STUDIES ON THE IRISH POTATO ( SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.)
mature embryos of dioscorea rotundata pair(white guinnea facta colllus on gainborg s b5 medium supplemented with a range of 2-10mg-1
A rcliablc and fasl proloco1 is clescrihed for plant regeneration and enhanced tuberiiration in I)iotrorc.n bvlhfirn
1. . a ~ncdicinallyim portant ~)lanol f thc family L)ioscoreaceae. Shoot organogencsis was irlducctl in temir~ala nd
rdlary metistems within 28 days on MS. R5 and SI-1 basal mcdia supplemented with 0.1 - I .O mgl ' benzyladcnitle.
Rooling of shoots occurrcd spntancously within 21 days on MS rncdia i n the ahscncc ofrnixi~~hsu,t was suhstanlinlly
cnhancctl (within 14 days) in mcdia supplemented with 2-5 mg1.l indolcbulyric acid. Up to 93 per cent
plantlet survival was achieved whcn rooted plantlets were hardened using top soil + coconut husk (I: I ) as subswatc,
prior to transfcr to potted soil in the greenhouse. Incorporation of abscisic acid at 0.02-0.20 mgl-' into the
planting substrate rcsultccl in significant depression of root and shoot growth while enhancing early tuberiaation
with consequcnt partitioning of assimilates in favour of tuber growth in the later growth phase.
I3io1-c1ncdiationo f crude oil - contaminated soil samples was carried out by
rnanipulatiiig natural bioremediation process through seeding with
cndogcnous oil degrading bacteria and addition of poultry manure. Their
cIficacy was monitored through their influences on germination and
productivity or soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr. ). Isolates were subjected to
imorphological, physiological and biochemical tests, and identified according
to 13ergy's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology as Pseudomonas sp. and
13crcill~r.s sp. . 8kg of soil, from the Botanical Garden. University of Nigeria
Nsultlta was placed in each of 56 bags and contaminated with 200 mls of
crudc oil. l'he contaminated soil was inoculated with 1L culture of
l?sc~/do~n~(~1.n5a xs 10' cell concentration). The same was repeated with 1 L
culturc o I~acillus (1.5 x cell concentration), 1L culture of
l',scz/do~nonus and Bacillus (consortium) (500ml each), 1 L of nutrient broth,
arid 2g ol' poultry manure separately. One set was left without any treatment
while I sct (control) was left without crude oil or treatment. They were
carsicd out in 8 replicates using completely randomized design. Three seeds
ol' soybcan were planted per bag after 30 days. The results from the
parameters measured showed that the control (without crude oil treatment)
had thc highest mean number of germination, plant height, leaf area, number
ol' Ilowcl-s and pods when compared to other treatments. This was followed
by the consortiuin (Pseudomonas combined with Bacillus), Pscudornonas,
/3acilltis, poultry manure, nutrient broth and crude oil in that order. ANOVA
sliowcd that the overall results of each of these treatments were significant at
1' < 0.05. From the result of the present study, the use of bacteria
(bioaugnicntation) and poultry manure (biostimulation) appears reinediative
to cruclc oil polluted soil.
The growth pattern of the white guinea yam, Jioscorea rotundat2
Poir raised from seed was studied in the glasshouse and the field
from May through November, 1978 and 1979 by the method of growth analysis.
Observations were made on the changes in the dry weights of the organs
produced, with time. Definite waves i n the developnent of the various
organs have been shown which are comparable to the patterns e a r l i e r
reported for plants raised from tuber. This study has also furnished
data on several aspects of the growth pattern of this plant otherwise
neglected by earlier attempts to raise Dioscorea rotundeta from seed.
Derived data on the growth analytical parameters were also compared
with results obtained for some other tropical plants.
Investigations into the growth pattern of Dioscorea rotundata
using the f i r s t generation tubers derived from plants originally
raised from seed as the planting material, showed that the pattern of
growth is very similar to that reported for plants raised from tubers
derived frm continuous vegetative propagation.
Investigations i n t o the effect of photoperiod on growth and
tuberization of Dioscorea rotundatel plants raised from seed revealed
that although short days enhanced tuber growth and suppressed leaf,
vine and root growth, while long days had an opposite effect, there
was xm difference in the total weight of the entire plant due to the
different daylengths. Also tuber initiation was not under photoperiodic
control while tuber growth (bulking) was enhanced by short days.
Studies were carried out 0n the yield and qualit of four coconut (Cocos
r l t r c j /h L.) varities which include the west african Tall (WA'f'), Malayan Green dwarf(MGD)
Boost in ~ndustriadl !;velopment of Nigeria now requires a greater supply of diverse
carbohydrate, protein and oil crops as raw materials for industry, feed and food. Grain
legumes and cereals have advantage over ioot and tuber crops because:
I. Grain seeds are small, cheaper and easier to provide planting material for large
hectarages; while the tuber crops such as yams are propagated from expensive
and bulky waole tuber or sett pieces.
2. Cultivation of grain cereals and legumes is easier to mechanize.
3. Storage of grain cereals and legumes is easier than 'for yams
Gainin;; insiglil inro tllc origin:; ol' yam dmnicslic:!~ion 11;:;
cngagcd 11ic alLcnl.ion oC scliol:us, cspccinlly ;\rcl~xologi:i\s,
bo~misrs,li nguists, ctllnogreplicrs and his~oi.ians. Arc11;lcocthnokmtai~
icnl nnu linguistic cvidcnccs lc~itl 10 assi!;n xi-cat
anliqui~yL O ll~cdom,.:;tication or yam i n M'cs~ACricn,c :;pcci;illy
i l l 111ca i-ca lyinl; casi of tlic Bandaix: !ti\il. iii ~ l Iv~orcy C o a s ~
ant1 wcsrorlhc C:r,l?crou~ri angc (illcxrr~rdc1r 975). I
Morpho- anatomical features of leaf, rachis, stem (bark), root, fruit, flower and pollen of Albizia adianthifolia (Schum.)W.F. Wight and Albizia chevalieri Harms. were studied with the goal to assess the taxonomic (pleisomorphic and apomorphic) characters in the two species, as well as to explore the agricultural and functional wood traits of ecological significance of the two species in relation to environmental conditions and locations. Five samples of each species from four ecological zones were randomly selected from their stands at locations in University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Derived savannah), Alabusa in Benue State (Guinea savannah), Kainji in Niger State (Sudan savannah) and Sapele in Delta State (Tropical rainforest). The results obtained from this investigation indicated similarities in structure, which highlighted interspecies phylogenetic relationships and reasons for them to be in the same family, while the differences in structure showed reasons for them to exist as two distinct species. The leaves of both species are hypostomatic. The stomata were anomocytic in A. adianthifolia, and cyclocytic in A. chevalieri. However, the width of stomata and aperture of both species decreased with ecological shift from wetter areas into drier areas. The stomata length showed strong positive correlations with stomata width and aperture width at p≤ 0.01, while it showed weak positive correlations with aperture length at p≤0.05. On the other hand, aperture length showed strong positive correlations with the width of stomata and aperture at p≤0.01. Ellipsoidal-multicellular trichomes occurred on the abaxial surface of the leaves in A. adianthifolia and on the adaxial surface of leaves in A. chevalieri. Glandular structures were present on the abaxial surface of the leaves in A. adianthifolia, while in A. chevalieri prismatic crystals occurred on the adaxial surface of the leaves. The epidermal cells were wavy with striations in A. adianthifolia and polygonal in A. chevalieri. Umbel inflorescences in A. adianthifolia are more “apomorphic” than panicle inflorescences in A. chevalieri. The wood of A. adianthifolia was diffuse-porous and A. chevalieri ring-porous. The vessel frequency in A. chevalieri per field of view was 16.4 as against 4.7 in A. adianthifolia. Rays are homocellular in A. adianthifolia and heterocellular in A. chevalieri; paratracheal parenchyma lozenge-aliform in A. adianthifolia and aliform confluent in A. chevalieri; fibres septate in A. adianthifolia and non-septate in A. chevalieri; fibre tracheids and libriform fibres occur in A. adianthifolia. The presence of crystalliferous deposits in the fibre strands of A. chevalieri is hereby reported for the first time. The fibres in A. chevalieri are longer, have thicker walls, wider lumen area and higher coefficient of flexibility than those in A. adianthifolia. The vessel diameter in radial direction not only showed the strongest and most significant correlations to other wood anatomical variables, but also to ecological parameters and tree morphology at p ≤ 0.01. On the other hand, the climate of the different ecological zones had weak impact on ray width, vessel length, vessel wall diameter, fibre lumen diameter and fibre diameter at p ≤ 0.05. The pollen of both species was shown to be inaperturate polyad, while sculpturing pattern was psilate in A. adianthifolia and scrabate in A. chevalieri. Also, the values for exine thickness in both species was highest in samples from Sudan and Rain forest zones, higher in the Guinea savannah and high but lowest in the Derived savannah. All quantitative parameters of pollen showed positive correlations at p ≤ 0.01. The vulnerability and mesomorphy indices of A. adianthifolia in the study area were significantly higher than those of A. chevalieri. Data obtained from the vulnerability indices in this study suggest that A. chevalieri is probably better acclimated to varying soil moisture and drought conditions than A. adianthifolia. Also, the wood of A. chevalieri may find more use in pulp production and wood construction than A. adianthifolia.
Four organic wastes; mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) sawdust (MSD), Gmelina aborea sawdust (GSD), oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) were evaluated for their effects on growth, yield, quality and protein content of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer. Plastic bag technology was used with treatments replicated ten times and arranged using a completely randomized design. The quality of the harvested mushrooms was evaluated on the basis of four pileus diameter size groups (>7 cm, 5-7 cm, 3-5 cm, 7 cm group while Gmelina sawdust (GSD) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) had none in the same quality group. The percentage protein content of harvested mushrooms ranged from 13.27% for mushrooms produced from mahogany sawdust (MSD) to 27.42% for those grown on oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF). The above findings reveal the possibility of commercial production of high quality L. squarrosulus on oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) and mahogany sawdust (MSD) while oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) is recommended as the best substrate for spawn production among the various organic wastes used in this study.
Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate - Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS - PAGE) is a technique commonly used for the separation of proteins according to their molecular weight, based on their differential rates of migration through a sieving matrix (a gel) under the influence of an applied electrical field. SDS - PAGE was used in assessing the genetic diversity among twelve accessions of African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) germplasms obtained from NACGRAB (Ibadan) and five villages around Nsukka vicinity. Protein banding patterns were scored for presence and absence and analysed for genetic similarities and dissimilarities among the accessions. A total of 11 different bands were found in the accessions from NACGRAB and total of 9 bands were found in accessions from Nsukka zone. The highest number of bands (10) were found in Accessions A1 and A2 (Nac1 and Nac2) while the lowest (5) band was found in Accession A7 (Nac7). The banding pattern revealed that some of the bands present in the accessions from NACGRAB were absent in the accessions from Nsukka zone. A dendrogram constructed on the basis of genetic distance matrix by the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean Algorithm (UPGMA), using the NTSYS-pc software resolved the germplasm into three distinct clusters and six groups. Cluster one and two had six and five members respectively while cluster three had only one member. Cluster 1 was made up of three groups (1, 2 and 3), cluster 2 was made up of two groups (4 and 5) while cluster 3 was made up of only one group (group 6). Accessions from NACGRAB except Nac7 formed groups 1, 2 and 3 while accessions from Nsukka zone were found in groups 4 and 5. Group 6 was observed to be entirely different from other groups having only one germplasm (Nac7) with the highest genetic diversity as member and therefore considered as an outgroup. The present study has helped in resolving the genetic relatedness among the twelve accessions of P. macrophylla germplasm. The information will be suitable for future breeding for the improvement of the species.
The water quality and algal diversity of the stocked and unstocked ponds and the dam reservoir at Gesedaddo farms, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria, were assessed for ten months. Meteorological data were accessed from Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. Physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, transparency, conductivity dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), magnesium, potassium, sodium, nitrates, sulphates, phosphates, and some trace elements (iron, copper, and zinc) were determined using standard methods. The drop count method was employed in algal microscopy. Algal diversity and species richness were determined using Margarlef and Shannon-Wiener indices. A total of forty algal taxa belonging to four divisions were found. They are Cyanophyta (26.47%), Chlorophyta (44.53%), Bacillariophyta (24.80%) and Euglenophyta (4.20%). All data were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of variance ANOVA, Duncan Multiple Range Test DMRT and Correlation coefficient. Tests of significance were done at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 confidence levels. Water temperatures correlated positively with air temperatures, PO4, NO3, Fe, Na and Cu. Total hardness correlated negatively with pH, K, Mn and Zn. Air and water temperatures correlated positively with Navicula and Nitzschia spp. and negatively with Eudorina elegans and Trachelomonas spp. Seasonal variation of algal population revealed that Microcystis species a toxin producing blue-green alga was not recorded in wet season but were recorded in dry season. However, Micrasterias an indicator of clean water was recorded in the un-stocked fish pond. Phacus, Euglena, and Trachelomonas, indicators of organically polluted environment were recorded in dry season in the fish ponds but absent in dry season in the dam reservoir. The seasonal presence and absence of algal species in particular locations with the ambient physico-chemical parameters make them potential bioindicators for biomonitoring of the fish ponds. Anthropogenic activities in the catchment area affected the concentrations of chemicals in the dam reservoir and stocked fish pond. Chlorophycean indices were 0.96, 0.873 and 1.57 for the stocked fish pond, unstocked fish pond and the dam reservoir respectively, while the Myxophycean indices were 1.0, 0.839 and 1.80 for the three locations respectively. These values suggest that fish ponds were oligotrophic and the dam reservoir eutrophic. The study recommends qualitative and quantitative studies of water quality for early signals of pollution for timely intervention.
The genetic variability among ten (10) accessions of Sphenostylis stenocarpa from three states and National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria were assessed using sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS - PAGE). There were variations in the banding patterns of the accessions and polymorphism was also observed. Twelve polypeptide bands were obtained ranging from 9KDA to 219KDa. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Mean Algorithm (UPGMA) dendrogram grouped the ten accessions into two clusters and six groups. Some accessions appeared in the same group, while others were observed to be in different groups. The proximate and nutritional analysis also detected variations. A strong and positive correlation was observed among some of the attributes studied. The principal component analysis also showed some variation among the accessions. The highest variability was observed in the ash content which shows that ash content could be a major indicator for nutritional variability in these 10 accessions followed by the Vitamin B2 in the second component.
The fungitoxic properties of ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica and Ocimum gratissimum used for the control of post-harvest fungal diseases of Solanum melongena were tested in vitro with benlate serving as the standard fungicide and water as the bank control. Three fungal species, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani and Mucor ramosissimus were isolated from diseased S. melongena fruits kept at room temperature on laboratory tops for10 days. The fruits started showing signs of decay after 4 days of exposure. Growth on the fruits at the sites of the rot suggested the presence of fungal pathogens. Isolation and culturing of these pathogens gave the identified species as the causal agents. Pathogenicity test confirmed them as the causal organisms of the fruit rot. The three pathogens were treated with both ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of the two plants at concentrations ranging from 25 to 100% and benlate at concentrations between 2.5 and 10.0%. Various concentrations of the extracts were added to prepared Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media. The pathogens were inoculated separately into the PDA media and were incubated for eight days. Fungitoxic effects of these extracts on the mycelial growth of the pathogens were significant at P ≤ 0.05 for all treatments. The three pathogens were completely inhibited by the two plant extracts for both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts at 100% concentration. With respect to ethanolic extract, O. gratissimum was more efficient than A indica, but the reverse was the case with aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts were generally more effective than the aqueous extracts. Ethanolic leaf extract of O. gratissimum may be used to effectively control post-harvest fungal diseases of S. melongena.
A palynological study of the Palaeo-vegetation of Opi Nsukka, north eastern Enugu State was investigation through a palyno-analysis of 1.5 m lake sediment core collected from Ozzi Lake, Ugwu Ozioko Opi- Agu Nsukka Enugu State. The pollen flora showed that a total of 52 pollen types belonging to 30 families were recorded. Fungal and fern spores in addition to charred plant particles were also recorded from the sediment profile. The pollen diagram was divided into four zones based on the pollen curves which suggest possible changes in vegetation. The pollen profile provided evidence of a southern guinea savannah in the late Holocene. Prior to about 3800 ± 30 BP and mid part of zone iv, there was paucity of both the lowland rainforest and savannah elements in the vegetation, but with a relative increase in grass. Also the decrease in the members of aquatic species and hydrophytic plants indicate that the period must have been drier than humid. This can also be substantiated by the rise in the peaks of Poaceae curve. Prior to 1910 ± 25 BP to about 340 ± 25 BP, there were subtle floristic changes in the vegetation from that of closed forest-savannah vegetation to an open vegetation. This is attributed to successional changes between the lowland rainforest and the savannah species due to alternating fluctuations between the dry and humid conditions. The paucity of pollen of both the savannah and the lowland rainforest species at the later part of 340 ± 25 BP is attributed highly to increase in anthropogenic activities.