The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the implementation of the Community and Social Development Programme (CSDP) using the community driven development approach in the development of communities in South Eastern Nigeria. Five research questions and five null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted an evaluative research design. The population of the study was 7,510 adult participants who are members of the community project management committees of the Community and Social Development Project (CSDP) in Abia, Ebonyi, Enugu and Imo States. The sample size of the study was 1,568 respondents obtained using the stratified proportionate random sampling technique. The data collecting instrument was the researcher’s developed questionnaire titled ‘Evaluation of the Implementation of the Community Driven Development Approach in the Development of Communities Questionnaire’. The instrument was face validated by three validates, two from Adult Education and Extra Mural Studies Department, University of Nigeria Nsukka and one from Measurement and Evaluation Department, Enugu State University of Science and Technology. The overall reliability index of 0.77 was obtained using the Cronbach Alpha. Data obtained from the respondents were analysed using the mean and standard deviation for the research questions, while the null hypotheses were tested using the Analysis of Variance (one way) at 0.05 level of significance. Findings obtained from the study revealed that to a very high extent the implementation of CDD approach on community development projects has reduced poverty. Furthermore, the findings also indicated that to a high extent the implementation of the approach has enhanced community participation, promoted rural empowerment enhanced achievement of social capital and social accountability. The null hypotheses were all accepted. Significant difference was not found in the mean ratings of respondents with regard to the extent the implementation of CDD approach on community development projects has reduced poverty, enhanced community participation, promoted rural empowerment, achieved social capital as well as social accountability. Based on the findings, the study recommended that more community members should be encouraged to participate in planning and execution of community development projects since the CDD approach was identified as an effective strategy for enhanced community participation.
The study was embarked upon to find the entrepreneurship education for poverty reduction among retirees in Enugu State, Nigeria. Four specific objectives with four corresponding research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Literature pertinent to the study was reviewed. The population for the study consisted of nine thousand, three hundred and eighty retirees in Enugu State. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique by balloting was used to select nine hundred and thirty-eight (938) respondents used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a forty-one (41) item questionnaire (EEPRRQ). Four experts from Adult Education and Science Education Departments, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, validated the instruments. The reliability of the instrument was established using Cronbach Alpha method on 20 copies and a correlation co-efficient of.93 was obtained and was adjured reliable for embarking on the study. Nine hundred and thirty-eight copies of the questionnaires were administered to the respondents and returned dully filled, giving 100% return rate. Percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while t – test statistics was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.5 level of significance. The result of the study showed that continuous training and re-training of retirees on computer; baking; catering services; livestock farming like rearing of pig, goat, sheep among others were some of the entrepreneurship education that can enhance technical skills for poverty reduction among retirees to a high extents. It was also found that entrepreneurship education which can enhance business management skills for poverty reduction to a high extent were ability to keep records of what customers buy and amount spent; provision of stock at the lowest possible cost to customers and packaging products and services properly to attract customers in the market. The challenges that can hinder entrepreneurship education for poverty reduction to a high extent were poor funding by government and non-governmental organization; poor enabling business environment; and inadequate teaching materials, equipment and infrastructural facilities. The study also found that establishing enough skill acquisition centers for retirees ; government giving loan with affordable interest to retired civil servants when needed and reducing government taxation on small scale business enterprise among others were some of the strategies for enhancing entrepreneurship education for poverty reduction among retirees to a high extent. There was no significant difference between the mean responses of male and female retirees on the extent to which entrepreneurship education can enhance technical skills and business management skills for poverty reduction in Enugu State. The major implication of the findings of this study is that if the entrepreneurship education programme is adopted by the retirees, the rate of poverty level of the retirees will be reduced thereby improving their economic status. Based on the findings, the major recommendations among others were that the retirement benefit system (pension and gratuity) should be properly designed by the pension board or unit; the working staff before retirement should be given opportunities by their employers for self development on their preferred retirement benefit system (pension and gratuity) should be properly designed; the operators of the system must be properly educated and the enforcement mechanism must be properly developed so that retirees can get their benefit without tears; and retirees should be exposed to various adjustment dimensions of retirement such as psychological, social and economic adjustment of retirement for proper adjustment
The purpose of this study was to investigate the entrepreneurial competencies required for engaging retirees in small and medium scale businesses. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was 11,698 retirees in Cross River State. Multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study. The sample for the study was 1,169 retirees. The instrument for data collection was 61 items structured questionnaire titled ‘entrepreneurial competencies required for engaging retirees in small and medium scale businesses for sustainable community development”. Modeled on a 4-points rating scale options of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD), with numerical values of 4, 3, 2, and 1 assigned to the responses. The instrument was validated by 3 experts. Crobach’s alpha was used to determine the internal consistency reliability of the instrument and was established at 0.721. The data collected was analyzed using mean and standard deviation for research questions and t-test statistics was used to analyze the hypotheses at the 0.05 level of significance with the application of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The findings include that: some of the small and medium scale businesses and entrepreneurial competencies required for retirees’ engagement are not accepted while some are accepted. It is therefore recommended that more small and medium scale businesses should be developed and established with the associated competencies required for the retired entrepreneurs.
The study was aimed at assessing the extent to which the safe motherhood practices are provided in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. To guide the study, five research questions were formulated with the intention of assessing the various causes of maternal mortality among child-bearing mothers, the extent to which safe motherhood practices are provided during the ante-natal, natal and post-natal periods and the extent to which strategies are employed for improving the provision of safe motherhood practices in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. Also, five null hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance and used to guide the study. Descriptive survey research design was used. Stratified random sampling technique was employed to compose a sample of 437 respondents from a population of 664 members of the registered expectant mothers that attended ante-natal, natal and post-natal care services in public hospitals and health centres in both rural and urban areas of Nsukka Local Government Area. The instrument used for the study was a 44-item structured questionnaire titled Assessment of the Provision of Safe Motherhood Practices Questionnaire (APSMPQ). The instrument was face validated by three experts; one in measurement and evaluation and two in community development, all from University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Its reliability was ensured using Cronbach alpha estimate. Reliability co-efficient of .84 was obtained. Frequencies and percentages, weighted mean and standard deviation were used in analyzing the collected data. Administration of the instrument to the respondents was through direct delivery technique. Findings of the study revealed that the safe motherhood practices were provided to a moderate extent during the ante-natal, natal and post-natal periods. All the five null hypotheses were accepted showing that there were no significant differences between the mean ratings of expectant mothers in the rural areas and their counterparts in the urban areas on the extent to which safe motherhood practices were provided during the ante-natal, natal and post-natal periods in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were proffered which included that skilled health attendants should educate the child-bearing mothers and the community about their rights as clients, and that the state ministry of health should deploy trained nurses to provide maternal and child health care services by sensitizing communities about availability of daily maternal and child health care services.
The study was aimed at evaluating the implementation of environmental sanitation programme by State Environmental Protection Agencies (SEPAs) in the South East States of Nigeria. In line with the objectives of the study, four research questions were posed, and five null hypotheses, tested at 0.05 level of significance were used to guide the study. The design of the study was descriptive survey. The target population of the study is 26,489 respondents, made up of four hundred and twenty nine (429) SEPAs staff and twenty six thousand, and 60 (26,060) community leaders in South East States. Multi-stage, proportionate random sampling technique were used to compose a sample of two hundred and fourteen (214) SEPAs staff and eight hundred (800) community leaders totalling one thousand and fourteen respondents for the study. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. The instrument used for the study was 52-item ENVIENSPOQ structured questionnaire. The instrument was face validated by three experts: one from the Department of Adult Education and Extra-Mural Studies, another from the Department of Educational Foundations, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, and the third expert from the Ministry of Petroleum and Environment, Owerri. Its reliability was ensured using Cronbach Alpha estimate. Reliability co-efficient of .81 was obtained. Mean was used to answer research questions one to five. The t-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Copies of the instrument were administered to the respondents through direct delivery technique. The findings of the study revealed that environmental sanitation programme amongst other services were implemented to a low extent. The major barriers encountered in the course of the implementation of environmental sanitation programme were corruption and favouritism, inefficiency among SEPAs staff, poor maintenance of service equipment and limited funding. Four out of the five null hypotheses were accepted showing that there was no significant difference in the mean weighted scores of SEPAs Staff and Community leaders except in the case of challenges encountered. Based on the findings, recommendations were proffered which include: that government should employ experts in environmental matters who have credible reference, monitor SEPA staff to check corruption, conduct periodic inspection and evaluation of SEPAs’ activities, fund SEPAs adequately and procure appropriate equipments, and SEPAs should initiate awareness creation programmes for promoting implementation of environmental sanitation programme. Necessary conclusions were therefore made.
The main purpose of this study was toassess the contributions of tourism to community development in Cross River State. Four research questions and three null hypotheses were posed and formulated respectively to guide the study. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The related literature to the study was reviewed under four main headings namely: conceptual framework, theoretical framework, Review of related empirical studies and summary of literature review. This study used a descriptive survey research design. A total of 101 community leaders, and 256 tourism staff making it 357 respondents were used as sample for the study. A 41 item questionnaire modeled on a four point rating scale was used to collect data for the study. Three experts validated the instrument. The instrument was trial tested and the reliability coefficient using Cronbach’s Alpha were .762 for cluster A, .635 for cluster B, .875 for cluster C and .677 for cluster D with an overall reliability coefficient of .827 respectively. The Research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation; the null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test and Focused Group Discussion were subjected to qualitative analysis. The results of the study revealed among others that tourism contributes to a very high extent to the economic development, social development, cultural development and environmental sustainability of Cross River State. The implications of the above findings were examined and it was recommended among other things that government should promote sustainable tourism development in order to ensure that the local communities benefit from the tourism resources within their domain.
Constraints to Inspection in Primary Schools in
Nsukka Education Zone
Factors Associated with GENDER disparity IN
Enrolment Patterns in Nigeria Universities
Factors Affecting Women’s Participation in Adult Education Programme in Nsukka L. G. A. of Enugu State
The Contributions of Farmers’ Multi-Purpose Cooperative Societies to Community of Development in Nsukka Zone of Enugu State
Identification and Evaluation of Leadership Activities of Principals in Staff Personnel Administration in Nsukka Education Zone
Fund Raising Strategies of Secondary School
A Study of the Relationship Between the Leader Behaviour of Secondary School Principals in Imo State and the School Organizational Climate
Health Hazards of Using Sewage Wastes for
Socio-Economic and Political Benefits of Women Education Programmes on the Rural Women of Guma L. G. A. of Benue State