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Man, as a rational being, is said to possess knowledge not only of the external world but also of abstract ideas. The desire to know is natural to man as stated by Aristotle in his metaphysics that all men by nature to know.
Nigeria is a heterogonous society, as a result, ethnic bias leads to religious,
political, cultural and social upheavals. Differing groups resort to the use of
violence and counter violence in order to achieve their inordinate ambitions. In
order to arrest the situation and to elevate the dignity of human beings from the
savage character of violence. King’s concepts of Non-violence can be applied to
effect a social and political change in Nigeria. Violence from the perspective of the
political realists is seen as the best option for political resolutions. In the world
today violence has topped the world political actions taken by the world political
powers to checkmate other small nations or countries in the world. Even some
individuals believe also that through violence the real nature of man will emerge.
Martin Luther King, Jr., and Mahatma Gandhi held the opposite view. Luther
strongly believed in the principle of Non-violent revolution. This he carried out to
its logical conclusion. He believed that Non-violence is an indestructible weapon
in the hands of humanity. Using critical and analytic methods, the work will assess
the value of Martin Luther King Jr.’s philosophy of Non-violence so as to appraise
its end products such as the restoration of human dignity; human freedom, black
equality and social justice, which Luther believed are the foundation of
brotherhood of all men. Attempts were made to explore and explicate the origin of
the philosophy of “Non-violence” as a means of resolving crises
The meaning of an expression, or relation between words in general language usage is ascertainable if the special use of language is understood. A major criticism leveled against the language of law has been the idea that the language of law is indecipherable and barely understood by those outside the legal terrain. Most of the criticisms range from the alleged incoherence nature of the language of law, the classified nature of the language of the law, and the technical/restricted nature of the language of law. In clearing these bugs of misconception from the eyes of the critics, this work explores various ideas of Wittgenstein in finding appropriate solutions. This becomes the thrust of this work. In showing how Wittgenstein exonerates the language of law from these vilifying attacks, he thought that a word has its meaning only within the context of its use in a language and, its form of life. From his language-game thesis which forms one of the major bedrock in understanding Wittgenstein’s language ideas, one would readily understand that in order to comprehend the language of law, one must participate in the language game of lawyers. This is not a manipulation of language or of words. Participation in the language game constitutes a special way which enables one, within a language structure, and, with the assistance of the rules of the language, to understand the rational core of the designations of certain terminologies and concepts. In connection with law however, participation in the language-game allows one to be cognitive of the normative meaning of such designations.
The measure of self-centeredness with which political actors operate at the international level is the primary motivation for this research. The research explores Karl Marx’s conception of human nature within the context of his conception of socialism as an alternative to the excessive self-centeredness with which actors operate at the international level. Marx regards the human person as a unique, productive and natural being. In addition, he conceives the human individual as social, universal, free and creative by nature. Marx claims that the conditions of life which are common to human persons, their inward nature and their consciousness of it are all historical products. However, it should be noted that the human person has two fundamental natures. One is the individualistic, egoistic, avaricious nature. The other is the social, egalitarian and altruistic nature. Based on this, the aim of this research is to examine the Marxian concept of human nature as the ideal for the operations of men in a heavily dominated capitalist world. Specifically, the following objectives guides the research: (a) examine critically, the concept of human nature in Marxian socialism; b) draw attention to debates in Marxian scholarship on the dimensions of human nature; c) explain the need for the harmonization of the individual and social dimensions of human nature; d) clarify the distinction between Marxian socialism and other varieties of socialism.
This study emerged out of the need to understand the contemporary global tension and agitations for freedom and self-expression at all levels. Such quests that have resulted in so much agitations, terrorism and even outright wars in diverse places are also a result of the great increase in human self-consciousness in recent times. People and nations are becoming highly conscious of pursuing their own identities and destinies as they deem fit without undue interference from any quarters. What are the properties of consciousness or self-consciousness? The purpose of this work is to provide an approximately satisfactory explanation to the problem of consciousness and self-consciousness. This is highly necessary today because the global question of terrorism and other social evils are products of diverse philosophical systems people subscribed to, and allowed to influence their attitudes to life, values, relationships and total existence. This work reveals that man is a unified self-conscious being because self-consciousness is the exclusive feature of the human person and the relationship between mental events and physical events is not a category mistake”. Man is a very complex being, he can feign behaviours purposefully to achieve his desired goal at any point in time. So, mental phenomena influence our behaviours, but they are not always expressible in or reducible to overt behavours. On the basis of the findings in this research it is our position here that, even if consciousness could arise from physical processes, it is not limited to it, for man is a unified self-consciousness being. Therefore, self-consciousness is the exclusive feature of the human person which is responsible for the much increase in the global quest for freedom and all agitations for self expressions both at the individual and the national levels.
discussed two concepts of morality: the morality of aspiration and the morality of duty. The morality of aspiration is the morality of good life, excellence, and fullest realization of human powers. This morality helps man in fixing his mind on the goals to be achieved. The morality of duty, on the other hand, assists man in setting a goal as to what to do and what not to do to in pursuant of those aspirations. Fuller proposed eight components of an ideal legal system, namely: a law must be general; it must be promulgated; it must not be retroactive; laws must be clear; laws must not be contradictory; laws should not command the impossible; laws should be consistent; and finally there shall be congruence between official action and declared rule. These principles coupled with the two moralities make up with what Fuller called “the inner morality of law” which, in the natural law tradition, argues for a necessary connection between law and morality because law necessarily fulfils certain moral requirements. The general purpose of this study, therefore, is to evaluate Fuller’s concept of law and morality and the relationship between them. Specifically, the study was designed to understand how legal principles, according to Fuller, legitimate an ideal legal system; understand why Fuller found it necessary to distinguish morality of duty from morality of aspiration ; identify, if any, the weakness in Fuller’s theoretical frame work that necessitated the necessary connection between law and morality, and consider the possible implications of Fuller’s concept of “an ideal legal system” on the 21st century Nigeria.
The Tiv concept of power-sharing, ya na angbian, is a socio-political philosophy that the Tiv have been practising since the pre-colonial era. However, little effort has been made to explore the philosophical element of this philosophy. In this exposè, the researcher traces the roots of ya na angbian from the ethico-metaphysical perspective, narrowing it to the Tiv cosmology and ontological order, Tiv ethics and established the point of departure for the practice of the principle. The Tiv concept of justice has been treated elusively using the concept of power and Tiv notion of justice giving a background of justice as it relates to Tiv ontology. The Tiv concept of ya na angbian is treated in totality tracing its practise since pre-colonial time; angbian as a component in sharing and further the impact of colonial rule on the guiding philosophy taking cognizance of the establishment of the Tor Tiv institution; ya na angbian in the context of colonial electoral politics and in the post-colonial Tiv society. At this juncture, the need arose for the evaluation of ya na angbian philosophy. This is done and the philosophy is applied in Nigerian politics, establishing its link with the federal character principle and zoning. It is on this plane that the researcher concludes: ya na angbian as an altruistic and cohesive philosophy transcends zoning and power-sharing to a realization of a holistic development, which can only be established if those produced by the duo of zoning and power rotation turnout as competent leaders. Also, that respect for elders who are custodians of Tiv culture has deluded with the adoption of western practices, which can be termed westernization of the Tiv society. The introduction of the centralized system of government in Tiv nation has brought about a class society, constituting the ex-servicemen and educated as elite/ruling class while farmers, workers and unemployed now exist as the ruled. Another conclusion is that the introduction of centralized system of government and the creation of many traditional chieftaincy and political positions has expanded the circle of sharing from only the ya, compound in the pre-colonial time to cover the entire Tiv society. This has brought about a replacement of communal resources that were hitherto shared. This study offers critical recommendations that when a position is zoned to a sect or community and they are unable to produce a competent candidate, the position should be zoned out to another using the loan system to carryout the principle of ya na angbian. Most importantly, the federal character principle as contained in section 14(3) of the Constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria should be amended to lucidly capture the rotational and zoning philosophy of ya na angbian. There is ardent need for re-enactment of the lost traditional values like sacredness of human life, virginity and chastity, respect for elders, honesty, and promotion of common good and the spirit of brotherhood in Tiv society. Notwithstanding, the legal arm of government, judiciary should be used to ensure strict adherence to the practice just as elders with the help of the spirits were made the custodians of Tiv culture and tradition. The philosophy of altruism, stability, cohesion, peace, progress and development should be enshrined into the educational syllabus and taught pari pasu with human rights in institutions of learning. Political leaders at all levels should be guided by this philosophy to shun undemocratic spirit of looting, greed, corruption and nepotism.
Morality entails everything about man's action, what he ought to do and what he ought not to do. Like moral standards and moral values, morality forms part and parcel of the life of every social group and civil society. Man as a social and rational being, is naturally moral and political. Politics on the other hand entails everything about the political life in the society. This includes who should, and how the ruler ought to rule. "The Concept of morality and politics in Aristotle" is a fresh and specific approach adapted by the writer to have a philosophical and a critical view of Aristotelian morality and politics. Aristotle argues that there is an end which stands above other ends in relation to human function. He calls it happiness- the highest good. Medieval philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas and Saint Augustine call it summum Bonum. This is not in contradiction with the Aristotelian notion. Aristotle views the end as generality by postulating that everyone pursues it, both in the political life and in the moral life. For the excellence of the individual equals that of the state. For even the state should aim at providing the ultimate happiness for its citizens. For an individual does not seek morality in a vacuum but in a political society. The state should aim at achieving the ultimate happiness for its citizens. In this regard, this work sets out to discover the relationship of morality to politics and to show the relevance of morality in achieving a sound political system in Aristotle.
Rational egoism encapsulates Ayn Rand’s ethical system. According to this theory, the only ethically good actions are those that are channeled towards self-aggrandizements. Reason which is the basic surviving and epistemological tool of man is the only means for discovering what is good and bad .Emotions and desires are unreliable for such feat. Hence, the ultimate end of man is survival on earth and so the basic struggle in human existence is struggle for survival. Any action capable of truncating or threatening man’s individual existence is morally bad whereas those that enhance it, are the good. Individual survival becomes the paradigm for knowing the morality of an action. However, the major problem Rand identified in ethics is that moral philosophers before her were unscientific in approach and as such the ethical theories they formulated were equally unscientific. She moved further to assert and propose that ethics should be based on the nature of man, reflecting his survival needs. Consequent upon that, she advocates for “rational egoism”, the ethical system that urges man to always maximize his own rational self-interest
This dissertation is an attempt to examine critically the complex nature of; and the ironies of human life wishes in human society. It looks into the seeming absurdity, paradox and contradictions presented by the reality of both determinism and free-will; freedom and destiny of man in his real world with a relational approach. In proffering solution to this paradox as it was made manifest in the lives of Okonkwo in Things Fall Apart, Obi in No Longer at Ease and Ezeulu in Arrow of God, this study showed that man is actively involved in the shaping of his/her life and that life is dynamic; culture is borrowed and shared. It argues that the dynamism of life demands wisdom to cope with it and that only positive and rational adjustment can sustain human destiny/achievements in the reality of cultural dynamisms. Man as an interactive being and a being of influence is subject to change; however, changes should be from lower to higher values. Therefore, it concluded that human freedom and destiny work together as complements not contraries towards the realization of man in his society.
Labour is primarily human effort applied in production for the provision of food for the sustenance of his being. Human labour is also used to make tools which make for the creation and recreation of his economic and other material conditions.For Claude Ake, man creates cultures, history and civilization which affect his overall consciousness through labour. It is therefore most important to man. However, Ake notes that studies reveal that as societies develop and owing to the complexities in the production process, social relations are formed in relation to those who own the means of production and those who do not. While the class of those who benefit from the prevailing social structure attempt to maintain the status quo, the other class struggles to change the existing system.This leads to antagonism between these social groups.For him therefore, there is an intrinsic link between labour and social relations.Ake therefore studies the prevalent social conflicts in Africa and links these to the social relations of production introduced into Africa through colonialism and imperialism.The main objective of this study is to examine the implication of labour and social relations in Claude Ake’s philosophy for Africa. The specific objectives of this study are to (i) look at the link between labour and social relationships and (ii) how these relationships create social problems in Africa. The qualitative research design was used for the study. The data for this work were sourced basically from the library, books and journals. The historical and expository methods were used to situate Claude Ake and his place in history while exposing his concepts of labour and social relations. After a critical analysis and evaluations, the study concludes that social relations are formed by man’s relative position in the productive process. The study established that Ake’s theory of labour and social relation in Africa is influenced by his reflections on capitalism, especially the impact of colonialism and imperialism in Africa. From Ake’s point of view, Africa’s contact with colonialism imposed a concept of labour that is exploitative and ant-Africa the contact The work argues following Ake’s logic that Africans condition, bad as it is, can only be redressed through a genuine democratic African leadership.
The question of being which is very ambiguous in its application and roll leads the field of metaphysics into some unclear grounds. Metaphysics appears so transcendental and dogmatic that the issues that surround it appear very confusing. Heidegger in the 20th century believes strongly that the problem here is not just with the discipline but with the way it has been handled over the years by the metaphysicians. He accused these predecessors of the forgetfulness of being which has so far led to the problem of metaphysics. This forgetful of being is to be tackled when one studies being in relation to time. This work evaluates Heidegger’s position with an objective of seeing how realistic his position is and how successfully this idea is going to impact on metaphysics.
The study investigated Organizational justice and work-family conflict as the predictors of workplace deviance among non-academic workers of University of Nigeria. Three hundred (male and female) non-academic workers of University of Nigeria participated in the study. Three instruments were used in the data collection, which includes organizational justice Scale (OJS), work-family conflict scale (WFC) scale and workplace deviant behaviour scale (WDB). Two hypotheses were tested. Result of the study shows procedural, distributive, interpersonal justice and family-work conflict (FIWW) as non significant predictor of workplace deviance among non academic workers of University of Nigeria Nsukka. The result also indicates informational justice and work-family conflict (WIWF) as significant predictor of workplace deviance (β = .18, p < .05) and (β = .25, p < .001) respectively. This means the higher the informational justice given to employees, the lower the workplace deviance. In other words, the provision of necessary organizational information (informational justice) such as explanation for pay reduction, late payment or introduction of organizational change will reduce workplace deviance. While for work-family conflict, the higher the work-family conflict, the higher the workers engage into workplace deviance. This entails that workers who experience work role interfering with their family roles will not be pleased, rather will engage in workplace deviance as pay back. The limitations of the findings were highlighted and suggestions made for further studies.
The predominant opinion that science has the explanation and solution to natural and social problems can be summed in the words of Mel Thompson that ‘science is a massive problem-solving and information gathering enterprise’. Thoughts such as this relegate other forms of knowledge and the benefits therein to the background or sometimes dismissing them as primitive myths or traditional gibberish. However, Karl Popper believes that myths and traditions are essential component of modern science and that without tradition knowledge is impossible. Myths survive via tradition. Popper argues for a critical examination of myths and tradition before rejecting or accepting them. Along this line, the study analyzed and evaluated Popper’s thoughts on myths and traditions. Specifically, the study, using Popper’s theory of critical rationalism as a framework, tried to situate the appropriateness or otherwise of myths and traditions for the enhancement of scientific and social knowledge; discover the philosophy behind myths and traditions; how they are created, sustained and transmitted and finally, discover the role it had played and could play in the development of science and society. The study affirmed Popper’s view that tradition is a very important source of knowledge and that science originates from myths and traditions. It was also established that the philosophy behind every myth and tradition is the explanation and justification of all human experiences and actions. It was equally discovered that cosmological and physical regularities and irregularities give impetus for the creation of myths and traditions. The study advocates the enthronement of the culture of logical curiosity in cultures where critical thinking is not a tradition in other to preserve their myths and traditions for future generations.
Equality literature means a situation or state where all the members of a group have the same status, rights and opportunities. down through the ages of human existence many have been deprived such rights and opportunities in various societies.