enugu State. The population of the study was the entire functional registered community based women organization in Enugu North Senatorial Zone totaling one thousand eight hundred and seventeen. Simple random sampling was used and one thousand thirty five members were sampled. They responded to the questionnaire which was the instrument used for data collection. The instrument was given first to experts for validation. It was also administered to forty seven (47) Nwanne Di Namkpa Women, Amufe in Igbo Eze North to test the reliability and Cronbach Alfa method was used to determine its reliability co-efficient. Data were analyzed using the simple percentage for the bio-data of the respondent, weighted mean for the analysis of research question 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5, while T-test was used for the analysis of four hypothesis that are used in this study. The major findings of the research indicated that problems militating against the effective mobilization of women for participation in community development include: education, economic, political and socio-cultural problems. The implications of these findings are that more efforts should be made to mobilize women effectively for participation in community development. Adult Educators should organize workshops and seminars or campaign to sensitize women on the problems militating against their mobilization and way out of these problems.
This research work was aimed at finding out the socio-economic impact women education and empowerment on family life in Kogi Central Senatorial District of Kogi State. Toguide the study, seven research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was 5,200 which cut across five local government areas of the state. The major instruments used were structured questionnaire and oral interview for data collection. Sampling technique was adopted. The major findings were that women education can be a potent tool for family advancement and would enable women contribute to family life and the society at large. Based on the findings recommendation were made which included that women should be encouraged to contribute their quotas for the development of the home and family.
This study was designed to rate the training needs of adult education instructors in Anambra state. The specific purposes of the study were to ascertain the extent to which lack of adequate training on effective use of instructional materials; instructional development and methods of evaluation hinders the instructors’ educational outcome as well as the strategies for enhancing the competencies of adult education instructors in the adult learning centres in Anambra state. The study was guided by 4 research questions and two null hypotheses. The design of the study was a descriptive survey design; stratified random sampling technique by balloting was used in drawing the sample composition for the study. The sample consisted of 421 respondents made up of 107 male and 314 female instructors in the 163 state owned adult education centres in Anambra state. Rating of the Training Needs of Adult Education Instructors Questionnaire (RTNAEIQ) was the main instrument used for data collection. The instrument was validated by 4 research experts, two in Adult Education and two in Educational Measurement and Evaluation. The instrument overall reliability coefficient was 0.85 which showed that it was highly reliable. The data collected from the 4 research questions of the study were analyzed using mean scores and standard deviations while t-test analysis was used to test the two null-hypotheses formulated for the study. The data analyses revealed among others that: Lack of adequate training on effective use of instructional materials, instructional development and methods of evaluation to a high extent hinder the educational outcome of the instructors in their learning centres. It also revealed that adequate funding of adult education programmes by the government, sponsoring of the instructors to refresher courses/continuous training programmes and professionalization of the field of adult education are strategies for enhancing their competencies in the adult education learning centres. It was recommended among others that adult education instructors should be sponsored to workshops/conferences by the government, non-government organizations and stakeholders in the education sector, SAME, NMEC and NNCAE should organize regular refresher courses/continuous training programmes for the instructors to keep them updated on current issues in the field of adult education and also that instructors should be well remunerated like their counterparts in other governmental parastatals.
This study is survey. It has delved into the administrative barriers to community development programmes in Nsukka Local Government Area. The purpose of the study was mainly to find out problems emanating from development agencies. Major administrative barriers to community development programmes include - communication gap, top-down approach to community development programmes, neglect for some segments of the community, non-consultation with local leaders, inadequate awareness, inexperienced community development personnel, irrelevant projects, political instability/lack of programme continuity, bureaucratic delays, inadequate funds, etc. 203 people make up the population of the study. They are executive members of Town Unions/Development Unions from sixteen (16) communities that make up Nsukka Local Government Area. Questionnaire was administered to them on their meeting days. Data was analysed using mean and standard deviation. Almost all the respondents are males. Respondents fall within the age range of 41-50. Majority of them are married. Exco members are more in number. Most of the respondents are HND/Degree and NCE/OND holders.
This study assessed the extent of women’s participation in community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. Five research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study was 4200 while 420 constituted the sample using proportionate stratified random sampling. The instrument used was a fixed response type of questionnaire. Frequency, percentage and weighted mean were used to analyze the research questions, while t-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that the respondents are mostly fixed-income earners, majority of the projects listed were carried out by Nsukka women, participation of the women in most areas of the projects implementation is low: the constraints to effective participation in community development projects were many; majority of the factors listed enhance participation in community development projects among Nsukka women. There was no significant difference on the mean ratings of the responses of fixed-income earners and non-fixed income earners on four items on the level of participation, while there was no significant difference on five items. There was no significant difference on the mean rating of the response of literate and illiterate women on six items on the level of participation while there was significant difference on three. The major implication is that the women will not be able to harness to the fullest the human and material resources available towards effective project completion. The major recommendations were: awareness of programmes should be organized through seminars and workshops to sensitize women on the issues of self-help projects and to be aware of their rights; every member should be involved in all the processes of carrying out the projects; leaders should be penalized when found guilty of any act of corruption; people should be enlightened on the effects of their practices and beliefs that hinder women from participating in community development projects. The conclusions is that if all these major recommendations were to be practically, scientifically and methodically internalized by our societies especially Nsukka Local Government Area, women in the area would not only record tremendous progress in community development projects participation.
The study investigates problems of women’s marginalization in community development in Item, Bende Local Government Area of Abia State. The need for the study arose because of noticeable problems of women’s marginalization hindering effective community development in Item. A four research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. A 38 item questionnaire was developed and administered to 32 registered members of Item development union (women’s wing). The data collected were analyzed with respect to each research question using means scores. A mean of 2.50 was adopted as the cut of point. The t-test statistics was used to test the two hypotheses formulated for the study. The researcher found out that the factors that lead to marginalization of women included religious belief, poverty. Illiteracy unemployment early marriage, Gender sterotypes and Deprivation. The research found out also the consequences of women’s marginalization as it affects community development which included Abandonment of project, Disunity in community development, A project taking long time than necessary, lack of trust, mismanagement of community development fund, lack of access to land and other properties among others. It was found out that the ways of eliminating marginalization of women included access to education, access to ownership of land and other properties by women, Democracy in community development, support from government and other NGOs, public enlightenment about the consequences of marginalization in community development, women empowerment, making the women functionally literate for community development projects and introduction of good policies that will improve the well fare of women in community development. The study also found out that the various ways of promoting gender equity in community development include incorporating women in community development planning Raising consciousness of women about their rights and responsibilities in area of economic and political development, improvement of women’s educational status through literacy programmes, Abolish laws that marginalize women’s access to property and inheritance, and also incorporating women in decision making process in community development.
The widow groups of the Catholic Diocese of Nsukka were established as forums for widows to meet together for their common interest. The help being offered to these widows mostly come in form of welfare relief packages such as money, foodstuff, clothes and shelter, which are occasionally given to them. There are many problems that are associated with widowhood, which could make many of the widows see themselves as helpless. It is necessary for the widows to be empowered to enhance their potentials and exercise their individuality instead of waiting for the world to come to their rescue. How could these widows be empowered to cope with their problems? This could be possible through education. As women who are engaged in many activities, they need a type of education, which is non-formal in nature. This study therefore, aimed at investigating how the widows of the Catholic Diocese of Nsukka may be empowered to cope with their problems through non-formal education programmes. Five research questions and one null hypothesis were posed for the study and the research design was a survey. A total of one thousand and two widows who are registered members of the St. Rita’s Widows Association from the twenty-three parishes where the association exists constituted the population while three hundred and four was the sample. The study employed a simple random sampling. The drawing of the sample was based on one-third (1/3) of the entire population. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit some information form the widows. Copies of the questionnaire were administered and data collected and analysed. Simple percentage, weighted mean and ANOVA statistics were used to analyse and test the research questions and hypothesis respectively. The findings revealed among others that majority of the widows indicated interest in acquiring educational qualifications. There was a general agreement that the widows will be empowered through income-generating skills training, reproductive health, literacy, family life education and legal education programmes. There was significant deference among the coping strategies of the widows based on their educational qualifications. Therefore the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. Recommendations made based on the finding include among others that The Catholic Diocese of Nsukka should establish skills acquisition centres for their widows, at strategic parishes, which should integrate all the aspects of non- formal education programmes identified in this study.