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The study was undertaken to assess food consumption pattern, anthropometric and micronutrient status of children aged 6-59 months in Kaduna state. A cross sectional survey design was used. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select the subjects for the study. In the first stage, two Local Government Areas were selected from each of the three senatorial districts using simple random sampling procedure. This gave a total of 6 Local Government Areas. In the second stage, purposive sampling was used in selecting two communities from each of the local government areas (a total of 12 communities). At the third stage, the subjects (420) aged 6 – 59 months were randomly selected for the study using proportionate sampling technique while 20% sub- sample was selected for biochemical analysis. Anthropometric information was determined using age, height and weight of the children. Haemoglobin (Hb) was used to determine anemia, serum retinol was used to determine vitamin A status and also iodine was determined using urinary iodine excretion level (UIE). Anemia was defined as Hb < 11.0mg/dl, Vitamin A deficiency was defined was defined as reading ≤ 10g/dl and marginal deficiency
Reduction in the under-five morbidity and mortality rates as a result of improved nutrition and health care services has increased the number of school going children. Assessment of the school child’s nutritional status becomes imperative in ensuring that the gains are sustained so that they can benefit maximally from education. This work assessed the anthropometric, dietary pattern and micronutrient status of school children aged 6 – 15 years in a rural community of Enugu State, Nigeria. The methodology involved a descriptive cross sectional design. The respondents were 450 primary and secondary school children randomly selected out of 2366 school children from the ten schools in Ede-Oballa. Multistage random sampling technique was used in the selection of the study sample. Data were collected using questionnaire, clinical examination, anthropometry, 3-day weighed food intake, chemical analysis of commonly consumed local foods, blood and stool analyses. The questionnaire elicited information on the socio-economic background of the respondents, the children’s household and health characteristics/practices, their snacks and meal pattern and the consumption pattern/preference profile of micronutrient rich foods.
This study evaluated the effects of different domestic food processing techniques on the nutrients, antinutrients, food toxicants composition, functional properties, microbial types and sensory properties of food products based on two varieties of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Black and dark red varieties of lima bean were purchased, cleaned, cooked, soaked, dehulled, germinated, fermented and milled into fine flours. Both the unprocessed and processed flours were analysed for microflora composition, chemical, functional and sensory properties using standard methods. The 48h fermented maize and lima bean flours that had traces of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were selected because they had the best nutrient profiles in a ratio of 70:30 (protein basis) to formulate composite flours for moi-moi and akara production. Two local dishes (oshoto and ikpaki) were prepared from whole unprocessed lima bean and maize. The data were statistically analyzed using percentages, means and standard deviation.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a nutrition education intervention for improved child feeding and care giving behaviours of rural mothers of poor farm households of Enugu State, Nigeria, using a positive deviant approach. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative survey (using an experimental design) was conducted to identify positive deviant mother-child pairs and their uncommon feeding and care practices. A multistage sampling technique was used in the selection of 198 households. Three communities were randomly selected from the seven autonomous communities in Eha-Amufu. Census of the households residing in the 3 randomly selected communities was conducted to identify 66 eligible households (i.e households with young children 6-24 months of age that is not the only child). Focus group discussion (FGD) and structured questionnaire were used to assess the nutrition knowledge, food related beliefs, child care practices and needs of the mothers. Anthropometric measurements (weights and heights) of the infants were obtained using standard procedures. Based on the results of the nutritional assessment, the community with the most malnourished children was identified and selected for intervention. Positive and non-Positive Deviants (PD and NPD) mothers in the community were also identified.
The assessment of iron, vitamin A and anthropometric status of pregnant women in urban and rural communities in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria was undertaken. Selection of the respondents was by random sampling method. The respondents comprised of 129 pregnant women resident in Nsukka urban and 257 pregnant women resident in Ede-Oballa and Okpuje (rural) communities. Instruments used for data collection were questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, biochemical analysis and food intake study. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect information on respondents’ socioeconomic and obstetric characteristics and food consumption patterns. Anthropometric indices of the respondents were collected by measuring the respondents’ height, weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC).
The study was designed to have both survey and biochemical components. Three communities were selected randomly from twelve communities in Obio-Akpor local government area. The sample size was calculated using the maternal mortality ratio for pregnant women in Nigeria which was 30%. Two hundred pregnant women were purposively selected from health care centers, public and private clinics providing ante-natal care and from traditional birth attendants and local delivery homes. The survey component assessed the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the respondents using a structured questionnaire to collect information on mothers’ age, pregnancy age, number of deliveries, education, occupation, food frequency consumption, weighed food intake and clinical signs of malnutrition. Biochemical assessment was carried out using standard procedures in assessing iron, selenium and zinc status of pregnant women and zinc content of selected traditional foods consumed in Obio-Akpor LGA. Serum iron, selenium, and zinc were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry model number Buck 210/11.
The study identified some edible fresh wild green leafy vegetables and fruits and determined their nutrients, antinutrients and food toxicants content. The proximate, micronutrients, antinutrients and food toxicants contents of these fruits (Olax viridis (“Osenga”), Gongronema species (“Aado”), Ficus carpensis (“Akankolo”), Napoleona/imperialis (“Ukpodikili”), Afromonum species) (“Okwocha”) and vegetables Vitex doniana (“Uchkulu”) and Ficus carpensis) were determined using standard methods. The moisture content of the fruits ranged from 59.83 to 75.40% in Olax viridis (“Osenga”) and Gongronema species, (“Aado”) respectively. Olax viridis (“Osenga”) fruits had high levels of protein (6.52%),ash (12.52%),and fibre (13.58%).Fiscus crapensis (“Akankolo”) fruit contained appreciable quantities of ascorbate (36.mg).Gongronema species fruit is rich in iron (23.50mg), phosphorus (44.66mg), copper (14.06mg) and zinc(12.43mg).
The study was carried out using randomized 121 in-patient diabetics in medical wards of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku-Ozalla. The instrument for data collection was structured, validated pre-tested questionnaires, anthropometry and dietary study. Body mass index was calculated for each patient using weight and height measurements. The adequacy of nutrient intake was assessed by comparing the energy and nutrient intakes of patient with FAO/WHO requirements. The contribution of macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein and fat) to the total daily energy consumption was assessed using American Diabetes Association (ADA). Data collected were coded into the computer. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations were calculated. Mannwhitney’s and Kruskawalli’s tests were used to compare means. Results showed that the subjects were made up of 54.5% males and 45.5% females. The BMI of the females (27.55±6.61kg/m2) was significantly (p
The nutritional status, care and support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHIV/AIDS) in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State was studied at Bishop Shanahan Hospital. The hospital is a HIV counseling and testing (HCT) centre. Descriptive and laboratory analysis were adopted for the study. A total of two hundred and forty three respondents only constituted the sample for the study. Questionnaire, anthropometry, biochemical tests and proximate analysis of foods eaten by PLWHIV/AIDS were the instruments for data collection. Method of data analysis for the questionnaire was statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 15.The body mass index data were categorized using WHO standard to determine the levels of weight. Analysis of variance was used for data from laboratory analysis. The result of the study showed that 36.6% of the subjects were aged between 26-35 years. There were more men (53.37%) than women (46.5%).The highest educational level of the subjects was WASC/SSCE/GCE. About half of the subjects (49.8%) ate food three times daily, while 51.9% affirmed poverty as reason for skipping meals.
The study examined the nutrient composition of shade and sun-dried fluted pumpkin leaf and the curd produced from the leaf. The effects of the processed leaves and the curd on beta carotene, iron, ascorbate, zinc, copper and calcium status of rats were evaluated. Fluted pumpkin leaf was divided into four (4) portions. One was shade-dried, another was sun-dried and the other was used to produce leaf curd. The last portion was not processed and served as the control. All the processed samples were milled to fine flour and analysed using standard methods. Each of the pumpkin leaf flour was incorporated into rat chow to provide 2.1 mg beta carotene daily for a 28-day study period.
The study examined the nutrients and phytochemicals composition of some lesser - known vegetables in Nigeria (Mucuna pruriens and Phyllantus nuriri) and their effects on iron and beta carotene status of rats. Leaf extract was collected from each vegetable. The leaves were separately plucked, sorted and extraneous materials were removed. Then they were washed with deionized water and were pulverized to get the concentrates. Standard methods were used to determine the proximate, some minerals, and vitamins composition as well as phytochemical constituents of the extracts. Animal study was carried out to ascertain the bioavailabihty of these nutrients. Twenty male adult rats were used for the study. They were divided into four groups according to their body weights. The animals were housed individually in metabolic cages.
The aim of this study was to determine the nutrient and phytochemical composition of fresh, sun and shade dried okra, bitter, scent, G. latifolium and roselle leaves. The vegetables were purchased from two markets. Okra, bitter, scent and G.latifolium leaves were purchased from Nsukka and roselle leaves were bought from Jos market. All the vegetables were washed, weighed and divided into two equal parts. Each part was sun, or shade dried, pulverized, packed and stored. The fresh samples for each of the vegetables served as control. The fresh, sun and shade dried samples of all the vegetables were separately analyzed for various nutrient and phytochemicals on dry weight basis using standard assay techniques. Data generated were statistically analyzed. The means were separated and compared.
This work evaluated the nutrient and antinutrient content and nutritive value of a lesser-known high yielding crop (aerial yam) and well-known high yielding legume cowpea. Aerial yam and cowpea used in this work were obtained from a family farm in Ovoko, Igbo-Eze South Local Government Area, Enugu state, Nigeria. Four kilogrammes of both foods were harvested. Aerial yam was cleaned, washed, allowed to dry, and divided into three equal portions. Cowpea was also cleaned, washed, allowed to dry and divided into three equal portions. The first portion of aerial yam was peeled, cut into small round sizes, spread out in a wide wooden basket and sun-dried, milled, packaged in cellophane bags, name labelled and stored in a cool place until used. The other two portions were soaked in tap water in a ratio of 1:3 (w/v), drained, spread on a wet jute bag, covered well with another wet jute bag, allowed to germinate, and divided into two portions after germination. The first portion was treated as the first ungerminated sample. The third portion was soaked in a container in tap water in a ratio of 1:3 (w/v) and left for fermentation by inherent microflora enzymes. After fermentation, the samples were dried, milled and packaged as others.
The study determined the nutrient composition of wild and cultivated edible mushrooms, and explored their use of cultivated Pleurotus tuber-regium in food-to-food fortification. Wild edible mushrooms (Pleurotus tuber-regium, Pholiota mutabilis, Pleurotus ostreatus, Corprinus disseminates, and Peziza badioconfusa Korf) were collected from different parts of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) residential quarters and identified in the Department of Botany, UNN. Cultivated Pleurotus tuber-regium was collected from the Department of Botany, UNN. The wild and cultivated mushrooms were processed into flour and chemically analyzed using standard methods of analysis. Different proportions (20g, 40g and 60g) of the Pleurotus tuber-regium flour were incorporated into 600g of wheat flour, cocoyam paste and corn starch to produce composites. The composites were used to prepare the following snacks: wheat buns, cocoyam buns and aged jollify. Each of these snacks had their controls made without mushroom. Sensory evaluation of the snacks was conducted using 20 panelists (children aged 8-14 years). The evaluation was done in three days at the rate of one fortified food (snack) per day. A 9-point Hedonic scale of 9 (highest) to 1 (lowest) was used to evaluate the products.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different processing methods on the chemical composition of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) flours and the organoleptic properties of it’s gruels. The seeds of cream coloured African yam bean (AYB) and lime were purchased from Oye Igbo-Eze and Ogige Nsukka markets, respectively in Enugu State, Nigeria. The seeds were sorted and divided into 4 equal portions of 1.5kg each. One portion was washed and fermented in tap water at a seed- water ratio of 1:3 (w/v), for 24h. The second portion was fermented in tap water (1:3 w/v) containing 30 tablespoonful of freshly squeezed lime for 24h. The third portion was fermented in tap water containing lime (30 tablespoonful of lime) (1:3 w/v) for 48h. They were separately sundried for 72h and roasted in a hot sauce pan until cracking. The fourth portion (control) was washed, drained and roasted in a hot sauce until cracking. The AYB samples were separately milled into fine flours and stored in separate airtight containers for chemical analysis and gruel preparations.