Multiple shoot induction from embryos and shoot tip explants was
investigated as a possible means for inass propagation of Pinus caribaea Mor. Var.
Hondurensis. A mean of eleven (1 1) shoots per embryo was obtained whilc a
mean of 12 and 17 shoots were obtained for one-week old and five-week old
shoot tips respectively. l'he concentration of Benzyllilnino purine (BAP)
influenced bud formation and the development and elongation of s h ~ o t sw ere
enhanced by elimination of BAP, reduction of sucrose concentration as well as the
addition of activated charcoal to the medium. Growth of callus and possible
plantlet regeneration thereof; callus greening, growth habits and anthocyanin
production were also studied by manipulating the hormonal composition of the
medium. Occurrence of callus variarts during subcultures and its ~ncchanism
were also investigated.
Best growth of callus was achieved in Von Arnold and Eriksson, (AE)
(1981) medium containing 2mgl-' NAA alone and also in the interaction 2ingl-'
113A x 0.5mgl~B' AP. Multiple shoot induction was not achieved. However, callus
greening (associated with shoot initialion) was best pronloted by the main effects
of kinetin (5mgl-'); BAP (5mgle') and NAA (2mgl-'). Two forms of callus growth
habits were observed - loose friable and compact calluses. In NAA x kinctin
The level of accumulation of heavy chemicals in the leaves, stem and roots of Corchorus olitorius seedlings irrigated with sewage (Sewage effluent) and tap water to maturity respectively was investigated. Prior to irrigation, water quality indicators and physico-chemical properties of the two water sources were analysed. The experiment, a completely randomized design was carried out in a screen house in the Botanic Garden of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and lasted for four months. The results showed that sewage water had higher values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and temperature than tap water. The results also showed that tap water had higher values of dissolved oxygen (DO) and transparency than sewage water. The results further showed that sewage water had higher values of the analysed physico-chemical properties than tap water. Again, it showed that sewage water enhanced better seedling growth than tap water. Cadmium, Mercury, Zinc, Copper, Lead and Arsenic accumulation in the leaves, stem and roots were higher in seedlings irrigated with sewage water when compared with those irrigated with tap water. The results further showed that the accumulation of heavy chemicals in the leaves, stem and roots of the seedlings irrigated with both water sources, (Sewage and tap) were higher than the accepted standard of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). Based on the results obtained, it is recommended that continued production of leaf vegetables off-season using sewage water be avoided, because of possible health hazards posed by continued consumption of such vegetables.
The morphology, phenology and seed germination of the multipurpose African oil bean tree, Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth. belonging to the family Fabaceae were studied. The study area covered the entire Nsukka zone of Enugu State, Nigeria, and the ten towns randomly selected included: Adani, Amalla Egazi, Ede Oballa, Eha Alumona, Eha Amufu, Ibagwa, Imilike, Nsukka, Ogrute and Orba. Morphological aspects of the study included: the bole type, branching pattern, leaf types, leaf arrangement and crown shape; height of the trees and girth of the bole at breast height; size of the leaves, raches and leaflets; thickness of the bark, length of some of the buttress roots and diameter of the roots 20 cm away from the stem; type of inflorescence and flower, and morphology of pollen. The morphology of the seedling of P. macrophylla was studied and photographed from the onset of seed germination up to 40 days after germination. The phenological aspects of the species studied were period of flowering, fruiting, leaf fall (defoliation) and replacement (refoliation), fruit maturity and ripening. The phenological observations were made every month for three years (2009, 2010 and 2011). There were two flowering periods of the species within a season (May to June and October to February). Fruiting took place between December and the following August. Defoliation of P. macrophylla trees occurred mainly between the months of April and September, with very negligible percentage in the rest of the months. Refoliation was observed from the month of October to March. Fruit maturation and seed dispersal in the locations sampled started in April and ended in November in the three years of sampling. Seed germination was carried out to determine the effects of different types of media on seed germination and seedling growth of P. macrophylla. The media used were Garden soil (which served as control), saw dust (SD), 1:1 mixture of Saw dust and Garden soil (SD+GS), 1:1:1 mixture of Saw dust, Garden soil and Poultry droppings (SD+GS+PD), 1:1 mixture of Garden soil and Poultry droppings (GS+PD), 1:1 mixture of Saw dust and Poultry droppings (SD+PD). The highest percentage germination response was obtained using SD+GS+PD and GS+PD respectively which differed significantly (P
The aetiology of the fungal rot of cucumber fruit (Cucumis sativus L.) in Enugu State was investigated. Five fungal pathogens were isolated from diseased cucumber fruits. They were identified as Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenb. ex.Fr, Geotrichum candidum Link and Mucor micheli ex Staint – Amans. The pathogenicity tests proved them as the causal agents of the rot. The effects of ethanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata and Moringa oleifera and benlate solution on the isolates were also determined. The ethanolic extracts of the test plants inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogens in vitro as well as in vivo. The inhibitory effects of the extracts increased with increase in concentration. All concentrations of 20 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogens to some significant (P > 0.05) level. Benlate solution also reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogens. Phytochemical analysis of C. odorata revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and alkaloids while M. oleifera contained all the phytochemicals except alkaloids. The presence of these active ingredients in the extracts may have contributed to their inhibitory properties. These findings suggest that plant extracts could serve as potential sources of bio-fungicides.
Investigations were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative phytohemical properties of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata L., Carica papaya L., and Ocimum gratissimum L. using standard methods. The results revealed that alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, steroids, tannins and terpenoids were present in all the test plants. However, methanolic leaf extract of C. odorata had the highest amounts of saponins, flavonoids and steroids and lowest tannins content. Carica papaya had highest content of alkaloids, carbohydrates and terpenoids and lowest content of glycosides, reducing sugars and steroids, while O. gratissimum had highest composition of glycosides, reducing sugars and tannins and lowest composition of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates and terpenoids. Comparisons on the aqueous leaf extracts of the test plants showed that C. odorata had the highest composition of glycosides and tannins and lowest composition of saponins, flavonoids and steroids. Carica papaya had the highest amounts of flavonoids and terpenoids and lowest composition of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates and tannins, while O. gratissimum had the highest contents of alkaloids, saponins, reducing sugars, carbohydrates and steroids, and lowest composition of terpenoids. The compositions of the leaf extracts were significantly different at P ≤ 0.05. The significance of the test p lants and the importance of these phytochemicals were discussed with respect to the roles they play in plant disease control.
Qualitative and quantitative screenings of the leaves of Eastern Nigerian mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus L., parasitic on six different plant species namely, Kola accuminata, Albizia adiantifolia, Anona cherimola, Citrus sinensis, Citrus auriantifolia and Pentaclethra macrophylla were carried out in the laboratories of Pharmacognosy and Biochemistry Departments of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka respectively. The results showed the presence of eleven phytochemicals namely: reducing sugars, terpenoids, resins, carbohydrates, saponins, proteins, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, tannins and flavonoids and absence of oils and acidic compounds. The results also showed variations in concentrations of the phytochemicals in the leaves of L. micranthus from the various trees investigated. It is recommended that further studies be done to isolate, characterize, and identify the phytochemicals responsible for curing diseases, so as to facilitate biotechnological exploitation of the species in the production of potent orthodox drugs.
This study was carried out on the nutrient requirements for the in vitro propagation of Ricinus communis employing the basal media of Murashige and Skoog (1962), Gamborg et al. (1968), and Schenk and Hildebrandt (1972) using zygotic embryos as explants. Zygotic embryos were excised from mature seeds and cultured on the three basal media with 3 per cent sucrose and 8 g/l of agar. Plant growth regulators were not added to the media. This study was done to determine the most suitable basal medium for the growth of R. communis zygotic embryo. The results obtained showed that the three basal media employed supported in vitro regeneration of the embryo explants. The highest mean shoot length (4.450±0.231 cm), the highest mean root length (2.190±0.262 cm), highest mean fresh weight (0.365±0.032 g), highest mean leaf area (1.999±0.189 cm2), highest mean per cent sprouting (91.660±0.000), and highest mean number of roots (4.600±0.163) were observed on Murashige and Skoog medium whereas the highest mean sprout rate (0.330±0.000) was obtained on Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg et al. media. The embryo explants were able to develop into normal plantlets even in the absence of growth regulators. This may suggest that endogenous hormones in the zygotic embryo were present at an optimal level to support regeneration. Results from this study indicated that Murashige and Skoog basal medium was the best basal medium for the in vitro propagation of Ricinus communis zygotic embryo. The results are discussed in the light of its potential for mass production of Ricinus communis for its economic values
A screen house experiment was conducted in the Botanical Garden of Plant Science and Biotechnology Department, University of Nigeria, Nsukka to assess the effects of refuse dump compost and poultry manure on the growth and yield of Amaranthus hybridus. The accumulation of heavy metals (Hg, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Cr) in the leaves, stems, roots and seeds of A. hybridus at the end of the experiment were also assessed. The treatment comprised Treatment A (garden soil and river sand in the ratio of 3:1 as control); Treatment B (garden soil, refuse dump compost and river sand in the ratio of 3:2:1); and Treatment C (garden soil, poultry manure and river sand in the ratio of 3:2:1). The treatments were replicated nine times in a completely randomized design with five experimental units. A. hybridus was raised in a nursery and transplanted at 3 weeks after planting. The resulting data was subjected to ANOVA and means separated using DNMRT at P ≤ 0.05. The results of the study showed that application of Treatment C produced the highest mean plant height (88.00±5.13 cm), number of leaves (55.80±2.62), leaf area (140.89±6.92 cm2), fresh weight of leaves, stems, roots and seeds (52.47±1.42 g, 41.57±2.10 g, 10.19±0.41 g and 0.24±0.10 g respectively); and dry weight of leaves, stems, roots and seeds (5.36±2.21 g, 3.96±1.63 g, 1.78±0.74 g and 0.19±0.08 g respectively). Treatment B performed better than Treatment A, indicating some improvements in the soil fertility with the application of refuse dump compost. The concentrations of cadmium (0.263±0.019 mg/kg in the leaves and 0.300±0.010 mg/kg in the stems) and lead (2.833±0.708 mg/kg in the leaves and 0.380±0.111 mg/kg in the stems) in Treatment B were above the FAO/WHO limits for heavy metals in vegetables (0.20 mg/kg for cadmium and 0.30 mg/kg for lead). Therefore, A. hybridus grown with refuse dump compost is unsafe for consumption since they can greatly accumulate toxic heavy metals. This ability of A. hybridus can also be used in the phytoremediation of heavy metals in contaminated sites.
The effect of three basal media, namely; Murashige and Skoog (MS), Gamborg et al. (B5), and Eeuwens (Y3) were assessed for mass propagation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. var. Dura, Pisifera and Tenera) zygotic embryos in vitro. The experimental design was a 3 x 4 factorial in a completely randomized design with each treatment consisting of ten replicates. The embryos were excised under aseptic conditions and cultured on each of the three basal media as well as control which were devoid of salts of the basal media. The growth and development of oil palm embryos were affected by the type of media and the variety (Dura, Pisifera and Tenera) involved as all the basal media used regenerated plantlets directly from mature zygotic embryos of oil palm. For Dura variety, Y3 medium gave the best result for fresh weight (0.15 ± 0.01g), shoot length (0.77 ± 0.13 cm), leaf area (0.49 ± 0.10 cm2 ), and number of leaves (1.50 ± 0.22); B5 medium gave the highest sprout rate (0,11 ± 0.01) and per cent sprouting (86.67 ± 6.67) while MS medium had the best result for root length (2.31 ± 0.25 cm). For pisifera variety, Y3 medium was significantly superior at P ≤0.05 to MS and B5 in fresh weight (0.15 ± 0.02 g), shoot length (0.83 ± 0.08 cm), root length (1.90 ± 0.39 cm), leaf area (0.52 ± 0.06 cm2), number of leaves (1.40 ± 0.16), and per cent sprouting (100.00 ± 0.00) while for Tenera variety, B5 medium produced the best results for all the parameters. The protocol reported in this work can be used for large scale propagation and production of true-to-type oil palm plants within a short period of time.
This study has been undertaken to investigate the physicochemical properties and the bacterial population of the rhizosphere of Sorghum vulgare. In order to simulate spillage, 0.2, 0.9 and 5.0 % v/w concentrations of crude oil were used to contaminate soil sown with seeds of Sorghum vulgare, while the control had no crude oil contamination. 0ne hundred and twenty days after contamination, the physicochemical properties and bacterial population of the rhizosphere were analyzed using standard techniques. Results showed that 5.0 % v/w of crude oil used in this study caused significant (P
Studies on the morphology, phenology and effects of location on the seeds germination of Treculia africana Decne (African breadfruit) in five Southeastern States of Nigeria on mature and juvenile stands were undertaken in two seasons; dry and wet. A town in each State namely; Isulabor (IS) in Abia, Agulu (AG) in Anambra, Ezzamgbo (EZ) in Ebonyi, Nenwe (NE) in Enugu and National Horticultural Research Institute, Mbato (MB) Okigwe in Imo was chosen and the study in each season lasted for five months. The experiment was conducted in the Botanic Garden of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology (PSB), University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN), which also served as the control site. The experimental design for germination studies was a Completely Randomized Design. The tree morphology had no variations with respect to rooting, branching, fruit bearing pattern, leaf and flower features. The tree morphology showed variations between the mature and juvenile in their trunk due to the plant age but not on the seasons and location. Mature plants had small sized infructescence and leaves with fluted boles, that were highly significant (P < 0.05) than the juvenile plant stands. Seeds sown in Petri dishes and polythene bags sprouted irrespective of location, seed sizes and seasons. Variations were observed in the periods of initial and final seed germination, time of photosynthetic leaf formation, percentage seed germination and germination rate. The earliest seed germination in petri dishes occurred as from 4 days after sowing for EZ seeds, 5 days after for seeds from IS, NE and MB respectively, and 6 days for AG seeds. Seeds accomplished germination between 16 - 18 days after planting. IS, NE, MB shortest period, 16 days, EZ, 17 days while AG seeds took the longest period, 18 days to accomplish germination. Results showed similar pattern in their germination rate resulting in varying germination peaks and accomplishment period. Percentage germination range was 67% to 77% (P < 0.05). AG had 77% + 3.84; followed by MB 75% + 3.84, while EZ had the least percentage germination (67% + 3.84). In seeds sown in polythene bags, seedling emergence occurred between 6 - 9 days after sowing. IS and MB seeds emerged in 7 days while EZ seeds took 9 days to emerge. Seedlings accomplished their emergence between 21 - 24 days after sowing. NE seeds took shortest period, 21 days after sowing, while AG seeds took 24 days to accomplish their emergence. The results showed differences in percentage seedling emergence, with range 88.8% to 96.8% (P < 0.05). AG seeds produced the highest percentage emergence (96.8% + 3.08), while EZ produced the least (88.8% + 3.08). Morphological features of the seedlings showed no difference in that the pattern was increase in seed size, protrusion of micropylar region, emergence of the radicle and development of hook-shaped hypocotyl that later carried the seed above the germination medium. Results of the phenological phases had no significant difference irrespective of the locations. The flowering and fruiting intensities had two periods, which alternated with no distinct pattern. Heavy flowering and fruiting periods occurred from December – April and January – June, while lean periods were from June-September and July-November respectively. Results showed that the soils contained physico-chemical properties but they occurred in different proportion.
Germination studies in the five accession of African yam bean (spenstylis stenocarpa) showed high percentage both in petri dishes and potted soil. Effects of depth of sowing on seeding emergence showed significant difference (p
Six cultivars of soyabean (G. max (L.) Marrill) collected from two localities were used in green house, field and laboratory experiments, to investigate their yields and yield attributes, protein content and chromosome numbers.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruits of Roma variety obtained from Nsukka in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State were investigated for the cause of rot found in them. Four fungal pathogens were isolated and identified namely Helminthosporium solani (Durieu and Mont), Aspergillus niger (Tiegh), Penicillium digitatum (Pers) Sacc. and Mucor piriformis (Fisher). These pathogens were responsible for the post harvest rot of tomato in Nsukka, as proved by the pathogenicity tests. A. niger was the most virulent of the four pathogens. Growth of these pathogens was controlled using methanolic extracts of Aframomum melegueta seeds and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of tannins, phlobatannin, steroids, tarpenes, saponins, flavonoid and alkaloid compounds. These extracts were found to be fungitoxic on all tested pathogens when used to control their growth in vitro. The effects of these extracts on the radial growth of the pathogens were highly significant (P < 0.05) for all treatments. Z. officinale extract at 25% concentration completely inhibited all the pathogens. A. melegueta extract at 25% inhibited H. solani and M. piriformis completely, and reduced P. digitatum by 92.99% and A. niger by 89.09%. Both extracts inhibited the pathogens completely at 30% concentration. The degree of reduction in growth of these pathogens by methanolic extracts of A. melegueta and Z. officinale varied and was highly significant at (P < 0.05).
Bioremediation of Crude Oil-Polluted Soil Using Bacteria and Poultry Manure, Monitored Through Soybean Productivity.