Botany

Categories

Filter:

Report on Wild Yam Domestication Experiment

By Okezie, C. E. A., Chikwendu, V.e.

Gainin;; insiglil inro tllc origin:; ol' yam dmnicslic:!~ion 11;:;
cngagcd 11ic alLcnl.ion oC scliol:us, cspccinlly ;\rcl~xologi:i\s,
bo~misrs,li nguists, ctllnogreplicrs and his~oi.ians. Arc11;lcocthnokmtai~
icnl nnu linguistic cvidcnccs lc~itl 10 assi!;n xi-cat
anliqui~yL O ll~cdom,.:;tication or yam i n M'cs~ACricn,c :;pcci;illy
i l l 111ca i-ca lyinl; casi of tlic Bandaix: !ti\il. iii ~ l Iv~orcy C o a s ~
ant1 wcsrorlhc C:r,l?crou~ri angc (illcxrr~rdc1r 975). I

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: Report on Wild Yam Domestication Experiment

Size: 0.99MB

A COMPARATIVE MORPHO-ANATOMICAL STUDY OF ALBIZIA ADIANTHIFOLIA (SCHUM.)W.F. WIGHT AND ALBIZIA CHEVALIERI HARMS. (FABACEAE-MIMOSOIDEAE)

By Ekwutoziam, Katherine Chinwe

Morpho- anatomical features of leaf, rachis, stem (bark), root, fruit, flower and pollen of Albizia adianthifolia (Schum.)W.F. Wight and Albizia chevalieri Harms. were studied with the goal to assess the taxonomic (pleisomorphic and apomorphic) characters in the two species, as well as to explore the agricultural and functional wood traits of ecological significance of the two species in relation to environmental conditions and locations. Five samples of each species from four ecological zones were randomly selected from their stands at locations in University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Derived savannah), Alabusa in Benue State (Guinea savannah), Kainji in Niger State (Sudan savannah) and Sapele in Delta State (Tropical rainforest). The results obtained from this investigation indicated similarities in structure, which highlighted interspecies phylogenetic relationships and reasons for them to be in the same family, while the differences in structure showed reasons for them to exist as two distinct species. The leaves of both species are hypostomatic. The stomata were anomocytic in A. adianthifolia, and cyclocytic in A. chevalieri. However, the width of stomata and aperture of both species decreased with ecological shift from wetter areas into drier areas. The stomata length showed strong positive correlations with stomata width and aperture width at p≤ 0.01, while it showed weak positive correlations with aperture length at p≤0.05. On the other hand, aperture length showed strong positive correlations with the width of stomata and aperture at p≤0.01. Ellipsoidal-multicellular trichomes occurred on the abaxial surface of the leaves in A. adianthifolia and on the adaxial surface of leaves in A. chevalieri. Glandular structures were present on the abaxial surface of the leaves in A. adianthifolia, while in A. chevalieri prismatic crystals occurred on the adaxial surface of the leaves. The epidermal cells were wavy with striations in A. adianthifolia and polygonal in A. chevalieri. Umbel inflorescences in A. adianthifolia are more “apomorphic” than panicle inflorescences in A. chevalieri. The wood of A. adianthifolia was diffuse-porous and A. chevalieri ring-porous. The vessel frequency in A. chevalieri per field of view was 16.4 as against 4.7 in A. adianthifolia. Rays are homocellular in A. adianthifolia and heterocellular in A. chevalieri; paratracheal parenchyma lozenge-aliform in A. adianthifolia and aliform confluent in A. chevalieri; fibres septate in A. adianthifolia and non-septate in A. chevalieri; fibre tracheids and libriform fibres occur in A. adianthifolia. The presence of crystalliferous deposits in the fibre strands of A. chevalieri is hereby reported for the first time. The fibres in A. chevalieri are longer, have thicker walls, wider lumen area and higher coefficient of flexibility than those in A. adianthifolia. The vessel diameter in radial direction not only showed the strongest and most significant correlations to other wood anatomical variables, but also to ecological parameters and tree morphology at p ≤ 0.01. On the other hand, the climate of the different ecological zones had weak impact on ray width, vessel length, vessel wall diameter, fibre lumen diameter and fibre diameter at p ≤ 0.05. The pollen of both species was shown to be inaperturate polyad, while sculpturing pattern was psilate in A. adianthifolia and scrabate in A. chevalieri. Also, the values for exine thickness in both species was highest in samples from Sudan and Rain forest zones, higher in the Guinea savannah and high but lowest in the Derived savannah. All quantitative parameters of pollen showed positive correlations at p ≤ 0.01. The vulnerability and mesomorphy indices of A. adianthifolia in the study area were significantly higher than those of A. chevalieri. Data obtained from the vulnerability indices in this study suggest that A. chevalieri is probably better acclimated to varying soil moisture and drought conditions than A. adianthifolia. Also, the wood of A. chevalieri may find more use in pulp production and wood construction than A. adianthifolia.

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: mopho-anatomical, Albizia adianthifolia, schum, Albizia chevalieri

Size: 37.50MB

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC WASTES ON THE GROWTH, YIELD, MARKET QUALITY AND PROTEIN CONTENT OF LENTINUS SQUARROSULUS (MONT.) SINGER, AN EDIBLE NIGERIAN MUSHROOM

By Osibe, Dandy Ahamefula

Four organic wastes; mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) sawdust (MSD), Gmelina aborea sawdust (GSD), oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) were evaluated for their effects on growth, yield, quality and protein content of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer. Plastic bag technology was used with treatments replicated ten times and arranged using a completely randomized design. The quality of the harvested mushrooms was evaluated on the basis of four pileus diameter size groups (>7 cm, 5-7 cm, 3-5 cm, 7 cm group while Gmelina sawdust (GSD) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) had none in the same quality group. The percentage protein content of harvested mushrooms ranged from 13.27% for mushrooms produced from mahogany sawdust (MSD) to 27.42% for those grown on oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF). The above findings reveal the possibility of commercial production of high quality L. squarrosulus on oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) and mahogany sawdust (MSD) while oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) is recommended as the best substrate for spawn production among the various organic wastes used in this study.

Published: 27/04/2014

Tags: organic wastes, Lentinus squarrosulus, protein content, market quality

Size: 2.52MB

CHARACTERIZATION OF PENTACLETHRA MACROPHYLLA BENTH. THROUGH PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS

By Ebitaope, Opeyemi Busuyi

Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate - Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS - PAGE) is a technique commonly used for the separation of proteins according to their molecular weight, based on their differential rates of migration through a sieving matrix (a gel) under the influence of an applied electrical field. SDS - PAGE was used in assessing the genetic diversity among twelve accessions of African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) germplasms obtained from NACGRAB (Ibadan) and five villages around Nsukka vicinity. Protein banding patterns were scored for presence and absence and analysed for genetic similarities and dissimilarities among the accessions. A total of 11 different bands were found in the accessions from NACGRAB and total of 9 bands were found in accessions from Nsukka zone. The highest number of bands (10) were found in Accessions A1 and A2 (Nac1 and Nac2) while the lowest (5) band was found in Accession A7 (Nac7). The banding pattern revealed that some of the bands present in the accessions from NACGRAB were absent in the accessions from Nsukka zone. A dendrogram constructed on the basis of genetic distance matrix by the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean Algorithm (UPGMA), using the NTSYS-pc software resolved the germplasm into three distinct clusters and six groups. Cluster one and two had six and five members respectively while cluster three had only one member. Cluster 1 was made up of three groups (1, 2 and 3), cluster 2 was made up of two groups (4 and 5) while cluster 3 was made up of only one group (group 6). Accessions from NACGRAB except Nac7 formed groups 1, 2 and 3 while accessions from Nsukka zone were found in groups 4 and 5. Group 6 was observed to be entirely different from other groups having only one germplasm (Nac7) with the highest genetic diversity as member and therefore considered as an outgroup. The present study has helped in resolving the genetic relatedness among the twelve accessions of P. macrophylla germplasm. The information will be suitable for future breeding for the improvement of the species.

Published: 23/09/2014

Tags: Pentaclethra macrophylla, protein electrophoresis, benth

Size: 25.59MB

WATER QUALITY AND ALGAL DIVERSITY OF FISH PONDS AND DAM RESERVOIR IN GESEDADDO FARMS, YOLA, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

By Mahmoud, Liman B.

The water quality and algal diversity of the stocked and unstocked ponds and the dam reservoir at Gesedaddo farms, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria, were assessed for ten months. Meteorological data were accessed from Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. Physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, transparency, conductivity dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), magnesium, potassium, sodium, nitrates, sulphates, phosphates, and some trace elements (iron, copper, and zinc) were determined using standard methods. The drop count method was employed in algal microscopy. Algal diversity and species richness were determined using Margarlef and Shannon-Wiener indices. A total of forty algal taxa belonging to four divisions were found. They are Cyanophyta (26.47%), Chlorophyta (44.53%), Bacillariophyta (24.80%) and Euglenophyta (4.20%). All data were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of variance ANOVA, Duncan Multiple Range Test DMRT and Correlation coefficient. Tests of significance were done at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 confidence levels. Water temperatures correlated positively with air temperatures, PO4, NO3, Fe, Na and Cu. Total hardness correlated negatively with pH, K, Mn and Zn. Air and water temperatures correlated positively with Navicula and Nitzschia spp. and negatively with Eudorina elegans and Trachelomonas spp. Seasonal variation of algal population revealed that Microcystis species a toxin producing blue-green alga was not recorded in wet season but were recorded in dry season. However, Micrasterias an indicator of clean water was recorded in the un-stocked fish pond. Phacus, Euglena, and Trachelomonas, indicators of organically polluted environment were recorded in dry season in the fish ponds but absent in dry season in the dam reservoir. The seasonal presence and absence of algal species in particular locations with the ambient physico-chemical parameters make them potential bioindicators for biomonitoring of the fish ponds. Anthropogenic activities in the catchment area affected the concentrations of chemicals in the dam reservoir and stocked fish pond. Chlorophycean indices were 0.96, 0.873 and 1.57 for the stocked fish pond, unstocked fish pond and the dam reservoir respectively, while the Myxophycean indices were 1.0, 0.839 and 1.80 for the three locations respectively. These values suggest that fish ponds were oligotrophic and the dam reservoir eutrophic. The study recommends qualitative and quantitative studies of water quality for early signals of pollution for timely intervention.

Published: 16/05/2015

Tags: water quality, algal diversity, fish ponds, dam reservoir

Size: 1.95MB

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC (VIA PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS) AND NUTRITIONAL VARIABILITIES AMONG TEN ACCESSIONS OF SPHENOSTYLIS STENOCARPA (HOCHT. EX. A. RICH) HARMS

By Igboabuchi, Ngozi Anastasia

The genetic variability among ten (10) accessions of Sphenostylis stenocarpa from three states and National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria were assessed using sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS - PAGE). There were variations in the banding patterns of the accessions and polymorphism was also observed. Twelve polypeptide bands were obtained ranging from 9KDA to 219KDa. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Mean Algorithm (UPGMA) dendrogram grouped the ten accessions into two clusters and six groups. Some accessions appeared in the same group, while others were observed to be in different groups. The proximate and nutritional analysis also detected variations. A strong and positive correlation was observed among some of the attributes studied. The principal component analysis also showed some variation among the accessions. The highest variability was observed in the ash content which shows that ash content could be a major indicator for nutritional variability in these 10 accessions followed by the Vitamin B2 in the second component.

Published: 25/09/2014

Tags: genetic, nutritional, protein electrophoresis, Sphenostylis stenocarpa

Size: 6.50MB

FUNGITOXIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS, OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM LINN AND BENLATE IN THE CONTROL OF POST-HARVEST FUNGAL DISEASES OF SOLANUM MELONGENA

By Gambari, Uthman Olatunji Bola

The fungitoxic properties of ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica and Ocimum gratissimum used for the control of post-harvest fungal diseases of Solanum melongena were tested in vitro with benlate serving as the standard fungicide and water as the bank control. Three fungal species, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani and Mucor ramosissimus were isolated from diseased S. melongena fruits kept at room temperature on laboratory tops for10 days. The fruits started showing signs of decay after 4 days of exposure. Growth on the fruits at the sites of the rot suggested the presence of fungal pathogens. Isolation and culturing of these pathogens gave the identified species as the causal agents. Pathogenicity test confirmed them as the causal organisms of the fruit rot. The three pathogens were treated with both ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of the two plants at concentrations ranging from 25 to 100% and benlate at concentrations between 2.5 and 10.0%. Various concentrations of the extracts were added to prepared Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media. The pathogens were inoculated separately into the PDA media and were incubated for eight days. Fungitoxic effects of these extracts on the mycelial growth of the pathogens were significant at P ≤ 0.05 for all treatments. The three pathogens were completely inhibited by the two plant extracts for both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts at 100% concentration. With respect to ethanolic extract, O. gratissimum was more efficient than A indica, but the reverse was the case with aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts were generally more effective than the aqueous extracts. Ethanolic leaf extract of O. gratissimum may be used to effectively control post-harvest fungal diseases of S. melongena.

Published: 21/11/2014

Tags: fungitoxic effect, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum gratissimum, post-harvest fungal diseases, Solanum melongena, egg plant

Size: 637.59KB

ASPECTS OF HOLOCENE VEGETATION RECONSTRUCTION OF SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA: POLLEN RECORD FROM OZZI LAKE, OPI, NSUKKA, ENUGU STATE

By Anaenwe, Nchedochukwu Clara

A palynological study of the Palaeo-vegetation of Opi Nsukka, north eastern Enugu State was investigation through a palyno-analysis of 1.5 m lake sediment core collected from Ozzi Lake, Ugwu Ozioko Opi- Agu Nsukka Enugu State. The pollen flora showed that a total of 52 pollen types belonging to 30 families were recorded. Fungal and fern spores in addition to charred plant particles were also recorded from the sediment profile. The pollen diagram was divided into four zones based on the pollen curves which suggest possible changes in vegetation. The pollen profile provided evidence of a southern guinea savannah in the late Holocene. Prior to about 3800 ± 30 BP and mid part of zone iv, there was paucity of both the lowland rainforest and savannah elements in the vegetation, but with a relative increase in grass. Also the decrease in the members of aquatic species and hydrophytic plants indicate that the period must have been drier than humid. This can also be substantiated by the rise in the peaks of Poaceae curve. Prior to 1910 ± 25 BP to about 340 ± 25 BP, there were subtle floristic changes in the vegetation from that of closed forest-savannah vegetation to an open vegetation. This is attributed to successional changes between the lowland rainforest and the savannah species due to alternating fluctuations between the dry and humid conditions. The paucity of pollen of both the savannah and the lowland rainforest species at the later part of 340 ± 25 BP is attributed highly to increase in anthropogenic activities.

Published: 26/05/2015

Tags: holocene vegetation, pollen record, Ozzi lake

Size: 7.28MB

EFFECT OF SUCROSE CONCENTRATIONS ON THE IN VITRO PLANTLET REGENERATION FROM MATURE ZYGOTIC EMBRYO EXPLANTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. IN MURASHIGE AND SKOOG (MS) MEDIUM

By Chukwukereze, Kenneth Uwadinma

Jatropha curcas L. (physic nut) is a multipurpose plant which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. The non-edible oil produced from the seeds is considered a potential renewable source of biodiesel. This research aims at estimating the optimum sucrose concentration for in vitro plantlet regeneration using mature zygotic embryos as explants in Murashige and Skoog (MS) media. Sucrose was employed as carbon source at concentrations ranging from 0 to 5 %. The study showed that mature zygotic embryos of J. curcas have the ability to sprout precociously in the absence of a carbon source without subsequent development. However, the addition of sucrose as carbon source led to a significant reduction in time of sprouting as well as enhanced seedling growth under all the sucrose concentrations (1 - 5 %). The highest percentage sprouting, sprouting rate, number of roots, length of roots, length of shoots, leaf area and fresh weight of plantlets were achieved in the regeneration medium with 3 % sucrose (i.e. 30 g l-1). Data obtained for sprouting and other growth parameters showed that the higher the concentration of sucrose, the greater the growth of the plantlets with 3 per cent sucrose as the optimum concentration for the parameters determined.

Published: 21/02/2015

Tags: sucrose, in vitro plantet regeneration, zygotic embryo explants, Jatropha curcas, murashige, skoog

Size: 964.01KB

MULTI-LOCATION ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES OF YIELD AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SEVEN VARIETIES OF SWEET POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS (L) LAM)

By Agim, Isdore Ogechi

The chronic problem of fluctuations in environmental conditions coupled with the lack of cultivar evaluations over a wide range of environments, have limited the rapid development of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam.) cultivars across different agro-ecological locations of Nigeria. To evaluate the multi-locational environmental performance of sweet potato over three agro-ecolological locations, (Mbano, Nsukka and Umudike) in Eastern Nigeria, seven local elite sweet potato varieties Ex-Onyunga, Centina, NRSP/05/022, PYT/09/057, PYT/09/0x2, PYT/09/013, and Tis 87/0087 were used in yield and yield components, nutritional and antioxidant, as well as genotype x environment interaction, using the instrumentality of G x E biplot analysis, studies. The experiments were set out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in each of the study areas. The result of the analysis of variance showed a significant (p

Published: 18/07/2014

Tags: sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, multi-location environmental studies

Size: 2.59MB

EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL ON SOME BACTERIA AND MINERAL CONSTITUENTS OF RHIZOSPHERE OF DELONIX REGIA HOOK

By Agbo Chinenye Benita

Crude oil spill is hazardous to soil and subsequently affects food production. Certain plants however tolerate and/or improve the mineral deficiency imposed by crude oil. Also, due to the ability of bacteria to degrade crude oil, plants that enhance the abundance of soil bacteria under pollution have been under investigation. The effects of crude oil on the bacterial count and mineral constituents of soil rhizosphere of Delonixregia were investigated. The effects of D. regia on total bacterial count and mineral constituents were tested. A total of 96 polythene bags were filled, each with 18 kg of soil. Four soil bags each containing a seedling of D. regia and four without seedlingwere polluted with 30 ml of crude oil. This was repeated using 150 ml and 750 ml of crude oilwhile the control was not polluted. The experiment was set up in 3 replicates in a completely randomized design. After one month, the soil bacterial count and mineral composition were analyzed using standard techniques. Bacterial analysis was repeated after the second and third month of pollution. Some vegetative parameters were taken before and after pollution. The results of the 1st and 2nd bacterial counts revealed a significant (P

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: crude oil, rhizosphere, Delonix regia

Size: 133.17KB

Morphogenetic and Growth Analysis Studies on the White Guinea Yam (Dioscorea Rotundata Poir) Raised from Seed

By Okezie, Caleb Eziuche Agaba

The growth pattern of the white guinea yam, Dioscorea Rotundata poir raised from seed was studied in the glasshouse and the field from May through November, 1978 and 1979 by the method of growth analysis.

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: white guinea yam, Dioscorea Rotundata poir, seed, growth analysis.

Size: 20.77MB

Studies on Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp).

By Kwaye, Romanus Galako, Vigna Unguiculata (l) Walp

Thirty-five (35) cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). were used
in pot and field experiments to investigate nodulation pattern with plant biomass and the
relationship between yield and yield attributes.

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: Nodulation, Cowpea

Size: 24.38MB

Studies on Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp).

By Kwaye, Romanus Galako, Vigna Unguiculata (l) Walp

Thirty-five (35) cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). were used
in pot and field experiments to investigate nodulation pattern with plant biomass and the
relationship between yield and yield attributes.

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: Nodulation, Cowpea

Size: 24.38MB

Studies on Growth, Sporullation and Germination of Choanephora Cuccurbitarum and the Effects of Fungicides on In Vitro Development of the Fungus

By Nwabueze, Ngozi Cordelia

Studies on Growth, Sporullation and Germination of Choanephora Cuccurbitarum and the Effects of Fungicides on In Vitro Development of the Fungus

Published: 21/10/1988

Tags: Sporullation, Germination, Choanephora Cuccurbitarum, Fungicides, Vitro Development, Fungus

Size: 4.96MB