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WATER QUALITY AND ALGAL DIVERSITY OF FISH PONDS AND DAM RESERVOIR IN GESEDADDO FARMS, YOLA, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

By Mahmoud, Liman B.

The water quality and algal diversity of the stocked and unstocked ponds and the dam reservoir at Gesedaddo farms, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria, were assessed for ten months. Meteorological data were accessed from Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. Physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, transparency, conductivity dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), magnesium, potassium, sodium, nitrates, sulphates, phosphates, and some trace elements (iron, copper, and zinc) were determined using standard methods. The drop count method was employed in algal microscopy. Algal diversity and species richness were determined using Margarlef and Shannon-Wiener indices. A total of forty algal taxa belonging to four divisions were found. They are Cyanophyta (26.47%), Chlorophyta (44.53%), Bacillariophyta (24.80%) and Euglenophyta (4.20%). All data were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of variance ANOVA, Duncan Multiple Range Test DMRT and Correlation coefficient. Tests of significance were done at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 confidence levels. Water temperatures correlated positively with air temperatures, PO4, NO3, Fe, Na and Cu. Total hardness correlated negatively with pH, K, Mn and Zn. Air and water temperatures correlated positively with Navicula and Nitzschia spp. and negatively with Eudorina elegans and Trachelomonas spp. Seasonal variation of algal population revealed that Microcystis species a toxin producing blue-green alga was not recorded in wet season but were recorded in dry season. However, Micrasterias an indicator of clean water was recorded in the un-stocked fish pond. Phacus, Euglena, and Trachelomonas, indicators of organically polluted environment were recorded in dry season in the fish ponds but absent in dry season in the dam reservoir. The seasonal presence and absence of algal species in particular locations with the ambient physico-chemical parameters make them potential bioindicators for biomonitoring of the fish ponds. Anthropogenic activities in the catchment area affected the concentrations of chemicals in the dam reservoir and stocked fish pond. Chlorophycean indices were 0.96, 0.873 and 1.57 for the stocked fish pond, unstocked fish pond and the dam reservoir respectively, while the Myxophycean indices were 1.0, 0.839 and 1.80 for the three locations respectively. These values suggest that fish ponds were oligotrophic and the dam reservoir eutrophic. The study recommends qualitative and quantitative studies of water quality for early signals of pollution for timely intervention.

Published: 16/05/2015

Tags: water quality, algal diversity, fish ponds, dam reservoir

Size: 1.95MB

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC (VIA PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS) AND NUTRITIONAL VARIABILITIES AMONG TEN ACCESSIONS OF SPHENOSTYLIS STENOCARPA (HOCHT. EX. A. RICH) HARMS

By Igboabuchi, Ngozi Anastasia

The genetic variability among ten (10) accessions of Sphenostylis stenocarpa from three states and National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria were assessed using sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS - PAGE). There were variations in the banding patterns of the accessions and polymorphism was also observed. Twelve polypeptide bands were obtained ranging from 9KDA to 219KDa. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Mean Algorithm (UPGMA) dendrogram grouped the ten accessions into two clusters and six groups. Some accessions appeared in the same group, while others were observed to be in different groups. The proximate and nutritional analysis also detected variations. A strong and positive correlation was observed among some of the attributes studied. The principal component analysis also showed some variation among the accessions. The highest variability was observed in the ash content which shows that ash content could be a major indicator for nutritional variability in these 10 accessions followed by the Vitamin B2 in the second component.

Published: 25/09/2014

Tags: genetic, nutritional, protein electrophoresis, Sphenostylis stenocarpa

Size: 6.50MB

FUNGITOXIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS, OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM LINN AND BENLATE IN THE CONTROL OF POST-HARVEST FUNGAL DISEASES OF SOLANUM MELONGENA

By Gambari, Uthman Olatunji Bola

The fungitoxic properties of ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica and Ocimum gratissimum used for the control of post-harvest fungal diseases of Solanum melongena were tested in vitro with benlate serving as the standard fungicide and water as the bank control. Three fungal species, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani and Mucor ramosissimus were isolated from diseased S. melongena fruits kept at room temperature on laboratory tops for10 days. The fruits started showing signs of decay after 4 days of exposure. Growth on the fruits at the sites of the rot suggested the presence of fungal pathogens. Isolation and culturing of these pathogens gave the identified species as the causal agents. Pathogenicity test confirmed them as the causal organisms of the fruit rot. The three pathogens were treated with both ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of the two plants at concentrations ranging from 25 to 100% and benlate at concentrations between 2.5 and 10.0%. Various concentrations of the extracts were added to prepared Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media. The pathogens were inoculated separately into the PDA media and were incubated for eight days. Fungitoxic effects of these extracts on the mycelial growth of the pathogens were significant at P ≤ 0.05 for all treatments. The three pathogens were completely inhibited by the two plant extracts for both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts at 100% concentration. With respect to ethanolic extract, O. gratissimum was more efficient than A indica, but the reverse was the case with aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts were generally more effective than the aqueous extracts. Ethanolic leaf extract of O. gratissimum may be used to effectively control post-harvest fungal diseases of S. melongena.

Published: 21/11/2014

Tags: fungitoxic effect, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum gratissimum, post-harvest fungal diseases, Solanum melongena, egg plant

Size: 637.59KB

ASPECTS OF HOLOCENE VEGETATION RECONSTRUCTION OF SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA: POLLEN RECORD FROM OZZI LAKE, OPI, NSUKKA, ENUGU STATE

By Anaenwe, Nchedochukwu Clara

A palynological study of the Palaeo-vegetation of Opi Nsukka, north eastern Enugu State was investigation through a palyno-analysis of 1.5 m lake sediment core collected from Ozzi Lake, Ugwu Ozioko Opi- Agu Nsukka Enugu State. The pollen flora showed that a total of 52 pollen types belonging to 30 families were recorded. Fungal and fern spores in addition to charred plant particles were also recorded from the sediment profile. The pollen diagram was divided into four zones based on the pollen curves which suggest possible changes in vegetation. The pollen profile provided evidence of a southern guinea savannah in the late Holocene. Prior to about 3800 ± 30 BP and mid part of zone iv, there was paucity of both the lowland rainforest and savannah elements in the vegetation, but with a relative increase in grass. Also the decrease in the members of aquatic species and hydrophytic plants indicate that the period must have been drier than humid. This can also be substantiated by the rise in the peaks of Poaceae curve. Prior to 1910 ± 25 BP to about 340 ± 25 BP, there were subtle floristic changes in the vegetation from that of closed forest-savannah vegetation to an open vegetation. This is attributed to successional changes between the lowland rainforest and the savannah species due to alternating fluctuations between the dry and humid conditions. The paucity of pollen of both the savannah and the lowland rainforest species at the later part of 340 ± 25 BP is attributed highly to increase in anthropogenic activities.

Published: 26/05/2015

Tags: holocene vegetation, pollen record, Ozzi lake

Size: 7.28MB

EFFECT OF SUCROSE CONCENTRATIONS ON THE IN VITRO PLANTLET REGENERATION FROM MATURE ZYGOTIC EMBRYO EXPLANTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. IN MURASHIGE AND SKOOG (MS) MEDIUM

By Chukwukereze, Kenneth Uwadinma

Jatropha curcas L. (physic nut) is a multipurpose plant which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. The non-edible oil produced from the seeds is considered a potential renewable source of biodiesel. This research aims at estimating the optimum sucrose concentration for in vitro plantlet regeneration using mature zygotic embryos as explants in Murashige and Skoog (MS) media. Sucrose was employed as carbon source at concentrations ranging from 0 to 5 %. The study showed that mature zygotic embryos of J. curcas have the ability to sprout precociously in the absence of a carbon source without subsequent development. However, the addition of sucrose as carbon source led to a significant reduction in time of sprouting as well as enhanced seedling growth under all the sucrose concentrations (1 - 5 %). The highest percentage sprouting, sprouting rate, number of roots, length of roots, length of shoots, leaf area and fresh weight of plantlets were achieved in the regeneration medium with 3 % sucrose (i.e. 30 g l-1). Data obtained for sprouting and other growth parameters showed that the higher the concentration of sucrose, the greater the growth of the plantlets with 3 per cent sucrose as the optimum concentration for the parameters determined.

Published: 21/02/2015

Tags: sucrose, in vitro plantet regeneration, zygotic embryo explants, Jatropha curcas, murashige, skoog

Size: 964.01KB

MULTI-LOCATION ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES OF YIELD AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SEVEN VARIETIES OF SWEET POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS (L) LAM)

By Agim, Isdore Ogechi

The chronic problem of fluctuations in environmental conditions coupled with the lack of cultivar evaluations over a wide range of environments, have limited the rapid development of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam.) cultivars across different agro-ecological locations of Nigeria. To evaluate the multi-locational environmental performance of sweet potato over three agro-ecolological locations, (Mbano, Nsukka and Umudike) in Eastern Nigeria, seven local elite sweet potato varieties Ex-Onyunga, Centina, NRSP/05/022, PYT/09/057, PYT/09/0x2, PYT/09/013, and Tis 87/0087 were used in yield and yield components, nutritional and antioxidant, as well as genotype x environment interaction, using the instrumentality of G x E biplot analysis, studies. The experiments were set out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in each of the study areas. The result of the analysis of variance showed a significant (p

Published: 18/07/2014

Tags: sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, multi-location environmental studies

Size: 2.59MB

EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL ON SOME BACTERIA AND MINERAL CONSTITUENTS OF RHIZOSPHERE OF DELONIX REGIA HOOK

By Agbo Chinenye Benita

Crude oil spill is hazardous to soil and subsequently affects food production. Certain plants however tolerate and/or improve the mineral deficiency imposed by crude oil. Also, due to the ability of bacteria to degrade crude oil, plants that enhance the abundance of soil bacteria under pollution have been under investigation. The effects of crude oil on the bacterial count and mineral constituents of soil rhizosphere of Delonixregia were investigated. The effects of D. regia on total bacterial count and mineral constituents were tested. A total of 96 polythene bags were filled, each with 18 kg of soil. Four soil bags each containing a seedling of D. regia and four without seedlingwere polluted with 30 ml of crude oil. This was repeated using 150 ml and 750 ml of crude oilwhile the control was not polluted. The experiment was set up in 3 replicates in a completely randomized design. After one month, the soil bacterial count and mineral composition were analyzed using standard techniques. Bacterial analysis was repeated after the second and third month of pollution. Some vegetative parameters were taken before and after pollution. The results of the 1st and 2nd bacterial counts revealed a significant (P

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: crude oil, rhizosphere, Delonix regia

Size: 133.17KB

Morphogenetic and Growth Analysis Studies on the White Guinea Yam (Dioscorea Rotundata Poir) Raised from Seed

By Okezie, Caleb Eziuche Agaba

The growth pattern of the white guinea yam, Dioscorea Rotundata poir raised from seed was studied in the glasshouse and the field from May through November, 1978 and 1979 by the method of growth analysis.

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: white guinea yam, Dioscorea Rotundata poir, seed, growth analysis.

Size: 20.77MB

Studies on Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp).

By Kwaye, Romanus Galako, Vigna Unguiculata (l) Walp

Thirty-five (35) cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). were used
in pot and field experiments to investigate nodulation pattern with plant biomass and the
relationship between yield and yield attributes.

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: Nodulation, Cowpea

Size: 24.38MB

Studies on Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp).

By Kwaye, Romanus Galako, Vigna Unguiculata (l) Walp

Thirty-five (35) cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). were used
in pot and field experiments to investigate nodulation pattern with plant biomass and the
relationship between yield and yield attributes.

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: Nodulation, Cowpea

Size: 24.38MB

Studies on Growth, Sporullation and Germination of Choanephora Cuccurbitarum and the Effects of Fungicides on In Vitro Development of the Fungus

By Nwabueze, Ngozi Cordelia

Studies on Growth, Sporullation and Germination of Choanephora Cuccurbitarum and the Effects of Fungicides on In Vitro Development of the Fungus

Published: 21/10/1988

Tags: Sporullation, Germination, Choanephora Cuccurbitarum, Fungicides, Vitro Development, Fungus

Size: 4.96MB

A study of Vertical Distribution of Airborne Pollen in Nsukka and Pollen Analysis of a Core From Lake Obayi, Nguru-Nsukka

By Njokuocha, Reginald C

The s t u d y of a i r - b o r n e palynomorphs t r a p p e d at
h e i g h t s of 15m and l . B O m , i n U n i v e r s i t y of N i g e r i a , W~ukka
and p o l l e n a n a l y s i s of s e d i m e n t s a m p l e s f r o m O b a y i Lake,
Nguru-Nsukka h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t .

Published: 21/06/1997

Tags: Airborne, pollen

Size: 3.13MB

Studies On Nodulation And Yield Of Cowpea (Vigna Unguicu;ata (L) Walp.)

By Kwaye, Romanus Galako

'Thirty-five (35) cultivars of cowpea (Vigiza urzguiculata (L.) walp). were used
in pot and field experiments to investigate nodulation pattern with plant biomass and the
relationship between yield and yield attributes. Nodule initiation was observed within
5 days after emergence in all the cowpea varieties. Identifiable nodules were observed
15 days after sowing in most of the cultivars. V,, (IT89K-355); V2,,(IT91K-118-20) and
V3, (Local cultivar) recorded the highest number of nodules among the cultivars wl~ilc
V,, (I'r93K-624) and V,, (IT93K-596) recorded the least. A positive linear rcla~ionship
betwecn age of plants and plant biomass (dry weight) was observed in inost of the
cullivars with the exception of V, (IT89KD-349) and V2,(1T90K-365) wlicre a negative
cosrelalion was observed.
The thirty-five cultivars were screened in the ficld for eleven morpliological
attributes including seed yield. Hybridization studies were also carried out to investigate
improvement of nodulation and the inheritance of yield and yield-associatcd characters

Published: 21/03/1998

Size: 7.00MB

phytoplankton production in relation to physico-chemical status in Ogelube lake, opi, Nsukka

By Nkechinyere Onyewere Nweze

The rate of phytoplankton production in ogelube lake, opi, Nsukka was determined. It was related to seasonal variations in phytoplankton population and physico-chemical parameters such as depth, PH, temperature, transparency, color, alkalinity, oxygen, sulfide, iron, total dissolved solids, phosphates, nitrates, silica and ammonia nitrogen.

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: phytoplankton, lake

Size: 3.88MB

Girth Induction in Irvingia Gabonensis Var Excelsa

By Nzekwe, Uche, and Onyekwelu, S.s.c.

Girth Induction in Irvingia Gabonensis Var Excelsa. National Horticultural Research Institute

Published: 20/04/1997

Tags: Girth Induction, Irvingia, Gabonensis Var Excelsa, Horticultural Research.

Size: 1.03MB