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This study was designed to assess iodine and nutritional status of primary school children in a rural community, Okpuje, using recommended quantifiable indicators. A total of 395 school children, 6-12 years (204 males and 191 females) were selected through a multi-stage sampling procedure. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socioeconomic status (name, age, class, sex, parents occupation and household size). Dietary information was obtained using 24hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire. Heights and weights of the children were measured using approved methods. Age was assessed using school records. The WHO Z score system was used to classify stunting, wasting and underweight among the children. Goiter was assessed clinically by a trained nurse using the standard palpation method. Salt samples were collected from Okpuje market and the children were asked to bring salts (10g) from their mother’s kitchen to test for iodine content. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) levels of 20% sub-sample study subjects, selected through simple random sampling by balloting without replacement, were analyzed using the Sandell-Koltholf reaction to determine the urinary levels of iodine. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. Results showed that children were from predominantly farming communities and consumed monotonous diets. Twenty four hour dietary recall revealed that majority of the children ate 3 times a day and consumed cereals and cassava based diets for breakfast, lunch and supper. No child was found with goiter. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight were 19.5%, 8.9% and 8.5%, respectively. Wasting was more in male children than in female children. Underweight and stunting were more in females than males. Stunting and wasting was more in older children (10-12 years) while underweight was more in younger children (6-9years). The mean UIE was 124.7mcg/l. About 96% of the children had UIE value consistent with adequate intake (UIE > 100mcg/l). A total of 3.8% of the children had UIE less than 100mcg/l. Iodine content of 395 salt samples from home, tested with spot testing kit revealed that 94.2% had iodine greater than 15ppm and 5.8% had iodine less than 15ppm. No salt sample was found without iodine. The entire salt sample collected from the market had iodine greater than 15ppm. The mean urinary excretion of 124.7mcg/l obtained in this study suggests no biochemical iodine deficiency in majority of the respondents and indicates that Okpuje in Nsukka LGA is in the transition phase of iodine deficiency to iodine sufficiency.
This study investigated folate (B9) supplementation in the periconceptional period. The general objective of the study was to assess knowledge and practice of periconceptional folic acid supplementation and its health implications, among women of reproductive age in Enugu metropolis of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study was carried out from April to July 2011 in six major antenatal clinics (3 private, 3 public) in Enugu metropolis. They were visited twice weekly till a sample size of seventy was obtained from each facility. At the end of the study after distribution of 420 questionnaires, 389 of the respondents presented analyzable data representing 98.2% of the calculated sample size. The questionnaire was coded and entered into the computer using epi info version 3.5. The data was subsequently analyzed using SPSS version 17. Approximately 83% of the respondents had heard of folic acid and only 36.7% of them knew it was a vitamin. About sixteen percent (16.4%) knew that folate could prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and a few (0.08%) knew the recommended daily intake for periconceptional supplementation purpose. Knowledge of correct timing of folate supplementation was exhibited in 10.0% of the respondents. However, a few (2.8%) had taken it prior to conception. Doctors (52%) were the most common source of information for the respondents and Nutritionists/Dietitians followed with 7.6%. Majority of the respondents (88.6%) took folate in their present pregnancy, though about 70.3% of them took it daily. The women had made very little adjustments in their diet to increase daily folate intake. A 24 hour dietary recall and food frequency data confirmed this observation. Hemoglobin (Hb) values ranged from 8-14g/dl. About 50% of the respondents had Hb values of ≤11g/dl which is a strong indication of nutritional anemia. Education, more than age or parity (P < 0.001) influenced knowledge of folate usage in pregnancy.
This study assessed mothers’ knowledge, practice of exclusive breastfeeding and the anthropometric indices of their infants in Aba south local government area, Abia state, Nigeria. Five hundred (500) lactating mother-child pair randomly selected during their postnatal care visit in six out of seventeen health centers in the LGA participated in the study. Ethical clearance was obtained from the chief medical officer in the LGA and mothers’ consent was sought through the clinic head. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on the mothers’ socio-economic characteristics, knowledge and practices of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). The anthropometric measurements of the children were taken using standard techniques and indices such as weight-for-age, weight-for length and length-for-age derived. The data obtained from the questionnaire were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version16. The anthropometric indices of the children were compared with reference standards and the children subsequently classified as normal, underweight, stunted, wasted, and overweight. The results obtained showed that 68% of the urban and 53.6% of the rural respondents had adequate knowledge of EBF. About 24.7% of the urban and 20.1% of the rural respondents who had adequate knowledge of EBF practiced it. Adequate knowledge was significant to EBF practice (p
The study investigated the nutrients and phytochemical compositions of some leafy vegetables in Nigeria (Hibiscus cannabinus, Adansonia digitata, Sesamum indicum and Cassia tora leaves) and the effects of their extracts on blood glucose and lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Two kilogrammes of each of the vegetables were bought fresh, sorted by removing extraneous material, washed with deionized water and separately pulverized using Gallenkamp mixer Kenwood –MPR 201. A half of the vegetables was used for chemical analysis and a half for methanol extract production. Standard methods were used to determine in triplicate the proximate, some minerals, vitamins, antinutrients, food toxicants, and phytochemical constituents of the fresh leaves and their methanol extracts. Animal study was carried out to ascertain the effect of the nutrients on blood glucose and lipid profile of alloxan- induced diabetic rats. Forty five male adult albino rats (150-200g) divided into nine groups of five rats each on basis of body weights were used for the study. The group of rats fed rat chow and glibanclamide drug served as standard control. The other groups were fed rat chow and graded doses of each vegetable extract (500mg and 1000mg/kg bodyweight) daily for twelve days. Water was given ad libitum. The proximate principles were lower in the fresh leaves than in the extract except for crude fibre. The leaves had 80.20% - 95.09% moisture, 1.62% – 3. 89% protein, 0.05% – 0.06% fat, 0.06% – 1.35% ash, 1.56% – 4.16 crude fibre and 1.04% – 13.71% carbohydrate. Mineral values were 236.68 – 437.11mg sodium, 0.87 – 2.67mg potassium, 0.63 - 4.97mg calcium, 172.50 – 235.70mg phosphorus, 0.51 – 0.59mg zinc, 0.26 – 0.59mg iron, 3.37 – 3.44mg copper and 0.24 – 0.28mg magnesium. The leaves contained 11.57 - 22.28 µg beta carotene, 1.25 - 2.88mg thiamin, 0.87 - 2.82mg riboflavin, 15.60 - 29.37mg vitamin C, niacin 0.74 - 1.61mg and 25.89 -31.43mg vitamin E. All the vegetables had traces of oxalate, 0.01mg - 0.05mg phytate, 0.37mg - 0.43mg tannins. Hydrocyanides levels of the vegetables were low (0.01 - 0.02mg). Food toxicants (cadmium and lead) levels of the leaves were (0.01 - 0.03mg and 0.02 - 0.14mg, respectively). The values were within safe levels for cadmium and lead allowed by World Health Orginisation (WHO) standard for food substances (SAFS). The phytochemicals of the vegetables were in small quantities relative to the nutrients. The phytochemical levels were higher in the extracts than in the fresh leaves. The leaves contained 0.06 - 0.12mg saponins; 0.01mg - 0.04mg flavonoids, 0.03mg – 0.21mg alkaloids, 0.01 – 0.02mg glycosides; 0.09mg - 0.21mg terpenes and 0.09mg - 0.16mg phytosterols. The extracts had 5.40% – 9.84% moisture, 14.56% - 26.42% protein, 0.68% – 1.23 % fat; 4.34% – 8.51% ash, 0.62% – 0.83% crude fibre and 54.64% - 74.44% carbohydrate. Mineral values for the extracts were 873.64 – 1423.44mg sodium, 1122.61 – 1425.30 mg potassium, 1571.94 – 1924.34 calcium, 138.37 – 224.19mg phosphorus, 0.18 – 0.27mg/100g zinc, 18.74 – 34.19mg iron, 0.28 – 0.83mg copper, and 229.37 – 341.55mg/ magnesium. The extracts contained 7.60 – 13.70µg β carotene, 1.22mg - 2.40mg thiamin, 0.54 – 2.32mg riboflavin, 14.86 – 26.34mg vitamin C, 0.84 – 9.52mg niacin and 21.30mg - 25.72 mg vitamin E. The antinutrients contents of the extracts were 0.66mg - 1.78mg phytate, 4.57 - 7.07mg tannins and 0.22mg - 0.48mg hydrocyanides. 0.01mg - 0.03mg cadmium and 0.02mg – 0.21mg lead. Phytochemicals value for the extracts were 2.40 - 3.73mg saponins, 0.09 - 0.29mg flavonoids, 4.91mg - 6.77mg alkaloids, 2.40 - 3.84mg glycosides, 1.09mg - 2.30mg terpenes and 1.26mg - 2.50mg phytosterols. Feeding the rats with rat chow supplemented with graded doses of Hibiscus cannabinus, Adansonia digitata, Sesamum indicum and Cassia tora leaves extracts reduced blood glucose concentrations and improved lipid profiles. The Adansonia digitata and Cassia tora leaf extracts fed at higher doses (1000mg) decreased blood glucose concentrations of rats (33.63% and 23.92%, respectively) more than those fed standard antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (17.23% ). They improved lipid profile of the rats by (26.92% and 25.46%). They decreased the total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG)) 54.72 and 67.70% respectively more than those fed standard drug (21.15% TC and 45.83% TG). The vegetables extracts could be used for management of diabetes and some other related non – communicable diseases due to their rich nutrients, antioxidants and phytochemical constituents.
The main purpose of this study was to assess the effect of maternal nutrition knowledge and nutritional status on pregnancy outcome in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to describe the general characteristics of pregnant women in rural and urban areas of Ebonyi State, to assess the nutrition knowledge of the respondents; assess their dietary practices and their perception of the effect of poor nutrition on pregnancy outcome in rural and urban areas of Ebonyi state; determine the mortality rate of neonates in the study area; determine the nutritional status of the respondents and anthropometric indices of their neonates; determine the effect of mother’s nutrition knowledge and nutritional status on pregnancy outcome in Ebonyi State. The population for this study was made up of all the pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in hospitals and maternity homes in Ebonyi State. Ebonyi state was stratified into three strata. Simple random sampling was used to draw four hundred pregnant women who participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Information from focus group discussion was used to produce the questionnaire. A three day weighed food intake was conducted on a sub-sample of 60 respondents. Their height and weight were also taken and compared with standards. Anthropometric indices of neonates and haemoglobin status of the respondents were collected from their hospital folders (records). Data collected were analysed using mean, standard deviation, correlation and regression analyses. Findings revealed that 70.4% of the respondents were from rural community, while 29.6% were from urban; 22.5% were adolescents, 76.2% were middle aged, while 1.3% were older women. All the respondents were Christians. Majority (90.6%) were married while 9.4% were single. About 86.6% of the respondents were fairly educated. More than half of the respondents (66.5%) were farmers, traders and artisans, while 14.5% were government workers. About 64.5% earned between N30,000 – N100,000; 26.8% and 26.3% earned high and low income, respectively. Twenty percent (20%), 32.9% and 47.1% had poor, fair and good knowledge respectively of the foods that make up an adequate diet; 90.4% and 9.6% had poor and fair knowledge of nutrient sources and deficiencies. More rural respondents skipped their meals because they were not hungry; 98.5% of the respondents ate snacks, while 52.2%, 66.3% and 50.8% ate more in the first, second and third trimesters of their pregnancies. Weight gain was normal for 32.7% while 61.5% of the respondents gained above normal weight. About 86.1% and 13.9% had normal and poor haemoglobin status, respectively. LBW rate was 4.8% (urban 8.5% and rural 3.2%); 95.2%, 63.5%, 79%, 99.1%, 89.9% and 89.9% of the neonates had normal birth weight, birth length, head circumference, chest circumference, abdominal circumference, and placental weight. There was a significant (p=
The study determined nutrient composition and organoleptic attributes of fresh and sundried carica papaya L pawpaw (Mbuer) and solanum macrocrpon L.garden egg (Mngishim) fruit soups consumed in Tiv communities of Benue State, Nigeria. Processing, preparation and utilization of fresh and sundried pawpaw and garden egg fruits for soup production information was obtained from focus group discussion (FGD).The recipes used for the work was based on t mean values after (FGD). The fruits were sundried for 72h, cooked with ground egusi, beniseed and groundnut seeds as thickeners. Proximate and micronutrient were determined using standard analytical procedures. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Duncan,s new multiple range test at 5% probability was used to separate and compare means and was accepted at (p≤0.05) for the organoleptic test. Proximate composition for fresh uncooked pawpaw fruits had higher moisture (72.57%), carbohydrate (20.55%), crude fibre (2.68%), protein (1.65%), ash (1.45%) and fat (1.10%) relative to those of garden egg fruits 90.54, 3.92, 2.55, 1.52, 1.36 and 0.11%, respectively. Dehydration increased nutrient values for garden egg fruits relative to pawpaw fruits. Sun drying increased iron (0.60mg), magnesium (63.23%), phosphorus (98.76mg) and sodium (26.58mg) values to pawpaw fruit. Iron (0.46mg), zinc (0.63mg), magnesium (53.25mg), phosphorus (103.29mg) and sodium (24.19mg) values increased in garden egg fruit. Vitamin profile for fresh and sun dried pawpaw and garden egg fruits had differences. Dehydration decreased β-carotene, thiamin and vitamin C values for pawpaw. It increased thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and pyridoxine values for garden egg fruits. Proximate composition for soups based for these fruits showed that fresh unripe pawpaw and beniseeds as thickener (FPB) had the highest fat (15.86%), carbohydrate (8.50%), protein (4.63%), crude fibre (4.44%), ash (1.79%) and moisture (63.28%). The soups based on fresh garden egg soups and cooked with egusi (FGE) as thickener had highest nutrient profile. The soup based on sundried garden egg soup had varied nutrients relative to other soups. Sun dried pawpaw fruit and beniseed soup (DPB) had highest protein (5.86%), fat (15.25%) and fibre (5.66%).Sundried garden egg fruits soup with egusi (DGE) had highest value for protein (5.67%) and ash (4.76%),each. The soups based on fresh and dried pawpaw and garden egg soups contain energy that ranged from 173.81-197.55kcal. Among the three soup thickeners, egusi had much more increased in minerals relative to those soups based on beniseed and groundnut FP and FG fruits soups. Groundnut caused more increased in garden egg fruit soups. Beniseed soup had more vitamin relative to those soups based on egusi and groundnut.The vitamins for fresh pawpaw soup with egusi increased much more in garden egg fruits soups. Vitamin profile for dehydrated fruits soups caused significant differences for pawpaw and garden egg soups. Dehydrated pawpaw and egusi DPE soup supplied 2.56% of RDA of calcium daily. The FPB and the FGE produced 15.72%, and 546.67% RDA thiamin needed daily. Comparison of nutrient densities for energy with FAO/WHO/UNU values per 1000kcal. The fresh and dried pawpaw and garden egg soups met over 70% protein.FPE had 88.11%, DPE had 95.38% and the FGE had 73.60%. Most of the values for Vitamin C, calcium and sodium met their requirement values. Scores for all organoleptic attributes of the twelve (12) soups were more than half. The FP and the FG soups scores from (5.63 to 8.17).The DP and DG based soups were from (5.23 to 7.47) of the nine hedonic. The soups were generally acceptable. The FGE and the DGE soups were the most preferred by the panelist.
The study was undertaken to assess food consumption pattern, anthropometric and micronutrient status of children aged 6-59 months in Kaduna state. A cross sectional survey design was used. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select the subjects for the study. In the first stage, two Local Government Areas were selected from each of the three senatorial districts using simple random sampling procedure. This gave a total of 6 Local Government Areas. In the second stage, purposive sampling was used in selecting two communities from each of the local government areas (a total of 12 communities). At the third stage, the subjects (420) aged 6 – 59 months were randomly selected for the study using proportionate sampling technique while 20% sub- sample was selected for biochemical analysis. Anthropometric information was determined using age, height and weight of the children. Haemoglobin (Hb) was used to determine anemia, serum retinol was used to determine vitamin A status and also iodine was determined using urinary iodine excretion level (UIE). Anemia was defined as Hb < 11.0mg/dl, Vitamin A deficiency was defined was defined as reading ≤ 10g/dl and marginal deficiency
The study assessed the prevalence of overweight and obesity and influence of exercise on the weight of children aged 6 -12 years living in rural and urban communities of Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting 10 schools and 2,000 children used for the study. One thousand subjects each were selected randomly from the urban and rural schools, respectively. This was done by picking two hundred subjects comprising of boys and girls within the ages 6-12 years from each of the ten schools, by way of balloting without replacement. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the personal data, family background, parents’ socio-demographic status, physical activity pattern of the family, monthly income range of the parents, health history and socio demographic characteristics of the children. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and triceps were done in both the urban and rural schools, respectively. Physical exercise and weighed food intake were carried out on a subsample of thirty (30) obese children and the data was compared with a control group that was not receiving any exercise. The physical exercise was conducted for a period of two months using standard equipment under the guidance of well-trained sport experts, at a recognized sports centre (Liberty centre) in Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria. The energy expenditure and the mean weight loss of the children were calculated. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 was used to analyze the data. Information from the questionnaires, physical exercise and weighed food intake were analyzed using frequencies and percentages and categorized using World Health Organization (WHO) anthro software. Comparison was done using chi square test for categorized variables while ANOVA was used to analyze continuous variables. Anthropometric result showed that prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State was 10.3% and 6.0%, respectively. The urban children had the highest obesity prevalence of 9.2% and the rural counterparts had 2.9%. Obesity was more among the male children (4.6%) than in the females (1.5%) and overweight was more among the male children (6.25%) relative to the females (4.0%). The children who occupy the first position in the family had the highest prevalence of overweight (42.0%). Children whose parents monthly income was N46,000 and above showed higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (31.2% and 22.3%) than those whose parents monthly income was less than N7,500 (8.9% overweight and 13.2% obese) respectively. A greater number of urban children (25.7%) view television for more than two hours per day than the rural children (18.6%). Result on physical exercise showed a significant weight loss by the children, initial mean weight was 59.05kg and final mean weight was 49.23kg, the mean weight loss was 9.52kg. The male children spent significantly longer (p < 0.05) total time (46hours, 407minutes) relative to the female (45hours, 303minutes) on exercises. The body mass index (BMI) distribution of the children after the exercise activity showed that 46.7% of the intervention group were obese, 53.3% were overweight and in the control group, 96.7% were obese and 3.3% were overweight. The weighed food intake result showed that 6-12 year old male children met the recommended intake for energy (117.86%), protein (179.5%), calcium (300.68), riboflavin (171.11%), and niacin (108.92%). Conclusive evidence has shown that high energy physical exercise had a positive impact on the obese children in terms of weight loss.
The study assessed the nutritional and health status of school-aged children (5-12 years) in onchocerciasis endemic communities of Ebonyi State and determined the effect of Ivermectin intake on haemoglobin and parasitic load of the children. The study was conducted in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. A multi stage random sampling technique was used in selecting respondents for the study. A total sample of 360 school aged children aged 5 – 12 years (made up of 194 males and 166 females) participated in the study. A structured, validated and pretested questionnaire was used to elicit vital information. The weight and height of the children were taken using standard procedures. Blood samples of the children were subjected to haematological analyses within 12 hours of collection. Haemoglobin levels were determined using cyanomethaemoglobin method. The WHO body mass index (BMI) for age z scores and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) were used to classify the children. Stool microscopy was carried out to detect parasitic infection. Secondary data were sourced from relevant documents of the Ebonyi State Ministry of Health, State Onchocerciasis Office and other relevant research materials. Data generated from this study were keyed into Excel spreadsheet and later summarized using SPSS 16.0 version. Frequency distribution, percentages, mean, charts and Chi - square were the statistical tools used for the analysis. The 24 hour dietary recall data showed that majority of the respondents ate cassava-based food for breakfast and dinner quite often. Less than 2.0% of the respondents frequently consumed chicken, egg and meat. Fruits were not frequently consumed by majority (73.6%) of the children. Irrespective of the standard used, the indicators of nutritional status showed high prevalence of malnutrition in these communities. The mean BMI of the boys and girls ranged from 14.77kg/m2 – 16.67 kg/m2 and 14.14kg/m2 – 16.75 kg/m2, respectively. These values were both below the standards. The IOTF classified 94.7% of the children as having various degrees of thinness and only 5.3% with normal BMI. The WHO percentile ranking showed that 11.4% of the children were underweight, 31.4% were at risk of underweight, 1.7% were overweight, 4.4% were at risk of overweight and 51.1% were probably normal. The haemoglobin concentrations of the children showed that 70% of the boys and girls were anaemic (haemoglobin concentration of 7>11gm/dl). Another, 12% of the boys and 16.7% of the girls were severely anaemic (haemoglobin concentration of < 7gm/dl) and about 18% and 13.3% of the boys and girls, respectively were normal. There was a significant positive association between ivermectin intake and nutritional status of the children (P 0.05). However, there were more anaemic children among those who did not take ivermectin. Stool microscopy detected presence of intestinal helminth (Hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides ova) in the faeces of 32.5% of the children. There was a significant association between ivermectin consumption and parasitic load. This confirmed the speculation that ivermectin has a de-worming effect. Factors that affected the nutritional and health status of these children were their food habit, which was found to be very monotonous and mainly based on starchy staples and some other socio-demographic variables. These findings suggest the need for targeted health and nutrition intervention in these communities and also raise the question of appropriate anthropometric standards for the Nigerian population.
The study evaluated the feeding pattern, growth and motor milestone development of children attending the under five clinic at the Institute of Child Health UNTH Enugu. Purposive random sampling was used to select 130 mother-infant pairs; 67 male and 63 females. Mothers back ground data and infant feeding practices were collected using validated and pre-tested questionnaire. Duplicate measurements of infants’ weights and lengths were taken for 12 months starting from the first week of life using standard procedures. The dietary intake of a sub sample of the children was recorded for 3 days. Information on gross motor milestones was obtained from mothers and confirmed using standard testing procedures. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data while Duncan’s multiple range tests was used to separate significant means at 5% probability. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to find the relationship between energy and nutrient intake and nutritional status of the children. Regression analysis was used to determine the effect of socio-economic variable on the anthropometric indices and the nutrient intakes of the children. Majority of the mothers (84.6%) were married with varying degrees of educational attainments and employments. They were rural (43.1%) and urban (56.9%) dwellers. Some (45.4%) of mothers initiated breastfeeding within 30minutes of delivery. On enrolment, 60.8% practiced exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), 23.8% predominant breastfeeding, and 15.6% partial breastfeeding. Only 30.8% of the mothers practiced EBF up to 6months; 86.2% were still breastfeeding at one year. Complementary foods were introduced too early (< 2 and 2 to 3 months) by some mothers. Only 40.8% introduced complementary foods at the recommended age of 6months.The growth velocities of the children declined progressively with age. All anthropometric indices were lower for PBF infants. The quantitative analysis of their diets showed that the children met their protein (15.4g), fat (23.7g) and calcium (299.8mg) intakes at 6 months but requirements for energy and most nutrients investigated were below recommended values at the 9 and 12 months. Irrespective of breastfeeding pattern, breast milk contributed more to the energy (378.2kcal) and nutrient (protein 5.0g, carbohydrate 28.7g, fat 16.3g, calcium 125.5g and iron 0.58mg) intakes at 6th month with its contribution declining with the age of the child.
Wasting, stunting and underweight were observed among the children. The study revealed that the children attained most milestones earlier than WHO reference standard. The respective mean ages for these events were sitting (5.2 vs 6.0), crawling, (7.2 vs 8.5), and walking alone (11.0 vs12.1). Energy intake was found to be positively correlated (r = 0.399) with the age of walking alone. Iron intake was positively correlated with all the anthropometric indices: weight
(r =0.533), length (r = 0.504), weight-for length Z score (r =522), length-for-age Z score
(r =0.497), weight-for-age Z score (r =0.554) and body mass-index-for-age Z score (r =0.512). Among all the anthropometric indices, only weight-for-age was significantly and negatively correlated with walking alone (r = - 0.201). Mothers’ socio-economic status significantly (p
This study was carried out to examine the efficacy of roasted Sphenostylis stenocarpa and Glycine max flours on persistent physically induced stress in wistar albino rats. Thirty two (32) male wistar rats weighing between 130-192g were distributed into eight (8) groups of four (4) rats each to acclimatize to feed and environment. Six hundred (600g) of S. stenocarpa and G. max used in this study were purchase from local markets in Enugu State. Group 1 to 6 were induced physical stress persistently for 2 hours in week 1, and 3 hours in week 2 daily. Group 1 to 3 and groups 4 to 6 were treated with roasted 500mg/kg bw, 1000mg/kg bw and 2000mg/kg of S. stenocarpa and G. max flours respectively. Group 7 (stress control) and group 8 (normal control) were not treated but were fed with feed and water ad libitum. Chemical analysis was done to determine the proximate, phytochemical, minerals, vitamins and antinutrient compositions of the samples. Blood samples were collected from the animals on the 7th and 14th day through ocular puncture. They were used to determine enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants parameters. Data obtained from the study were subjected to statistical analysis and the results were presented as mean and standard deviation. Differences between mean were determined by ANOVA and pos hoc multiple comparisons. Results showed that Sphenostylis stenocarpa and Glycine max had protein (22.29% and 36.79%), fibre (12.70% and 3.50%), and carbohydrate (60.5% and 22.62%) respectively. Phytochemical and antinutrient compositions of the legumes contained bioactive chemical substances with strong presence of alkaloids (29.76mg.100g-27.98mg/100g), flavonoids (32.68mg/100g-22.03mg/100g), glycosides (0.88mg/100g-0.87mg/100g), tannins (0.53mg/100g-296.63mg/100g) and phytates (0.53mg/100g-38.30mg/100g) respectively. Pro-vitamins A (87.75mg/100g-207.67mg/100g), vitamin C (272.87mg/100g-38.30mg/100g) and vitamin E (81.60mg/100g-276.01mg/100g) ranges were detected in both samples. The mineral contents indicated the presence of Mg (83.43mg/100g-82.87mg/100g), Fe (16.53mg/100g-7.64/mg/100g) Ca (72.03mg/100g-263.20/mg/100g) in both samples while Se (12.60), Zn (0.80) and Cu (42.30) were found to be present in S. stenocarpa. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease of 0.55mg/dl-0.82mg/dl was observed in the serum malondaidehyde (MDA) concentration of rats in the treated groups when compared to the control groups (1.21mg/dl-1.35mg/dl) while serum catalase (1.74mg/dl - 4.21mg/dl) and superoxide dismutase (1.07 IU/L - 1.133 IU/L) of the treatment groups differed significantly (p > 0.05) compared to control groups (1.06 IU/L -1.08 IU/L). The gluthatione peroxidase (GPx) activity in all the treated groups had a significant (p < 0.05) change. There was increase of 0.47mg/dl - 0.52mg/dl and decrease of 0.36mg/dl - 0.43mg/dl of Vitamin C activity in the groups treated with S. stenocarpa and in the group treated with G. max, respectively. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease was observed in vitamin E (0.06mg/dl – 0.08mg/dl) activity in all the treated groups compared to control groups (0.08mg/dl – 0.09mg/dl). There was an increase of 0.54mg/dl - 1.77mg/dl in vitamin A activity in all the treated groups when compared to stress group (0.27mg/dl). The glutathione (GSH) activity in all the experimental groups differed. Apart from stress control group that had decrease percentage change (0.04%) in body weight, all the other groups of the experimental rats had increase percentage change (1.11- 6.90%) in body weights. The antioxidant contents of S. stenocarpa and G. max were able to reduce behavioral changes in rats that were physically stressed after treatment. The results of antioxidant enzymes showed that these legumes could be used to scavenge free radicals in the system which often leads to risks of various diseases associated with persistent physical stress.
The study investigated micronutrient contents and effects of Jatropha curcas and Brillantasia nitens leaves extracts in anaemia induced albino adult male rats. Thirty five male albino adult rats weighing between 90-155g were purchased from Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The rats were housed in individual metabolic cages. The rats were weighed and allotted into seven (7) groups of five (5) rats. The difference in weight of rats in each group was not more than five grammes (5g). Groups 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were injected with cyclophosphamide to induce anaemia in the rats. Group one served as a control group without anaemia and was fed animal feed and water only. Six groups of rats were fed animal feed, water, Jatropha curcas and Brillantasia nitens leaves extracts. Groups 2- 4 were fed 100mg, 200mg and 300mg/kg body weight respectively of Jatropha curca leaf extract. Groups 5- 7 were fed 100mg, 200mg and 300mg/kg body weight respectively of Brillantasia nitens leaf extract. Chemical and biochemical analyses were determined using standard method. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Service Solution (version 21) (SPSS). Duncan’s Studentised New Multiple Range Test was used to separate and compare means at 5% probability. The two extracts had high and comparable moisture contents (97.69 and 97.99%). They had low protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate. Phytochemical compositions were: 1.06% for alkaloid, 0.38% for flavonoid and 0.63% for saponins for Jatropha curcas. Brillantasia nitens had 1.55% for alkaloid, 2.13% for flavonoid and 0.18% for saponins. Brillantasia nitens had phytate 18.83 mg and oxalate 0.22%. Jatropha curcas had higher value for iron 0.74mg and that of Brillantasia nitens was 0.08mg. The zinc content of Jatropha curcas was 0.10mg and 0.12mg for Brillantasia nitens. Brillantasia nitens leaves extracts had higher values in all the vitamins analysized, 42.13mg for vitamin C, 629.00IU/L for beta carotene, 0.78 mg for vitamin E, 2.83 mg for vitamin B6 and 672.00µg for vitamin B9. The extracts tremendously increased the packed cell volume of all the rats. The highest increase was that of group 4 fed 300mg of Brillantasia nitens followed by 200mg of same leaf extract (70.32% and 58.78% respectively). There were slight increases in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of rats fed Jatropha curcas. The rats fed diets 300mg of Brillantasia nitens had the highest increase in heamoglobin (70.71%). The extracts increased the red blood cell count of all the rats. The white blood cell increased in rats fed 200 and 300mg of Jatropha curcas (4.86% and 14.93% respectively). There was a decrease in white blood cell of all rats fed Brillantasia nitens leaf extract. All groups of rats had an increase in alanine amino transferase (ALT) activities and deceases in aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. The haematinic potential of these extracts may be due to the phytochemical component of the extracts that increased the haematological indices. The micronutrient constituents of the extracts appear to be the major possible active component accountable for the haematinic effect. Jatropha curcas and Brillantasia nitens leave extracts had high nutritive value and as such could be use in management of anaemia.
The study examined the effects of some pulverized leafy vegetables on blood sugar levels, pancreas and liver tissues of alloxan induced adult wistar rats. Different diets were formulated using the individual green leafy vegetable (GLV) and rats chow (grower poultry feed). Chemical analyses were carried out using standard AOAC methods and spectrophotometer. Group 1 (control) consists of rats fed chow, group 2-4 consist of rats fed with 5g each of Abelmoschus esculentus, Afzelia africana and Moringa oleifera pulverized leaves per 100g (95g of rat chow + 5g vegetable) of rat chow and group 5-7 consist of rats fed with 10g each of the vegetables per (90g of rat chow + 10g vegetables). Water was given ad libitum. Biochemical analyses (fasting blood sugar and liver function enzymes) were determined using standard methods. Histological analysis was carried out according to standard procedure. The proximate composition and biochemical data collected were analyzed by using the Statistical Product for Service Solution (version 17.0). Afzelia africana had the highest concentration of carbohydrate 52.02mg/100g while Abelmoschus esculentus and Moringa oleifera had 49.37mg/100g and 44.06mg/100g respectively, Moringa oleifera had the highest content of protein 22.32mg/100g followed by Abelmoschus esculentus 18.57mg/100g and then Afzelia africana 16.99mg/100g. The moisture content of Abelmoschus esculentus 10.43mg/100g was the highest followed by Moringa oleifera 5.42mg/100g. Mineral levels of the vegetables showed that Phosphorus and zinc were the highest in Abelmoschus esculentus 6.25mg/100g and 5.41mg/100g respectively. Provitamin A and vitamin C were the highest in Moringa oleifera 14.74mg/100g and 38.26mg/100g respectively. However Afzelia africana showed the highest concentration of vitamin E. The phytochemical analyses showed that Abelmoschus esculentus had the highest concentration of anthocyanin, phenol, saponin and tannin as 1.37mg/100g, 0.77mg/100g, 087mg/100g and 0.04mg/100g respectively; Afzelia africana had highest concentration of caroteniod, alkaloids and steroids as 0.69mg/100g, 9.21mg/100g and 5.92mg/100g respectively and Moringa oleifera had the highest concentration of flavonoid and oxalate as 9.17mg/100g and 0.44mg/100g respectively. Biochemical result showed that fasting blood sugar of the experimental rats decreased significantly (p < 0.05) different in all the groups from the first 7days to the last day of treatment as compared with the baseline. However the percentage difference showed a more decrease in the groups fed 10% dose than the groups fed with 5% of each of the vegetables when compared with the control. The activity of AST increased generally in all treatment groups relative to the control group. However, the increase in AST activity showed significant (p < 0.05) difference relative to the control. The ALT activity increased in the treatment group except for 10% A. esculentus and M. oleifera that showed decreased activity significantly (p < 0.05) relative to the control. The ALP activity of the groups fed with 5% A. africana and M. oleifera increased relative to the control. The increase was significantly (p < 0.05) different, while the ALP activity of the 5% A. esculentus groups and 10% A. esculentus, A. africana and M. oleifera decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in relation to the control. Liver tissue of the rats fed with 5% and 10% of the vegetables did not show any deviation from hepatic histo- architecture and the pancreatic tissue of the rats with 10% A. esculentus and M. oleifera showed normal pancreatic histo- architecture when compared with the control but 5% A. esculentus, A. africana and M. oleifera respectively and 10% A. africana groups showed decrease in the size and number of pancreatic islet. Results showed a remarkable effect in lowering the blood sugar level in a diabetic rat and control the effects of the vegetables on liver and pancreatic tissues based on the level of consumptions which showed the leaves potentials.