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HYDROLYSIS OF CASSAVA STARCH BY MALTED ACHA (DIGITARIA EXILIS) FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FROM OIL WASTE BY A DICULTURE OF AZOTOBACTER VINELANDII AND PSEUDOMONAS SP.
INTRODUCTION Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called benign enlargement of the prostate (BEP), is a non-cancerous increase in the size of the prostate
Inflammation is a pathophysiological response of mammalian tissues to a variety of offending agents including infectious organisms, toxic chemical substances, physical injury or tumor growth leading to local accumulation of plasmic fluid and blood cells
Studies On Plasma Lipids And Peroxidation Product Profiles in Patients With Ischaemic Heart Diseases
The Effect of Some Vitamins on the Osmotic Fragility and Calcium Ion Dynamics of Sickle Cell Erythrocytes
The Tendencies Of Nepotism In Nigeria’s Political System
The Effect of Scopoletin on Energy Metabolism of Germinating Sorghum Seeds
The Effect of Exercise on Some Serum Electrolytes and Lipid Levels
Rapid industrialization and urbanization have resulted in the generation of large quantities of aqueous effluents, many of which contain high levels of toxic heavy metals and xenobiotics that pollute groundwater and soil of affected farmlands. Heavy metals are not biodegradable and as such not removed from the soil but rather accumulate and persist in soil reservoirs, consequently entering the food chain and exerting toxic effects on living organisms. Copper and lead which exert toxic effects even at very low concentrations are common constituents of the Nigerian crude oil and consequently are found in its effluent. Research has shown that removal/recovery of these metals (through bioaccumulation/biosorption by bacteria) is an attractive alternative to traditional physicochemical techniques. Microorganisms tolerant to metals are often isolated from areas of high metal loading, suggesting that metal tolerance or resistance is an adaptive response to excessive metal exposure. In this study, crude oil effluent was analyzed for copper and lead contents and both metals were found to show concentrations higher than the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Compendium of Environmental Laws for African Countries (CELAC) recommended environmentally accepted standards. Microorganisms were isolated from the effluent and from the effluent-contaminated soil from the site. The largest/most successful colony was subsequently characterized. Through morphological and biochemical tests, it was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Four test groups of mineral salt media containing copper only (Group A), lead only (group B), copper + lead (Group C) and no lead or copper (Group D, control) set at different pHs of 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5 and 8.0 for each group were used. The organism was standardized and found to contain 6.0 x 108 Bacillus subtilis cells per ml of suspension. Five ml of the organism was inoculated into each experimental medium. The absorbance change (turbidity) of the mineral salt media were measured at 540nm on the 10th, 17th and the 24th days - the evaluation criteria for microorganism growth and adaptation in the used media. The experimental media showing the highest growths for each group was analyzed for residual copper and lead. Also, the bacterial biomass from these media were harvested and analyzed for recovered lead and copper. Results showed that Group D had the highest growth, followed by Group B, Group A and lastly Group C. The organism grew most at pH 7.5 - 8.0. The experimental media that showed the highest growths for each group, when analyzed for residual copper and lead had no trace of metals, implying complete biosorption by the B.subtilis. B.subtilis is therefore recommended for removal of lead at pH 7.5 - 8.0 in crude oil pollution.
Diabetes is a major threat to global public health, and the numbers of diabetic patients are rapidly increasing world-wide. This study was aimed at determining the serum electrolyte concentration and glycosylated haemoglobin level of diabetic patients and apparently healthy individuals. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) subjects were used for the study. Seventy (70) subjects (apparently healthy) aged between 38 and 60 years with no history of diabetes mellitus or any other hyperglycaemic disorder served as the control group while fifty (50) subjects of both genders (38-60 years) represented those with known history of diabetes mellitus . The subjects were divided into five (5) groups. Group 1 represents diabetic subjects with genotype AA, group 2 represents non-diabetic subjects with genotype AS, group 5 represents non diabetic subjects with genotype SS, group 3 represents diabetic subjects on treatment with genotype AA while group 4 represents diabetic subjects on treatment with genotype AS. All subjects used were residents within and around the environs of Gwagwalada, Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The duration of the experiment was two (2) months. Blood samples from all subjects were obtained by venipuncture from the anticubital vein into plain bottles. The blood was allowed to clot and then centrifuged for 10 min at 3000 rpm. The separated serum was stored in a freezer at 2-80C till the time of use. Whole blood for determination of genotype and glycosylated haemoglobin was obtained by venipuncture from the anticubital vein into an EDTA container. The samples were kept in the refrigerator at 2–8 0c till the time of use. The result showed a significant decrease (p0.05) in the Na+ concentration compared with that of AA and AS diabetic patients on treatment in groups 3 and 4. There was significant (p
Peroxidase was extracted from cabbage and was purified in three different purification processes. It was first purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and highest peroxidase activity was observed at 80% saturation. Hence, 80% saturation was used to mass produce the enzyme. The enzyme was again purified by dialysis which tends to remove salt as impurity from the precipitated enzyme. The enzyme was further purified by gel filtration which further removed salts and other proteins as impurities. The resulting enzyme was characterized to determine the optimum pH and temperature. The optimum pH and temperature were respectively 5.0 and 45oC. The Km and Vmax obtained from Lineweaver-Burk plot of initial velocities at different concentration of H2O2 were found to be 3.68mM and 37.04U/ml respectively. Also, Km and Vmax of o-dianisidine were found to be 9.89mM and 28.57U/ml respectively. The enzymatic activity of this cabbage peroxidase with hydrogen peroxide on synthetic dyes was investigated and was found to be very effective in the treatment and decolorization of these dyes. This partially purified enzyme could decolorize many synthetic dyes; Azo Brilliant Black, Azo Trypan Blue, Azo Blue 5, Azo Citrus Red 2, Azo Yellow 6, Azo Pink, Azo Purple, Vat Green 11 and Vat Orange 9. Azo Trypan Blue and Vat Orange 11 had the highest and least percentage decolorization of 88.62 and 12% respectively after contact time of 1 hour. The cabbage peroxidase was found to decolorize Azo dyes more and had little effect on Vat dyes. This peroxidase could be an important source for dye and waste water decolorization.
The impact of palm oil mill effluents (POME) on soil fertility was determined by studying the physico-chemical and heavy metals parameters found in fresh and fermented POME from six palm oil milling sites. Some soil enzymes (like catalase, dehydrogenase and lipase) and physico-chemical parameters of POME polluted soil wereevaluated from six dumpsites and soil from ten-yards distance from dumpsites in relation to the control farmland in the area. The fresh and fermented POME samples were randomly collected aseptically from small scale palm oil milling sites in Umuaka inNjaba Local Government Area ofImo State, Nigeria. The soil samples were collected aseptically into sterile containers from topsoil (0 – 15cm deep), and subsoil (15 – 30cm deep) at dumpsites, ten-yards distance from dumpsites and farmland one kilometre from various dumpsites. The study of both soil and POME samples were carried out using standard analytical procedures. The analysis of variance of the results of physicochemical parameters in POME samples showed that there were significant(p
This work is focused on determining quantitatively how water, even in its smallest amount, affects transesterification kinetic parameters of coconut oil with ethanl; with the view of assessing whether it is preferable to use anhydrous ethanol with high price or ethanol containing a certain amount of water in biodiesel production process. Physicochemical properties of the coconut oil were also determined. The coconut oil produced was yellow and had the following values for viscosity, 21.24 ± 0.22mm2/s, relative density, 0.92 ± 0.001, flash point, 1900C, cloud point, +27, pour point, +25, refractive index, 1.45 ± 0.001 and moisture content, 0.1%.The average acid, iodine, peroxide and saponification values of the coconut oil were 0.523 ± 0.03 mgKOHg-1, 9.33 ± 0.04 mgIodineg-1, 0.00 meq/1000g and 270.26 ± 0.05 mgKOHg-1 respectively.The crude coconut oil was transesterified using serially diluted anhydrous ethanol with water activity 0.002, 0.022, 0.042, 0.062 and 0.102. NaOH was used at constant reaction conditions.The ethyl ester produced (biodisel) was light yellow with the following values for viscosity 2.66 ± 0.22mm2/s, relative density, 0.86 ± 0.001, flash point, 1420C, cloud point, +5, pour point, -3, refractive index 1.43 ± 0.001 and moisture content 1.7%. The average acid, iodine, peroxide, cetane number and saponification values of the biodiesel produced were 0.094 ± 0.002 mgKOHg-1, 1.53 ± 0.28 mgIodine g1, 0.160 ± 0.001 meq/1000g, 70.81 and 222.99 ± 0.10 mgKOH g-1 and 70.81 respectively. During kinetic study, it was observed that the sample with the least water activity (0.002) generated higher biodiesel yield than others. The reaction rates for biodiesel samples with water activities of 0.002, 0.022, 0.042, 0.062 and 0.102 were 0.0978, 0.0786, 0.0498, 0.0276 and 0.0054 (mg/g/m) respectively. The function of ethyl ester concentration with time when determined showed a first order reaction.The reaction rate decreased as water activity increased while the over - all reaction rate constant K was found to be 2.4 × 10-2. The presence of water in the reacting mixture had a negative effect on the transesterification reaction progress and this effect has been quantitatively presented. The reaction kinetics gave a better understating of the techno-economic process, in other to avoid waste of reactants during biodiesel production process and maximize profit.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and curative effects of an alkaloid-rich fraction of Abrusprecatorius seedchloroform-methanol extract on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The percentage yield of the methanol extract of Abrusprecatorius seeds was found to be 2.08% w/w. Further purification of the extract using Sephadex gel G15 to get a purer sample was done. The fractions were spotted on a TLC plate and was spread with Drangendoff’s reagent in which some fractions turned purple indicating the presence of alkaloids. The fractions that turned purple were pulled into a beaker and called fraction I which gave a percentage yield of17.75% and was used in this study. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of fraction Irevealed a wide range of phytochemicals such asalkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins and carbohydrates, steroids, terpenoids, and peptides which could be physiologically potent in ameliorating several diseases. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of fraction I of Abrusprecatoriusseed methanol extract showed the presence of alkaloids (5480 ± 184 mg/100g), flavonoids (215 ± 97 mg/100g), saponins (2.98 ± 1.33 mg/100g) and tannins (6.4 ± 0.72 mg/100g). Hepatotoxicity was induced using paracetamol (2500 mg/kg b.w.) orally. For prophylactic treatment (hepato-protective), administration of extract was done for 7 days before paracetamol induction and collection of blood was done after 24 hours of administration. Curative treatment (hepato-curative) was done after paracetamol induction at day 0 and treatment was done for 14 days. Blood was collected on days 8 and 15 for the analyses.Prophylactic and curative treatments with fraction I of Abrusprecatorius methanol extract at the dose of 100 and 200mg/kg b.w for group 4 and 5 produced a significant decrease (p˂0.05) in the activities of the liver marker enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT) and bilirubin levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the paracetamol untreated group 2 (positive control).Groups 3, 4, and 5 treated with 100 mg/kg b.w.silymarin (standard hepato-protective and curative drug),100mg/k.g. b.w. of fraction I and 200mg/k.g. b.w. of fraction I respectively before and after paracetamol induction caused a significant decrease (p˂0.05) in the serum urea and creatinine concentrations of both hepato-protective and hepato-curative groups compared to the positive control. Serum electrolyte concentrations showed a significant increase (p˂0.05) in the treated groups of both hepato-protective and curative when compared to the positive control.The MDA concentration decreased significantly (p˂0.05) in the treated groups and standard groups compared to the positive control after 24 hours (hepato-protective)and at day 8 and 15 (hepato-curative). Serum SOD activity of both protective and curative models, showed adose- and time-dependent significant increase (p˂0.05) in the treated groups compared to the positive control. The haematological parameters of the rats treated with fraction I of Abrusprecatorius methanol extract at various dosesshowed a significant increase (p˂0.05) in the PCV levels, Hb concentration and RBC count compared to the positive control. A dose- and time-dependentsignificant decrease (p˂0.05) was observed in the WBC count of all treated groups (hepato-protective and hepato-curative) compared to the positive control. The test groups that received fraction I of Abrusprecatoriusin both models showed a dose- and time-dependent effects on the biochemical markers used in the study similar to the standard drug. However, fraction I had more curative effect than protective but silymarin was more potent.