University of Nigeria OER Competition | Register Here

Pharmacology and Toxicology



Studies on the Short Term Effects of Ivermectin on some Human Blood

By Nwadike, Kenneth I.

Ivemectin, is the present drug of choice for the treatment of Onchocerciasis. A lot of literature exist on the adverse effects of Ivemectin, but these adverse effects are centred principally on systemic and local effects. No literature exist on the ultrastructural changes of cells and organelles after ivermectin administration and that is the question this research work tends to answer. This work should be termed a tabularizer. The effects of Iverrnectin were investigated on human blood cells invivo and invitro and other haematological indices by normal method of assaying haematological parameters in any diagnostic laboratory. (Baker,F.J1985) The ultrastructural changes from the blood films were done by

Published: 19/11/2018

Tags: Onchocerciasis, ivermectin administration, ultrastructural changes, human blood cells invivo and invitro and other haematological indices.

Size: 13.53MB

Antioxidant Activity of Seed Extract and Fractions of Monodora Tenuifolia (Annonaceae)

By Njoku, Ugochi Olivia

The antioxidant activity of the seed extract and fractions of Monodora tenuifolia (Fam. Annonaceae) was evaluated. The Monodora tenuifolia seed was extracted with pet ether 40-60°C to produce the crude extract. Fractionation of the extract by column chromatography using pet ether 60-80°C and diethyl-ether produced 2 fractions (F1) and (F2).

Published: 05/02/2007

Tags: Fractionation, column chromatography, pet ether, diethyl-ether, Monodora tenuifolia, Antioxidant Activity

Size: 2.00MB

Antidotal Properties of the Leaves of Ageratum Conyzoides L. (Family Asteraceae)

By Osigwe, Chinyelu Clementina

Ageratum conyzoides L, (Asteraceae), is an annual herbaceous plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in several countries of the world and also reputed to possess varied medicinal properties. This present study was undertaken to investigate the antidotal properties of leaf extracts of Ageratum conyzoides. A part of the dried pulverized leaves was extracted with methanol to obtain the crude extract. Another part was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol to yield the respective fractions.

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: antidotal properties, Ageratum Conyzoides, Asteraceae

Size: 4.79MB


By Nnamani, Marcellus Ejike

Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenal mucosa. The search for an ideal antiulcer drug continues and has also been extended to medicinal plants. Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant used in traditional medical practice in South West Nigeria. This study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer activity and mechanisms of the extract of the stem bark and to isolate the bioactive constituents responsible for the antiulcer activity. Methanol extract (ME) was obtained by cold maceration and concentration in vacuo. ME was partitioned in chloroform-methanol-water (2:2:1) mixture to obtain the chloroform (CF) and aqueous methanol (AMF) fractions. The extract and fractions were subjected to biological activity-guided screening using indomethacin-induced ulcer as activity-guide. Based on higher ulcer protection given by CF, it was fractionated in a silica gel and eluted with gradient mixtures of n-hexane-ethyl acetate to obtain six broad fractions (I – VI). Fractions III and VI offered the highest protection on screening for biological activity. Purification of fractions III and VI in a sephadex LH-20 column with methanol as eluent gave compounds I (BF1) and II (BF2) respectively. The antiulcer activity of BF1 and BF2 was done using the activity-guide and the structural identities established using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR) and electron impact mass (EIM) spectroscopies. The extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis using conventional methods. The oral acute toxicity of ME was determined in mice. The antiulcer activity of ME, bioactive column fractions and isolated compounds was investigated using indomethacin, ethanol, cold-restraint stress and pyloric ligation-induced ulcers in rats. The mechanisms of antiulcer activity were studied using gastric acid secretion induced by pyloric ligation in rats, proton pump inhibition using inhibition of H+ K+ ATPase activity in vitro, determination of the roles of endogenous nitric oxide and sulfhydryl compounds using the effects of L-NAME (L-nitroarginine methylester) and NEM (N-ethylmaleimide) respectively on ulcer indices in ethanol-induced ulcer and antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity. The results showed that ME tested positive to saponins, reducing sugars, tannins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, proteins and terpenoids. No lethality was observed in the mice on oral administration of doses up to 5000 mg/kg. There were no obvious signs of abnormal behavioural changes in the mice. The extract, fractions and isolated compounds produced significant (p < 0.05) dose-related inhibition of indomethacin, ethanol, cold restraint stress and pyloric ligation-induced ulcers. The isolated compounds, BF1 and BF2, significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the total acid and volume of gastric secretion and elevated the pH. The fractions and isolated compounds significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the activity of H+ K+ ATPase in a dose-dependent manner. The isolated compounds, BF1 and BF2 did not increase gastric lesion indices in L-NAME pre-treated rats but they significantly (p < 0.05) increased ulcer indices in the NEM pre-treated rats. The extract, fractions and isolated compounds scavenged DPPH radical in a dose-dependent manner. Comparison of the spectral data of BF1 and BF2 with the published libraries of isolated compounds revealed their identities to be β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-3-O-βD-glucopyranoside respectively.

Published: 05/12/2015

Size: 13.29MB

Antiulcer Effects of the Leaf Extracts of Calliandra Portoricensis Benth. (Mimosaceae)

By Lawal, Akintunde Murtala

The aqueous l e a f e x t r a c t s of Calliandra p o r t o r i c e n s i s is commonly used as a therapeutic agent by trado-medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s for the treatment o f gastrointestinal disorders

Published: 05/02/1987

Tags: Antiulcer Effects, Leaf Extracts, Calliandra Portoricensis Benth, gastrointestinal disorders, trado-medical.

Size: 24.85MB

Pharmacological Evaluation of some Medicinal Plants for Antiulcer some Medicinal Plants for Antiulcer

By Langason, Rosemary. B

The leaves of Cola acuminate, Annona senegalensis and the root bark of uvaria chamae were dried, pulverized and extracted sequentially using petroleum ether (Bp 60 80OC). and 95% alchohol.

Published: 17/03/1991

Tags: Pharmacological, Medicinal Plants for Antiulcer, alchohol, petroleum ether.

Size: 3.05MB

Antiulcer Effects of the Leaf Extracts of Calliandra Portoricensis Benth. (Mimosaceae)

By Lawal, Akintunde Murtala

The aqueous l e a f e x t r a c t s of Calliandra p o r t o r i c e n s i s
is commonly used as a t h e r a p e u t i c agerk by f : r n C l ~ ~ - r w : ~ l f c i l 1
p r a c t i t i o n e r s for t h e treatment o f g a s t r o i n t c s k i n a l disorders.

Published: 01/02/1987

Tags: Antiulcer, Leaf Extracts, Calliandra Portoricensis Benth,. (Mimosaceae)

Size: 24.85MB

Binding and other Studies with Ivermectin

By Nwoye, Ifeoma Nneka

Ivermectin is a new microfilovicide used in the treatment of onchocerciasis. The effects of this drug were investigated on the pregnant human uterus, the pregnant rat and guinea pig uterus.

Published: 02/12/2018

Tags: binding, Ivermectin, pharmaceutical

Size: 8.99MB

Pharmacological Characterization of the Antiasthmatic Constituent of the Leaves of Asystasia Gangetica (L.) Anderson (ACANTHACEAE)

By Ezike, Adaobi Chioma

Asthma is currently a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in both
in children, children and adults; a prevalence rate of 5 - 10% has been reported for Nigeria. The patho-physiological features of the disease are bronchoconstriction, airway hyper responsiveness and chronic inflammation

Published: 15/04/2007

Tags: Asthma, disease, bronchoconstriction, hyper responsiveness

Size: 6.80MB

Pharmacological Evaluation of some Medicinal Plants for Antiulcer Activity

By Langason, Rosemary. B

The leaves of Cola acuminata, Annona senegalensis, and the root bark of Uvaria chamae were dried, pulverised and extracted sequentially using petroleum ether (Bp 60-80C) and 95% ethanol.

Published: 18/03/1991

Tags: pharmacological evaluation, medicinal plants, antiulcer activity

Size: 3.05MB

Antisnake Venom Properties of Extracts from the Stem Bark of Schumanniophyton magnificum (Harms).

By Akunyili, Dorothy Nkem Autho

Fresh stem bark of Schumanniophyton pamifiown were cut into small pieces, part of it was ground and pressed to obtain the pressed extract.

Published: 01/09/1985

Tags: Antisnake, Venom, Extracts, Stem Bark, Schumanniophyton magnificum (Harms).

Size: 9.76MB


By Oicoye, Ifeanyi. Eric

In this study, kilograms of Prosopis afiicana gum powder was processed from the ripe seeds of Prosopis afiicnna, family Mimosaceae (Guill and Perr) Taub by boiling the seeds appropriately with purified water and later soaking with 1% "/v sodium
metabisulphite solution. The gum was precipitated using suitable volumes of acetone that was later recovered and recycled for subsequent uses. The 250,um undersize (industrial grade) gum produced was used to granulate seven commonly used drug powders, namely, magnesium trisilicate, ascorbic acid, sodium bicarbonate,
chlorpheniramine maleate, vitamin-B-complex, folic acid and paracetamol using the conventional wet-granulation technique. In order to make for industrial batch size, a lOkg quantity of the formulation was granulated in each case

Published: 13/09/1999


Size: 2.79MB


By Okpalaeke, Ebere Emilia

The anti-ulcer and other gastrointestinal effects of the methanol extract and fractions of Cucumis metuliferus were investigated in rats and mice. Ethyl acetate (EAFCM), butanol (BFCM) and water (WFCM) fractions obtained from the methanol extract of Cucumis metuliferus (MECM) were screened for anti-ulcer activity. The anti-ulcer effect was investigated on gastric ulcers induced by absolute ethanol, hypothermic-restraint stress and indomethacin in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract and its fractions were determined in mice by the oral route using technique of Locke. The effect of MECM and fractions on gastrointestinal propulsive movement in mice was investigated. Their effects on the rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum were also carried out. The results revealed that the extract and its fractions at doses up to 5000 mg/kg showed no signs of toxicity or death. The extract and fractions at doses of 100 - 400 mg/kg significantly (P< 0.05) reduced the ulcer indices in a dose-related manner. MECM and fractions produced a significant (P< -0.05) inhibition of gastrointestinal tract motility on the rabbit jejunum in a dose-dependent manner. MECM and fractions produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of rabbit jejunum. MECM and fractions did not show any effect on the guinea pig ileum. However the contractile effect produced by histamine was attenuated by the extract and fractions, contractile effect of acetylcholine on guinea pig ileum was not attenuated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, carbohydrates, steroids, trepenoid, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides. Put together, the results of the study showed that Cucumis metuliferus contain bioactive ingredients which have protective effects against gastroerosive ulcers induced by ethanol, stress and indomethacin.

Published: 01/10/2016

Tags: anti-ulcer, fruit extract, cucumis metuliferus, cucurbitaceae

Size: 11.03MB