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Evaluation of the Toxic Effects of Dihydroartemisinin on the Vital Organs of Wister Albino Rats.
EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY of Hoslundia opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) Leaf Extract
PHARMACOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF Lupinus arboreus Sims (FABACEAE) METHANOL EXTRACT AND THREE ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS FOR ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS
PROTECTIVE ROLE OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Asteraceae) AND Ocimum gratissimum Linn (Lamiaceae) IN CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED UROTOXICITY AND MYELOSUPPRESSION
EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITIES OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT AND THE BETA–D-GLUCAN-RICH POLYSACCHARIDE FRACTION OFPleurotustuberregium(Pleurotaceae)
Asthma is currently a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in both children and adults and prevalence rate of 5 - 10% has been reported for Nigeria.
The pathophysiological features of the disease are bronchoconstriction, airway
hyperresponsiveness and chronic inflammation. Drugs used in the management
include bronchodilators which are short-term relievers and anti-inflammatory
drugs which are long-term controllers
The aqueous leaf extracts of Calliandra portoricensis is commonly used as a therapeutic agent by trado-medical practitioners for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.
This study investigates Physicochemical Study of the Interaction of
Some Water Soluble Vitamins with Veegum
The effects of Cholinergic, adrenergic and histamine receptor agonists and antagonists were investigated on the guinea-pig isolated terminal ileum, cardiac and anal sphincters, with the aim of characterizing the receptors present on these tissues.
Methanolic extract of the leaves of Cissampelos mucronata Linn (Fam.
Menispermaceae) and some of its fractions were screened for antiulcer
activity using experimental animal models. After defatting with hexane,
preparative thin layer chromatography of the crude extract yielded fractions F1
The mechanisms of antidiabetic activity of extract of aerial part of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) were evaluated. The extract was obtained by cold maceration in a 1:1 mixture of methanol - methylene chloride and subjected to phytochemical analysis for tentative identification of constituents as well as fingerprinting using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Acute toxicity of the extract was studied in rats using the oral route. The effects of the extract on blood glucose level, oral glucose tolerance, hepatic glucose content, hemoglobin glycosylation and serum biochemistry (lipid profile, total serum protein and liver enzymes) were studied in alloxan diabetic rats. The effects of the extract on glucose metabolizing enzymes- α-amylase and α-glucosidase were assayed in vitro. The results showed that the extraction process afforded 74.12 g (8.1% w/w) of the extract. The extract lowered blood glucose and suppressed rise in blood glucose after a glucose meal in diabetic rats. The extract increased liver glycogen content in diabetic rats, inhibited α- amylase (IC50: 3.86 mg/ml) and α- glucosidase (IC50: 1.62 mg/ml) enzyme activities in vitro and significantly (p< 0.05) reduced hemoglobin glycosylation in non-diabetic rats but not in diabetic rats. The extract caused significant (p< 0.05) reduction in the liver enzymes (especially SGPT and SGOT) and total cholesterol and triglyceride level in both diabetic and non-diabetic rats. It also elevated total serum protein and albumin in diabetic rats. Acute toxicity and lethality test on the extract gave an oral LD50 greater than 5 g/kg in rats. TLC fingerprint of the extract yielded 6 spots (Rf 0.47- 0.97) while the HPLC fingerprint revealed 12 prominent peaks with retention time of 1.547 to 7.814. Phytochemical tests showed that the extract tested positive to tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, terpenes and sterols.
Oldenlandia Affinis (Roem & Schult) DC is a medicinal plant from the Rubiaceae family that contains cyclotides which has been known to have a role in the host-defence of plants as well as other biological properties. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of O. affinis (MME) and its cyclotide-rich fraction (CRF) in various animal models.
Various models such as carbon clearance test, haemolytic activity of complement system, leucopoiesis in immunocomoetent mice, haemagglutination assay, DTH Response and humoral antibody assays utilizing the ELISA technique to determine antibody responses were employed in the study for immunomodulatory activities. The anti-inflammatory effects were investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema and formaldehyde-induced arthritis models in rats.
Phytochemical analysis revealed alkaloids, flavonoids and proteins to be abundantly present in both extract and fractions. Acute toxicity studies in mice showed an Ld50 above 5000 mg/kg per oral, for both extract and fraction, thus being safe for all practical studies, and in addition, produced no signs of intoxication.
The Plant kingdom has served as one of man's oldest source of useful drugs. The use of plant drugs goes back to our earliest ancestors who ere forced by circumstances to seek plants that could relieve their pain and heal their wounds.
Ivemectin, is the present drug of choice for the treatment of Onchocerciasis. A lot of literature exist on the adverse effects of Ivemectin, but these adverse effects are centred principally on systemic and local effects. No literature exist on the ultrastructural changes of cells and organelles after ivermectin administration and that is the question this research work tends to answer. This work should be termed a tabularizer. The effects of Iverrnectin were investigated on human blood cells invivo and invitro and other haematological indices by normal method of assaying haematological parameters in any diagnostic laboratory. (Baker,F.J1985) The ultrastructural changes from the blood films were done by