Agriculture is one of the important factors in the economy of a developing nation like Nigeria. In Nigeria before 1970’s agriculture was attractive and received adequate attention from every government, hence agricultural products were chief earners of foreign exchange. At about 1967’s agricultural sectors lost attention from the governments due to shifting of emphasis to the oil sector.
Today, the agricultural sector is beginning to gain adequate attention from the federal government because of its interest in making Nigeria self-sustainable in food production. Growth of agricultural ventures requires a corresponding growth in agricultural marketing. Before 70’s agriculture as the mainstay of Nigerian economy has been facing tremendous setbacks. The government has been making frantic effort to bring out policies that encourage agricultural production. The problem however, has been that of implementation.
Success in our modern business world depends greatly on the right approach to manage a business. For businesses to succeed and deal with tough competition and new technological challenges, quality of product and service becomes more important. Today’s global competition coupled with the rapid development in technology, especially information technology that has made the world a global village, has compelled business organizations to develop strategies that will not only guarantee their stability but also growth in the face of this harsh, cut throat, survival of the fittest competition. The problems with the Nigerian companies are quite enormous and some of them can be put as follows: First, the Nigerian companies are evidently lagging behind in the global market competition, thus, they are fast losing ground, with some of them going out of business completely. Secondly, the Nigerian mangers have seemingly failed to explore TQM for their organizations. They have rather gotten stuck in the endless pursuit of what does not work for them any longer, the “blind” pursuit of profit, stability and growth. Thirdly, they have failed to appreciate that change is necessary and that a change from the above state pursuit to the pursuit of a customer focus strategy is a long overdue strategy decision that has been tipped to guarantee the ultimate realization of the former goals. Fourthly, due to lack of knowledge of the prospects of TQM, or lack of adequate finance, or engagement of inexperienced personnel in the TQM process, or lackadaisical attitude on the part of the organization concerning TQM, the TQM Practices in the Nigerian Industries which the Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) industry is part of, becomes problematic hence, the weak or poor performance of these industries in the actualization of their desired goals and objectives. This study sought to determine the uses and impact of Total Quality Management (TQM), in increasing customer satisfaction, with a focus on two ICTs Companies in Nigeria (Etisalat and Zain Group) Having made use of both primary and secondary data in sourcing information with a sample size of 190, the findings from the study reveals that: Total Quality Management is a modern approach to management in Nigeria; its application at the workplace has proved to be very useful and result oriented in Nigerian organizations; Etisalat and Zain Group have used TQM to modify their work process, as well as to achieve and sustain competitive edge, thereby increasing their customers satisfaction. It is obvious that the level of participation of employees in the planning process determines the workability of Total Quality Management. This is because in the implementation of Total Quality Management, all the employees at workplace need to get involved. Further still, the Degree of Staff commitment is closely related to the success of Total Quality Management at the workplace. However, for the employees to be committed their work schedule must be clearly defined. Furthermore, it is also evident that success of TQM requires training, retaining and development of the workforce.
The history of banking development in Nigeria has been punctuated by periods of distress in the sector. The earliest is in the 1950s. Another wave of distress is followed in the 1990s, which elicited the use of corporate restructuring as a strategy in addressing the problem. In the light of the overall implications and effects of the distress factor on business survival, this research examined the influence of corporate restructuring as embarked upon by banks in tackling the problems with particular emphasis on the just concluded restructuring exercise of Union Bank. In conducting the research, the views of various authors in relevant fields were examined to establish the historical background of the problem and to definite key concepts relevant to its resolution. Data for analysis were also sourced from published materials as well as from a field survey of the customers of Garden Avenue Branch of Union Bank. The staff of the bank were also interviewed/. Collected data were presented in tabular forms. From the analysis of the generated data, it was observed that the introduction of new innovations in the areas of new bank products manpower development and the on-line real time computer network has led to improved customers service of the restructured banks. The positive effect of this on business survival is seen in the steady rise in the bank customers, growth in the assets base, increase in profitability, capital adequacy, growth in the share market prices and the overall good health of the restructured banks. However, these could not have been achieved without some negative social impacts as observed in the displacement of human labour by the computer technology resulting in the increased rate of unemployment in the society. A major highlight of the research was that banks did not show enough concern for operating with setout guidelines and regulations unsecured borrowing by bank die directors which later turned out to be bad debts remains the greatest treat to the banks. The researcher thus recommended that banks should always comply fully with operating guidelines. The regulatory authorities should, on their part, become more vigilant to their regulatory roles and impose strict sanctions for contraventions. A detailed study was also recommended on the social impact of labour displacement by the computer technology. The research concluded that corporate restructuring has led to improved performance in the Nigerian sector.
This study explores and x-rays the application of Public Relations concepts, principles and practice in the churches especially in the selected catholic churches. The report understudies and identifies the basic ingredients of Public Relations practice and discusses how these components can be effectively utilized for better church management and the attendant positive returns.
The relevant information for this study came from open literature, especially books and journals. Questionnaires were also administered to some enlightened individuals in the churches whose opinions are representative enough to form an objective assessment. The pilot survey was used to select some churches which were considered fairly representative of the catholic churches in Enugu Urban.
To manage the price risks associated with market fluenctions and to ensure that the qualities of the commodity net with interventional standards, the federal government of Nigeria established the Abuja, security and commodities exchange the commodity exchange was expected to tackle the following setbacks being faced by problems is exportation of primary commodities these include price instability, poor market information/intelligence, unsatisfactory quality of goods exported and weak infrastructures the literature provides general view about the working of a commodity exchange around the world and what is obtainable in Nigeria. The major objectives of primary commodities in Nigeria and to find out the contribution of primary commodities revenue the country’s GDP. The survey design was used in this study. The yearly data on these major commodities used was sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin and from interview of top management of the exchange and commodity brokers representing the farmers. Judgment sampling method was used to select three commodities out of twelve traded at the exchange multiple regression analysis using the current SPSs statistical software was used to evaluate the impact of price instability on volume of trade and effect of commodity revenues on country’s GDP.
Consumerism is a social and economic order that is based on the systematic creation and fostering of a desire to purchase goods and services in greater amount. However, modern consumerism can be said to have strong link with the western world, but it is in fact an international phenomena. People purchasing goods and consuming materials in excess of this basic needs is as old as the first civilization. But in Nigeria, of all the rights in consumer protection, the only that is accorded the Nigerian consumers is the right to choose from an array of products that are dominated by fake substandard and deceitful products. It was therefore in line with the above that this research intends to determine the effects of consumerism in products marketing, to examine government efforts in consumerism and its influence on product marketing, to investigate the roles independent organizations in consumerism movement and its impact on marketing activities, to ascertain whether manufacturers imbibe marketing and business ethics in product marketing and sales. This research adopted the survey research design utilizing primary and secondary data. Questionnaires were distributed to four groups of respondents, consumers, retailers and distributors, management and staff of government consumerism agencies and manufacturers of various products, the sample size of 417 was used. The data was analysed using the t-test ANOVA non parametric statistical model in evaluating the hypotheses. The result of the analyses obtained from the research showed that consumerism movement in Nigerian have an effect on product marketing in Nigeria, government efforts in consumerism have an effect on the way products are marketed in Nigeria, independent consumerism organizations do not have significant impact on product marketing in Nigeria, Nigeria manufacturers do not imbibe marketing business ethics in the production of goods marketed and sold to the general public. Though, consumerism cannot be said to have strong footing in Nigeria, efforts must be made by all stakeholders to ensure that consumerism movement is established as to ensure good product marketing in Nigeria.
This study assessed healthcare delivery of Nigerian National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Kogi East. The scheme which took off in 2005 was established to reduce government’s healthcare financing burden and create access to affordable and efficient healthcare for all Nigerians. Evidences on ground however show that access is limited, accredited Healthcare Providers (HCP)s operate under conditions of dilapidated buildings, obsolete equipment, unhygienic hospital environments, long wait lines and staff apathy.Healthcare outcome is in doubt because of paucity of experienced medical personnel, leading to massive use of N.Y.S.C doctors. This scenario, could hamper the achievement of NHIS promise of EASY ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE HEALTHCARE FOR ALL NIGERIANS? Under these circumstances, what is the enrollee perception of the programme in Kogi East? This study assessed respondents’ awareness and perception of the Scheme in Kogi East.A structured questionnaire with a Cronbach alpha coefficient of .938 (94%) reliability was administered on 379 enrollees in the area. Study hypotheses were tested with the one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests (K-S). The results showed significant awareness of NHIS objectives amongst enrollees in Kogi East, (Fc=383.577>Ft=2.9957), enrollee access in Kogi East (Zc=4.09>Zt=1.96). It also indicated significant reduction in healthcare financing burden, (Zc=8.921>Zt1.96) and positive perception of NHIS healthcare delivery efficiency. (Fc=41.084>Ft=2.9957). Respondents were also satisfied with NHIS healthcare (Zc=4.198>Zt=1.96) and preferred the healthcare services than the cash-and-carry regime.in the area, (Zc=5.865>Zt=1.96). The study recommends regular healthcare seminars, workshops and conferences and proactive inspection of accredited HCPs. Abolition of the 10% of cost of drugs paid by enrollees each time they visited the HCPs to reduce the mortality index in the area and accreditation of more HCPs are equally recommended. Ambulance/transport services for emergencies and higher standard of practice should be established in the area. Recommendations for further researches were appropriately made.
Due to constant complaint about the unavaibility and provision of telecommunication services in Nigeria, this research work tends to answer basic customer questions and complaints, and present it to the awareness of telecom firms in enabling them providing quality services, and for the effective marketability of their projects. This research work seeks to answer research question about low call rates gaining market expansion, the application of total quality management in providing quality services, effective mobile communication in boosting rural-urban business transaction and innovations in attaining customer’s loyalty. University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus (UNEC) was adopted as the population size, and instruments for data collection were the use of questionnaire and interviews, and the hypotheses were analyzed using the chi-square statistical tool. Based on the analysis of data and test of hypothesis, all null hypothesis of no relationship was rejected. So therefore it is accepted that there is a relationship between low call-rates and market expansion, innovation and customer’s loyalty, TQM and quality service and effective communication to rural-urban business transaction. Finally based on the findings, it is recommended that management of telecommunication industry should adopt low call-rates as an integral part of their marketing strategy in increasing the market share; to satisfying the continuous needs of customers, continuous innovative product/services should be developed in sustaining customer’s loyalty; the implementation of the total quality management concept is recommended to all levels of management in the telecom industry to providing quality services for customers; and the promotion of telecom services should be extended to the rural areas for effective agro business transactions to the urban areas.
The efficient planning and co-ordination of physical distribution activities will make goods available at the right places and time or when and where needed. A well managed physical distribution can help to stabilize price, by making use of an efficient means of transportation and warehousing facilities, a manufacturer can make his goods available to consumers at far and near locations and all year round. Physical distribution also provides a very positive contribution to the value of a product, this is because physical distribution operations provide the means by which the product can reach the customer or end user in the appropriate condition and required location. It is therefore possible for companies to compete on the basis of providing a product either at the lowest possible cost, so that the customer will buy it because it is the least expensive or at the highest possible value to the customer, if it is exactly where and how the customer want it. However, physical distribution encompasses transportation, inventory management, order processing and warehousing. Hence, it was therefore pertinent to analyze the contribution of physical distribution cost to price in marketing in Nigeria, using two selected manufacturing firms in Enugu state Nigeria. The study was done through the use of questionnaires with questions tailored towards: Determining the contribution of physical distribution function to marketing organizations overall cost in Nigeria, to ascertain the effect of environmental factors on physical distribution cost of marketing by manufacturing firms in Nigeria; to evaluate the impact of physical distribution function on the prices consumers pay for their product; to determine the impact of inventory management on physical distribution of manufacturing firms. Four hypotheses were tested using t-test, chi- square and linear regression statistical tools. The result of the analysis revealed that physical distribution function performed by marketing organizations contribute significantly to firms overall cost in Nigeria, it was also found that environmental factors do contribute significantly to physical distribution cost of marketing by manufacturing firms in Nigeria. The study also showed that physical distribution function do have an impact on prices consumers pay for their product, further results showed that inventory management has an impact on physical distribution of manufacturing firms. To this end, the study recommended that emphasis should focus on the total cost; reducing cost on one factor has the effect of increasing the costs of another factor by an amount saved, this should informative to manufacturers. Again, firms should look forth for those environmental factors that might cause an additional cost to the distribution system and ensure that they were put in order, to minimize cost. Also certain irrelevant charges like indiscriminate haulage expenses should be eliminated by the government; the reason is that much charges in the process of physical distribution often ends up increasing prices of products leaving the consumers to suffer. Furthermore, firms should maintain standard inventory management system, so that the need to achieve economic order quantity will be achieved. Also efficiency and effectiveness require that management be equipped properly with the newest technology; thus manufacturing firms should always equip their cost monitoring and control mechanism to be able to perform creditably. Moreover, cost of warehousing facilities can be controlled if government comes in to either build and lease out to manufacturers or provide the good incentives to do so. This study therefore calls on government to formulate and implement useful policy, such that will allow for easy flow of products from the manufacturing plant to the consumers.
In this study, the focus was on the influence of advertising on consumption pattern of Civil Servants and Business Community with emphasis ion Ebonyi State and Enugu Metropolis. The researcher made a very sincere and in-depth study into various advert media and their individual influence on civil servants and Business Community. Structural questionnaire copies were administered to our respondents after the researcher had reviewed similar literature. The study categorized the respondents into two viz- management and non-management cadre. The questionnaire were designed and distributed along side these categories. The test of our three hypotheses were done with a chi-square approach.
Branding had been mostly regarded as being very crucial and indispensable in the identification of a company’s product from those of the competitors, especially when one considered the several functions it performed on consumers’ decision and satisfaction. Hence, it included everything involved or needed for the differentiation like brand name, brand mark, trade mark. Therefore, it was observed that brand was the only competitive edge one had that cannot be copied by anyone else. In the contemporary marketing environment, it was a difficult task to say exactly which factors motivated the consumer to prefer a particular product to another. And the marketing of malt drink products was very compelling when considered with their close substitutes for each other, especially those that were studied which included; Hi-malt, Amstel malta, Maltina and Guinness malta. Thus, this research (i) ascertained the relationship between branding and consumer patronage, (ii) ascertained the factors of branding that influenced consumers’ choice of malt drinks, (iii) ascertained the significant variation in the packaging of different malt drinks, (iv) determined differences among the different brands of malt drinks and (iv) determined if price is a factor considered in consumers preference for a brand of malt drink. The research adopted survey design, and made use of primary data collected through the use of questionnaire. The sample size used for this study was three hundred and fifty (350) respondents, which consisted of the staff of some of the existing tertiary institutions in South East of Nigeria. The tertiary institutions are Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education Owerri, Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu and Madona University Okija, Anambra State. Z-test regression was used to test hypotheses 1, 2, 3, and 4 while one-way Anova multiple regression was used for hypothesis 5. SPSS version 17.0 was used in the analysis of data. It was tested that the use of branding was significant in the determination of customers’ patronage of malt drinks (Zc = 5.20 > Zt = 1.96, = 0.05). Branding had a significant influence on consumer’s choice of malt drinks (Zc = 5.79 > Zt = 1.96, = 0.05). There was a significant variation in the packaging of different malts (Zc = 6.41 > Zt = 1.96, = 0.05). There was a significant difference among the different brands of malt drinks (Zc = 5.78 > Zt = 1.96, = 0.05). There was a significant relationship between price and consumer’s preference for a brand of malt drink (r = 0.434, Fc = 18.89 > Ft = 2.37, = 0.05). It was recommended that Malt Manufacturing Companies should embark on research that will enable the company to identify gap that exist between consumers’ needs and their product, and also should periodically improve on product quality/taste, in which several quality control measures should be taken to maintain product quality. Again, Malt marketers should always make their brands available at the right place and at the right time because this will ensure strong brand loyalty on the part of consumers. And this can be achieved by; engaging more distribution trucks to complement existing ones, appoint more distributors in rural areas to ensure grass-roots distribution and coverage, reaching directly to large-scale retailers like hotels, restaurants and bars, which would ensure constant availability and finally, irrespective of the taste of the Malt, Malt Manufacturing Companies should be able to price their products at no cost variance.
This research work is “Aspects of bank location and the influence on customer banking behaviour”. In our modern time in Nigeria, there is an increased need for bank reforms to position the banks solidly to perform their traditional roles of attracting local funds and safeguarding them as well as giving of loans to monetize the economy. It is only when the economy is stable that the customers and the bank easily experience these reforms in real workable state.
Public relations is a potent strategy for the survival of any organization. It is not gift: It is a profession and discipline that demand hard work form its practitioner in order to succeed. Any organization that uses public relations as a fire-fighting tool will run into big crisis. This is because it is reasonable for an organization to inform and deliberate with public relations personnel of an organization before a retrenchment exercise is carried out. But it is wrong to carry out retrenchment exercise without consultation and then ask the present to go and address the press after exercise has been carried out.
This research study is on consumer’s acceptance of Nigerian made packaged food products in Enugu using Cosmetic and Food Product as a case study. The focus of this study is basically detailed on the statement of problem in a broad perspective of consumer’s perception of Nigeria made packaged food product, its effect on production cost and the strategies for redirection of customers’ choice and preference towards Nigeria made packaged products.
The study was specifically on consumers’ acceptance of Nigerian made and packaged food products in Enugu metropolis. Its major objectives are to determine how consumers (1) regard the promotional claims of Nigerian made and packaged food products; (2) judge their quality (3) assess their pricing (4) view their availability/distribution (5) compare them with imported/foreign made and packaged food products with the aforementioned(above) (6) verify/ascertain the belief of preference of foreign food products despite the close proximity of local manufacturers of same, and make recommendations for an improvement so as to lure consumers to accept Nigerian made and packaged food products.