This research was conducted to evaluate the implication of distribution management of palm produce in Nsukka Area of Enugu State. The major purpose of this study is to examine and identify the factors preventing the effective and efficient distribution of palm produce to producers and consumers in both rural and urban areas in Nsukka Area. Nsukka Area was chosen because of its location as a junction linking several towns of significance in the country and a gateway to the Northern part of the country which endows her with high potential for commercial activities. As a result of the above characteristic, a study of the effective and efficient distribution management of palm produce in Nsukka Area will give a proper insight to the effective and efficient distribution management of these produce in other cities of Nigeria. The survey research design was used employing the instruments of questionnaire and personal interviews as data gathering tools. Data for this study were collected by means of 360 questionnaires distributed by the researcher to the consumers of the palm produce. Data for the study were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Five hypotheses were formulated to test if there is any significant relationship between producer’s incentive and channel conflict experienced among middlemen in distributing palm produce; significant difference in the effects of transportation palm produce to consumer in rural and urban areas; significant difference in the effects of inadequate capital on large-scale wholesaling and retailing of palm produce; significant association in the effect of poor storage of palm produce and their marketing and consumption, and the significant difference in the adverse effects of artificial scarcity of palm produce on consumers. Based on the hypotheses it was revealed firstly, that there is significant relationship between producer’s incentives and channel conflict experience among the middlemen in distributing palm produce and the most common causes of channel conflict such as lack of teamwork, different attitudes, values or perception, poor communication etc., were identified which led to the downfall of the marketing intermediaries as they deliberately ignore, contradict and bad-mouth one another in distributing palm produce. Secondly, the effect of transportation on palm produce to consumers in rural and urban areas revealed that the palm produce sellers found it difficult to reach a wider market in the rural areas because of poor development of roads and railways. Thirdly, it was also revealed that the effect of inadequate capital for large-scale wholesaling and retailing of palm produce brought about by insufficient working capital led to low inventory, poor sales and low income. Fourthly, there is significant relationship between poor storage of palm produce and their marketing and consumption since the high demand for palm produce and income generation from the produce depends on its quality. And finally, the effects of artificial scarcity of palm produce on consumers showed that the free flow of palm produce would be disrupted as the consumers become exploited by the sellers who charge high prices. We therefore, concluded that the tax of achieving efficiency in the distribution management of palm produce be seen as an integrated one which involves all the players/stakeholders. It is therefore very vital that the causes of channel conflict should be highlighted and the various means of managing these conflicts be proffered to ensure that proper articulation of the overall marketing channels would yield synergistic results. The researcher therefore recommended that: all leaders and the members of palm produce distribution need to be alert to group dynamics that can spillover into conflict; Government should give due attention to infrastructure facilities (e.g. roads, railways) to facilitate the movement of people and goods (palm produce); the financial institutions and Government agencies should be simplify the rigid formalities towards rending and reduce high interest rates to enable the palm produce middlemen source money and expand their business; Adequate Storage or warehousing facilities should be in place either through outright ownership or hire to reduce the problem of palm produce scarcity at all seasons; and finally, the producers and intermediaries of palm produce should imbibe the spirit of change which should be made to feel like a gentle improvement on the past and desist from deliberate hoarding and adulteration of palm produce.
Prior to the advent of GSM in 2001, phone penetration was low to the verge of negligible. Nitel had the monopoly. But all that changed with the GSM revolution brought by the licensing of Econet (now Airtel), Mtel, MTN and the later entry of Glo and Etisalat into the industry.At first, all that was needed for marketing success was availability. Because the demand for phone was far more than the supply, these companies were on a roll, snapping subscribers after subscribers from phone starved Nigerians. That has since changed. With the fierce competition and the saturated market already, telecom operators must work hard to reduce cost, win new customers and most importantly retain the existing ones. This study is based on product branding as a tool for increasing consumer loyalty in the Nigeria telecommunication industry. The main objective is to determine the relationship between product branding and consumer loyalty in the Nigeria telecommunication industry. Primary data used for this work which was sourced through questionnaire administered to customers of the four major telecommunication companies in Nigeria (MTN, Airtel, Globacom and Etisalat) residing in Enugu metropolis. The population of the study was 812,708, but the sample size was 400 which were determined with the use of the yamane’s equation. Out of the 400 administered, only 392 were returned. A descriptive statistic technique was also adopted for the study and the statistical tool for the test of the formulated hypothesis was chi square formulae, with the aid of the SPSS software. The study revealed that Product branding and features has a significant effect on product choice and customer patronage and also that Product diversification and innovation has a significant effect on consumer choice and patronage. It also shows that Brand loyal customers are prone to brand switch in response to changes in tariff of other brands and that there is a significant relationship between product branding and consumer loyalty in the Nigerian telecommunication industry. The researcher recommend that telecommunication firms should expand their network coverage, improve the quality of service their offer and provide better access to other networks within and outside Nigeria. The industry should also improve their customer service and value added services, because the findings shows that consumers are not satisfied the quality of these factors. Telecommunication providers in Nigeria should be constantly involved in product innovation and diversification, as to increase customer’s product choice. They must come up with friendly tariff in order to increase customer loyalty and reduce brand switch.Finally that telecommunication providers in Nigeria must see product branding as a very important aspect of it marketing strategy and must be given a serious approach, because it go a long way to determines the success or failure of the product offer to the market, the firm in question and it ability to achieve consumer loyalty.
The Nigeria economic prior to the period of deregulation was one characterized by increased deficit financing by the government, low external reserves and unfavourable balance of payments. The acquisition of foreign exchange of finance the importation of industrial imports poses a serious problem to the industries. The inadequacy of foreign exchange needed, led to capacity under-utilization in most developing countries. Lack of raw materials locally, led to dependency on imported raw materials. Also, differences in natural endowments of different nations necessitate importation of raw materials from countries with surplus. This study seeks to determine the extent at which foreign exchange market has helped in the growth of the Nigerian economy. It is a survey method of research with 105 as the sample size. Simple percentage was used as the method of data analyses. At the end of the study, it was found out that the use of Letters of Credit (LC) as means of financing import via foreign exchange market have increased the level of economic activities in Nigeria. Again, the Domiciliary Account Operation contributed a great deal to the level of economic activities in Nigeria. It should equally be noted that the Nigerian environment is such that does not encourage capital investment, which implies that a de-regulatory interest rate economy will not help in the growth of the economy. From the foregoing, it is crystal clear that the value of naira is comparatively weak thereby turning the economy into a cargo economy with its attendant effect on import dependency which lead primarily to huge debt, affecting socio-political environment of business in Nigeria. It is therefore, recommended that the Federal Government should remove all the subsidy on sales of foreign currencies at all level irrespective of the transaction involved as this will remove disparity between the official and parallel market rate of price without government having to intervene. The federal government should equally abolish the existence of parallel market (that is black market) by legislation and strongly implement the dictate of the law to the later on any offender without discrimination.
Pricing is a very important and strategic area in marketing as it is the only marketing mix variable that generates revenue for the organization. Pricing impacts on the corporate image, brand image and on competitive advantage of a firm in the market. Its strategic nature is such that, it goes beyond taking decisions on the best price and strategies by just computing the cost for production and the expected profit margin. One industry where pricing can be very complex because of the underlying industry characteristics is the Small and Medium Scale firms. How do firms involve in this industry resolve such challenging problems? How are pricing decisions taken? What are the policies and strategies necessary to cope with this complexity? These were the motivations of this study titled “pricing Policies and price fixing strategies of Small and Medium Scale Industries in Enugu Metropolis”. The researcher applied three research hypotheses based on key issues related to the research topic. Data for this were generated from management staff of four selected SMEs in Enugu. The data obtained were analyzed and further subjected to Chi-square statistical tool in testing the hypothesis. The result obtained showed that pricing decisions in SMEs is determined by internal and external factors. We can therefore conclude that if the right price is adopted, it will go along way influencing the realization of the firm’s corporate goal.
This study comparatively evaluated customer services in government and privately owned broadcasting organizations. It determined whether customer services exist in NTA and AIT, customer services of NTA and AIT meet up with the expectations of their customers, job specification customer services in NTA is similar to AIT, NTA and AIT evaluate the performances of their customer service department, NTA has the plans of exceeding their competitors AIT in customer service delivery, and customer service activity is given more priority position in NTA than in AIT. The survey research design was adopted for this study and the population of the study comprised of the Staff and Customers of NTA and AIT in Enugu State. The sampled size for the staff and customers of the organizations were determined to be 148 and 120 respectively. Data was collected with the aid of questionnaire and presented descriptively using frequency tables, percentages and charts. Chi-Square statistics was used in testing hypotheses 1 and 3, ANOVA was used in testing hypotheses 2, 4 and 6 while the Z-test statistics was used in testing hypotheses 5 and 7. These were done with the aid of the SPSS 17.0 statistical software. The study revealed that NTA and AIT have customer service department; do not meet up with the expectations of customers in their service delivery; give customer services priority position in their organization; have different method of customer service delivery; evaluate the performance of their customer service section; and do not compare their customer service delivery with that of their competitors. It was recommended that broadcasting organizations should be very proactive in their customer service activities; ensure that programmes and activities are initiated and implemented to ensure customer satisfaction; and place greater focus and emphasis customer services; imbibe the spirit of competition.
The research work focuses on the public relations influence on customer’ patronage of new generation banks (NGBs) in Enugu . four banks were selected Diamond Bank, Zenith Bank. United Bank for Africa (UBA) and ECO Bank .The main problem talked by the study is what public relations could do in retaining customers of NGBs IN SPITE of the problems bedeviling the banking industry IN Nigeria.
The purpose of this research work is to determine and highlight the role of marketing research and development of new products by manufacturers companies in Nigeria. The outcome of this research work will be beneficial to members of the public, the government, students, and manufacturers.
The data used were obtained from company workers in selected business organizations in Enugu State. A sample of 300 workers was administered with structured questionnaire designed to explore information regarding their reasons for undertaking marketing research and what they consider as areas of desired improvements. Three hypotheses generated in this study were tested with the use of chi-square (X2).
The worrisome level of poverty and understanding how to reduce it has been the major thrust of all development plans in all economies. The poverty incidence was 31.1% in Enugu State in 2004. Information is power and development communication is a veritable tool for fighting poverty. Information and communication must be strategic enough to achieve this. It must be integrated and institutionalised in the PRSP process. This involves the active solicitation of stakeholders’ perspective to help consider options to shape the formulation of policy, ensuring that the mechanisms are in place for a two-way flow of information and to build consensus among stakeholders about development. This work examined the place of information as a strategy for fighting poverty in the context of various strategies employed by National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) and Enugu State Ministry for Human Development and Poverty Reduction (MOHD&PR. It addressed the information and communication issues in poverty reduction from the perspective of the newly and very practicable model, Synergistic Communication for Development (SCD), developed by Prof. Ikechukwu Nwosu. Our findings during our interactive sessions with the officials of the two agencies show little or no involvement of communication experts in their project formulation stage. Active participation and co-operation that promotes synergy amongst the various stakeholders in a project life cycle were not maintained. Our empirical estimation reveals that: National Poverty Eradication Programme, (NAPEP), uses information but not as a strategy for fighting poverty. The Ministry for Human Development and Poverty Reduction, Enugu State uses less information than NAPEP. As expected the work corroborated other authorities that information is a veritable tool for fighting poverty and that unequal access to information could make some people more well off than others. It concludes by recommending amongst others that information and communication should be strategic enough for fighting poverty and not as a mere awareness creation and educating process. The process must involve information and communication experts and all other stakeholders in the formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation stages of the poverty eradication programme.
This research work is executed to evaluate the impact of new product marketing strategies on the performance of firms in Nigeria. To develop and market new product; correct approach must be used to ensure that new product does not fail in the market, therefore making a new product to go through proper planning, implementation and control. The method of investigation applied was sample survey; the study was executed by using statement of problems form which the research questions and hypothesis of the research were formulated. Secondary source of data were collected from related books, journals, magazines, newspaper, archival records.
Political parties are faced with managing several challenges in trying to ensure that their candidates win election successfully. These challenges includes but not limited to finance, crisis management, media relations, information management, corporate image and reputation management, attitude and opinion management, event management, protocol functions, community relations, employee relations, corporate advertising, audio-visual productions, public enlightenment, corporate identity management, issues management, government relations, competitors relations and corporate social responsibility. In planning full course of action for a politician to gain political advantage among the electorate and political opinion leaders, efforts should be made to tackle the challenges mentioned above using public relations strategies, tools, tactics etc. public relations in essence, provides an articulate, credible and effective voice in pleading an idea on behalf of an individual or organization before the seat of public opinion in the hope that the projected idea will become acceptable. Political campaign is an organized effort by a political party or candidate for public office to attract the support of voters in an election. Hence, this study tries to examine the impact of public relations in the Nigerian political parties' campaign programme in the South East of Nigeria. The methodology adopted were the use of questionnaires, observations and interview in collecting fresh data. Random sampling method was adopted in selecting the individual respondents. Data collected were presented, interpreted and analysed using tables and percentages. Four hypotheses postulated for the study were tested. The following were my major findings in the course of the study. That some notable political parties engaged in the contest for elective political positions. And to achieve this lofty goal, they embarked on electioneering campaigns. The purpose served by this electioneering campaign includes; informing and educating the electorate about the party’s name, logo, manifesto, and other identity which differentiates it from other political parties; canvassing or soliciting for votes on the election day; creating mutual understanding and garnering goodwill, projecting the good image of the party and the contesting candidates; dispersing rumor and opinion management; and opportunity to interact with the electorate face to face. Political parties used public relations tools, strategies and tactics to achieve their purpose of electioneering campaign which is to win the votes of the greater majority of the electorate. The study also found out that public relations tools used by political parties in their campaign programme includes; press release, feature/articles writing, press conference, political rallies and voter’s enlightenments.
In assessing the effectiveness of marketing communication tools in the Nigerian telecommunications industry, attempts were made to: determine the extent marketing communications were applied by the telecommunications industry in providing service information; examine the degree the application of marketing communication by the telecommunications industry increases customers’ awareness of its service; determine the effect of marketing communications in the telecommunications industry in convincing and changing customers’ attitude towards its services; estimate the degree of marketing communication tools in the telecommunications industry in building company image; and determine if marketing communications is effective in enforcing brand loyalty in the telecommunications industry in Nigeria with various marketing communications activities, such as advertising, personal selling, publicity, public relations, sales promotion, etc, these firms have been able to ‘hypnotize’ their customers into sticking to their brand and ensuring that there services are ultimate, thus building corporate image. It is very resounding, therefore, to acknowledge the effectiveness and necessity of marketing communications activities in ensuring service provision, positive customer attitude, brand loyalty and building of corporate image. Based on the findings of the study it is recommended that; More emphasis should be placed on service information provision via marketing communication activities, as there is a dearth of information about the various services and packages of telecommunication firms among the service subscribers in Enugu State; Marketing communication activities should always be repacked, reviewed and developed upon to meet up with the changing needs of the customers as well as the level of technological advancement and competition; Newer, more technological-driven and scientific methods of marketing communication activities should be researched into by telecommunications firm that will put them at the top of the cutting edge technological innovation, thus ensuring amassing of clientele and ensuring brand loyalty; and Importantly, there should be regulations guiding the applicability of these marketing communication activities and the message content so as to avoid abuse and offensive or culturally sensitive message content.
The study appraised the impact of sales promotion on the purchase of consumer goods. The research was carried out to evaluate some of the objectives at which sales promotion affect the purchase of consumer goods.
-Determine among the classes of people living in Nsukka, the particular class that is influenced or can be influenced with sales promotion on the consumer goods.
-Determine if illiteracy can have any impact on the application of sales promotion on the purchase of consumer goods.
-Recommend ways of mitigating the problems of sales promotion.
the survey method of research was used in the study. A sample of the population was drawn out due to the difficulties involved when trying to study the whole population.
This study is on the impact of marketing strategies on customers’ patronage of commercial bank services in Enugu Metropolis. The data collected, were tabulated and tested using the chi-square statistical method. The findings include: The Nigeria banking sector has undergone tremendous competition since the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) on 1st of July, 1986, which has led to inflexible competition in the banking industry. The study focuses on the use of primary and secondary sources of data by using administering of questionnaire both to the employee of the bank and also to the customer of the bank and observation method was also used in obtaining data. T-test was employed to test the various hypotheses formulated. The hypotheses are five in number. at the end of the study, it was revealed that marketing strategy does not only have impact on marketing of physical product alone, but also on marketing of service in order to achieve the overall organization objective and growth which is the priority of every business especially the banking industry. This is because marketing strategies is an all rewarding innovative marketing concept that guarantees business survival and maximization of profit.
In a bid to produce and market their goods and services in the most successful manner, most business organizations resort to the use of promotional tools, especially advertising to realize their goals and objective. Such businesses rely heavily on the advertising industry because of their conviction that advertising has become the leading communication platform and communication arrowhead that gives meaning and the required bite or teeth to modern marketing. This approach has proved successful for some business organizations while for others, it failed to generate the required or anticipated response from consumers or customers. This study thus, focused on the motives, the drives as well as all the other factors that combine to influence consumers in their buying decisions. It surveyed the behaviour of consumers and the effects product advertising exerts on the m, identifying both the negative and positive attributes. The research was conducted empirically involving the use of questionnaire which provided primary data. Secondary data was obtained through various authoritative books and other publications. A thorough analysis of the data was made and the result tabulated using 100 percent as the base for the measurement of frequency to analyze the figures. The hypotheses which are mere formulated assumptions were tested, using the expected and observed frequencies to draw inferences and conclusions. The study observed the great role advertising perform in shaping the decisions of consumer in their choice of products. It identified the need to strengthen the creation of enough awareness for products through advertising, especially, new products, bringing out the unique selling points of such products enough to influence consumers’ loyalty toward such advertised products. Apart from recommending clarity of advert messages and objectives, the research warned against false claims and other unwanted elements in advertisements messages with the intention of swaying consumers loyalty toward the products so advertised pointing out the consequences resulting from such action. The study also stressed the need for the embracement of the new paradigm shift in advertising approach. Christened; Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) or the new advertising, the approach by this form of advertising is based on synergistic integration of all available promotional and marketing communication tools in the design and implementation of an advert campaign, properly blending them and running the campaign with this mix for greater effectiveness. Finally, it has been observed that consumers’ buying behaviour is made up of the perceived and real image they (Consumers) configure about an organization and its products and or services. Consumers’ perception of a company and its offerings and a synthesis of the bundles of the messages they receive from and about the organization through all conceivable communication media. It is therefore, imperative for manufactures and advertisers to adopt this modern philosophy of advertising with a holistic and synergistic approach if at all, they intend to achieve efficiently in the discharge of the marketing function.
The banking industry went neck-deep into adoption information technology as tool for improving banking services. It was in realization of this that this evaluation study was carried out, to ascertain if the adoption of ICT has actually improved banking services or not.
Nigeria introduced a structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1986 to restrict not only the foreign dependent industrial base, but also to tackle her other economic problems, the liberalization and deregulation of the banking industry.