University of Nigeria OER Competition | Register Here
My interest in the great African philosopher Augustine was kindled during a course in medieval ethics. Any one would see his humility who learns of his public confessions of his evil act in Carthage.
The problem of evil is the problem of human misery and evil in the world and the problem of evil and God.
There has been a revival of interest, among philosophers, in the area of justice (especially the justice of the social structure) since the early 1970's. Robert Nozick, an American philosopher and a frontline libertarian, envisages free market capitalism, a minimal state and non-redistribution of resources, as necessary conditions for an adequate theory of justice. He defends his
position in his book: Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1 974). However, ever since the publication of this work, there has been upsurge of criticisms against his thought. Unfortunately, many of these critics have confused Nozick's libertarianism with his theory of distributive justice, thereby giving a faulty interpretation of what Nozick says about justice.
The central question of ethics is one of practice, not primarily one of theory. The central question for Aristotle as well as Plato is 'what is the good life?' For Aristotle, it must be something that is chosen and aimed at for its own sake, that it must be an ultimate good that explains all other goods. The answer he offers is eudaimonia. This is typically translated into English as "happiness".
This thesis argues that knowledge derived from the empirical
sciences must be qualified. The empirical knowledge cannot lead
to certainty, truth and objective reality, which is real knowledge
about the external world. The knowledge claims in empirical
knowledge need to be examined and re-examined. Hence, this
work is EL modern critique of the empirical knowledge. The many
forms of and/or approaches to knowledge shaped the background
of this study.
This work is a master's degree theses wihich has been inspired by the events of our time. it is therefore the outcome of a personal cncern for and reflection on thee crisis of socio-polotical council which though it did not start today has become a serious problem threatening the vital condition of integral human development as well as it essential ultimate fulfillment.
This is a study of the interplay of plitics and economics on Nigeria's Ajaokuta steel project. The analysis recognised the disparity in levels of technology between the advanced capitalist countries and the developing countries.
The basis of social order, coordination of social institutions for attainment of peaceful and harmonious co-existence in the society of human beings is justice as it is the foundation upon which social interaction is secured. John Rawls opines that justice is the first virtue of social institutions.
John Locke defined property right as right acquired through fixing of property by means of mixing personal labour with natural resources. Locke asserts that what constitutes primary title for property is labour. In the state of nature, a man’s labour is his own and what he mixes with his labour becomes his own. He focuses attention on propounding natural right to property. As man has the right and duty to self-preservation, so has he the right to the means required for this purpose. He argues that God, who gave the world to men in common, gave them reason to make use of it to the best advantage of life and convenience. However, he sets limit to what a man can mix with his labour and convert to his property. For him, the same law of nature that gave man property also sets acquisition limit such that as much as one can use for the advantage of life before it spoils can he with his labour fix as property. The implications of Locke’s position on property right is that if mixing of labour with resources lying in nature is the only criterion for property right then those who acquire theirs through other means such as inheritance, gift, transfer and trade cannot claim any property right in them because they did not mix any personal labour with resources lying in nature to fix them as property. Though, Locke is correct by proposing mixing of labour with resource lying in nature as the condition for property right, it is not the only means of property acquisition. Property can also be acquired through inheritance, transfer, gift and transaction on already acquired piece of property. However, its strength is that it addresses the prevalent social ill of demanding and receiving emoluments without proportional work output.
In an attempt to have security, order, progress and harmony in
human society, citizens must adopt moral principles that should regulafe
their action. Invariably, morality occupies a unique place in social
development or nation building. In Nigeria, neo-colonialism, poverty,
corruption, among other factors, constitute factors of underdevelopment
and the application of moral values, particularly African Traditional moral
values has a solution to this problem. Morality helps one to know the
good life, which promotes the common good and enhances the welfare
of the entire populace. When the moral order is upset, other areas of
human life are equally affected.
The task of distillation of truth from different propositions or theories, in other to arrive at a rigorous science that is objectively grounded is indeed problematic. Objective knowledge is the science of true philosophy. It is the quality of being true
even outside of a subject’s individual prejudice, biases, interpretation, feeling and imagination. However, philosophers in an attempt to demonstrate how this objective knowledge can be attained ended up in a science of facts or naturalism. But the question is, does it lead to objective knowledge? Husserl believes that no science of facts can lead to the science of foundation. For him, it is only the phenomenological method which is concerned with analyzing consciousness, where alone objectivity is absolute, can guarantee an objective knowledge. Thus for him objective knowledge is the knowledge of the essence of things. It is the knowledge that has absolute being as its object. Husserl therefore believes that the phenomenological method/technique by which we can arrive at the essence of things or the knowledge of the absolute is the
epoche. This work is an inquiry into how Husserl’s phenomenological epoche can lead us to objective knowledge. It also explored to what extent Husserl phenomenological method can provide foundation for other normative sciences. A combination of historical, expository, analytic and evaluative methods were adopted.
The work centres on the impact of GlobaIization on African (Igbo) identity. The centrality of identity in the life of any people cannot be over emphasized. Identity is what something is or those qualities that distinguish one thing from the other, Identity is equally Iacated in time a d space and therefore a product of
history. It is not static. The historical experiences of any people go a long way in
forming, shaping and determining the identity of such people.
The African (Igbo) historical experiences of slavery, racism, colonialism and neo-colonialism have been very crucial and indispensable in the emergence of varying identities for the African. These historical experiences have also succeeded in ending the primordial and authentic African identity.
Violence for Frantz Fanon is the weapon of decolonization for Africa. His analysis is encapsulated in his theory of revolutionary socialism. Revolutionary socialism is the use of violence to fight colonialism, racism, slavery, imperialism and exploitation which have dehumanized the Africans. As an Algerian, Fanon experienced the effects of colonization because living in France confronted him with the racial contradictions of French republican ideology. Fanon opted for violent resistance as a result of the unbearable situation that Algerians in particular and Africans in general found themselves in the hands of the colonialists. He regarded physical violence as an accompanying characteristics of violence. Previous studies on Fanon’s violence dwelt much on the immediate benefit of violence as a tool for decolonization but little attention was given to the long term effect of using violence to fight violence. Though the weakness is that in some situations using violence to fight violence can be counter-productive, this study concludes that violence is a veritable tool for decolonization especially in situations where the colonialists unleashed terror on the colonized.
The question of freedom and action has been controversial down through the ages. It concerns the power or ability of the person to choose a course of action and take responsibility for it without being subject to restraints imposed by antecedent causes or necessity. This is the question Jean Paul Sartre, one of the twentieth century French existentialist philosophers, deals with in his philosophy. His position is that man is free; and to prove this, he identifies human reality with being for-itself or consciousness in his famous work: Being and Nothingness. According to Sartre, in the for-itself, existence precedes and commands essence. This means that the human being is first of all a being with no definite nature or essence. It is only in existing that man determines his essence; and this is what constitutes freedom. The human person is characterized by action and that is the expression of freedom. Sartre went further to state that though man is free, his freedom is a factical one, that is, in a situation, a freedom that goes with responsibility. The purpose of this work was to expose Sartre’s notion of freedom and action; investigate the tenability of Sartre’s position; examine the ethical implications of his notion of freedom and action; and highlight its strengths and weaknesses. The historical, expository and evaluative methods were used for this research. The study finds out that Sartre tied his idea of freedom to that of choice and insisted that freedom is not like a property to be added to the being of a person, but it is part of the being of a person to be free. This freedom is expressed in action. It is a freedom in a situation and a freedom with responsibility. This notion of freedom as choice is very tenable as it agrees with the experience of our everyday life. However, Sartre failed in his notion of freedom in his attempt to remove the idea of God and creation from his philosophy. The idea of God is never at variance with human freedom. The strength of Sartre’s theory is in its idea of responsibility which can be a spring board for ethical standards. On the other hand, its major weakness is that his idea of freedom can encourage an ethics of subjectivism.
Federalism has been practiced in Nigeria since 1954. But the country continued to reel from one problem to the other which defy solution. Political instability as demonstrated by several coup detats, religious ,and ethnic crisis, economic doldrums, collective social and cultural anomie, contentious revenue allocation formulas, constitutional crisis of authority, struggle for autonomy and control amongst the federating units of the center, state and the local governments are earmarked as problems emanating from our federal system of government. These problems had been traditional to political philosophy to the extent that the country is yet to strike a balance between our desire to build a nation and the willingness to restructure our federalism. Philosophy exposes the imperfections in what we call the federal system of government, a federalism that refuses and stifles the autonomy of the federating units with the federal government operating a unitary form of legal association which imposes laws, taxes, commands and unconstitutional controls upon the states, local governments and the different sub- nationalities that make up what we call Nigeria. The consequence is that the national question has continued to defy solutions proffered under the existing regime of federalism, which is imperfect and structurally defective. The research examines the Nigerian federal system, and attempts to find out the character of its imperfections, and various contributions of scholars to find remedies and structural conditions under which federalism can work in Nigeria.