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Equality literature means a situation or state where all the members of a group have the same status, rights and opportunities. down through the ages of human existence many have been deprived such rights and opportunities in various societies.
Traditionally, Tiv society is stupendously moral. The degree of morality is supposed to be sustained in everything that the Tiv person does at any point in time. Any attempt at disturbing the equilibrium that exists in the world or nature is met with negative repercussions. This is based on the understanding that man is a composite of matter and spirit. It is the material aspect of the human being that makes him subject to the basic forces and laws of nature. In this wise, man lives within the natural space and time. What this means is that man is no longer fit to be considered solely as the master of the universe, rather he is the ‘steward’ of the world. This point of emphasis concerning the position of man in the world is very simple. Man is a rational creature that has the ability to reflect his rationality in every activity he performs in life. Reason creates ideas and ideas make the difference in a world that seeks to change and develop. It is with the aid of this reasoning ability that human beings become conscious of their actions and these actions are normally geared towards development for the purpose of achieving human happiness. The goal of life, which is the attainment of self-actualization is clear, but it is very difficult for an individual or a group of people to conceive a genuine theory of development that truly embraces all the following theories: a theory of man, a theory of mind, a theory of reality, a theory of society or state, and a theory of knowledge and to put them into practice. It is even more difficult to combine these different theories for the purpose of achieving sustainable development in general and particularly for the Tiv society. This study answers the following questions; what is the true nature of development and how is metaphysics related to development? What is the nature of the person as conceived by the Tiv people? How virile is the Tiv value system in meeting up with the challenges of development in the contemporary society? The main objective of this study is to examine the relevance of metaphysics to development with a view to applying it to the Tiv people of North Central Nigeria. The other specific objectives of this study include: (i) examine the level of underdevelopment in Tiv land, (ii) examine the extent to which political leaders in Tiv land have contributed to underdevelopment of the area through egocentrism, and (iii) show that an increase in the inculcation of metaphysical values like justice, transparency, accountability, equality, etc., in the art of governance will ensure political stability. The study adopted expository and evaluative methods of research. The expository method was used for the purpose of examining the Tiv metaphysics in totality and we adopted the evaluative method for the critical examination of the impact some of the selected metaphysical strands have on the process of development in Tiv society. The data for this research study were collated from bibliographical sources such as; e-books, journals, periodicals, textbooks, and Internet materials for the purpose of analysis. The impact of metaphysics on development is recognized in the worldview of the individuals and various philosophical systems of Tiv people. All aspects of human endeavour are needed to stimulate the process of development.
Karl Popper (1902 – 1994), a Vienna-born philosopher advanced a liberal theory of Incremental Change also known as “piece meal social engineering” which prefers reforms to revolution. He had argued that in view of the ontological fallibility of human rationality, the safest course in human actions should be to make sure that all programmes of change are advanced in small steps so that unexpected ill-effects of any action is closely checked. For him, socio-political revolution is quite ingenious but also perilously inclined to irrationalism, without consideration of the unpredictability of human actions and the changeability of phenomenon. He further notes that, the incremental approach to change involves self-criticism, tactfulness and certainty and is therefore more scientific in character, while revolutionary approach is always inspired by holism, utopianism, aestheticism and historicism and it lacks self-criticism and also involves much of speculation that often leads to unexpected results. In recent times, however, there is almost a general consensus among Nigerians that the socio-political realities in the country need change. And a reasonable population of Nigerians is arguing that the task of reinventing a new socio-political order in Nigeria can only be realised through a revolution by the masses owing to the disposition and unpreparedness of the ruling class to alter the status quo. This work therefore seeks to demonstrate the implication of Karl Popper’s theory of incremental change on the increasing quest for socio-political revolution in Nigeria with the aim of proposing an option for Nigeria in her quest for a socio-political transformation and sustainable development.
freedom is an ideal dream of individuals, groups, societies and nations, no matter how primitive they are. This paper evaluates The Concept Of African Freedom.
The notion of substance has been one of the major problems that faced both ancient and modern philosophers. Though it has not been receiving serious attention in
contemporary period, it nonetheless forms one of the most important structures in Western philosophy.
The central question of ethics is one of practice, not primarily one
of theory. The central question for Aristotle as well as Plato is 'what is
the good life?' For Aristotle, it must be something that is chosen and
aimed at for its own sake, that it must be an ultimate good that explains
all other goods. The answer he offers is eudaimonia. This is typically
translated into English as "happiness".
The central question of ethics is one of practice, not primarily one of theory. The central question for Aristotle as well as Plato is 'what is the good life?' For Aristotle, it must be something that is chosen and aimed at for its own sake, that it must be an ultimaG good that explains all other goods. The answer he offers is eudaimonia. This is typically translated into English as "happiness".
One of the primary aims of philosophy is the rational identification of the fundamental principles of things. This basic aim pre-occupied most philosophers from the Ancient time to the Contemporary time. Plato, as ine of the leading philosophers in the Ancient time, was also pre-occupied by the above philosophical quest.
The broad objective of this paper is to investigate into the Ultimate Being
in Igbo Ontology. However, this is a rather ill-defined ambition; and so the First of the Paper's Nine Chapters is spent translating it into definite, manageable problems and questions. It is our firm belief that problems once identified are already half solved. And that time is over due for us to begin thinking upon the thinking of the pre-modern African on some basic issues to develop a systematic philosophy for the modern African states based on the dogmatic but enduring assumptions of the past. The Chapter concludes with an examination of the contributions of some scholars who made worthwhile contributions in our area of investigation.
Ideological constructions for the betterment of the society have remained
man's characteristic response to experiential perceptions of prevailing inhuman
conditions at different points in history. At independence, African nations had
cause to review the legacies of westernism with particular reference to
neocolonialist tendencies and attitudinal capitalism with quite regrettable
results. This left the African leadership clainouring for possible ideological
alternatives and strategization that would restore Africa's lost self-hood and
values exemplified in egalitarianism, cultural revivalism, ~normal sensitivity and
other such fraternal considerations
l'he goods of' the earth belong lo all men only to the extent we uphold
"productive causality" as primordial title to property. 1:vcn so, this position is tenable
only when we go by the logic that the source of this productive causality belongs to
all men in common. 'Thus, this 'source', through the Law of Nature, ordains that man
has to reduce the universal principle ol'owncrstiip of material goods to particular by
irnprinting his personality on this or that piccc ofnlatcrial or thing. This he docs by
'ellkctive occupancy' through labour. 1Ic can thus be variously entitlcd to certain
quuntilios o1'~hesc goods ol'thc earl11 prinlordially given to all lncrl in common as his
own private property.
Freedom is an ideal and dream of individuals, groups, societies and nations, no matter how primitive they are. It is a metaphysical term translatable into concrete historical reality. It is a free and liberal gift from nature to man for his self-creative process, and which enhances and nurtures distinctiveness, creativity and originality in man's intellectual, aesthetic and material undertakings.
This work is a master's degree thesis which has been inspired by the events of our time.. it is therefore the outcome of a personal concern for, and reflection on the circle of socio-political community which, though it did not alert today, has become a serious problem threatening the vital condition of integral human development as well as its essential ultimate fulfillment..
In the course of their struggle to free Africa from the stranglehold of colonial rule, African freedom fighters formulated theoretical frameworks or liberation philosophies as guiding principles.
This work is a master's degree thesis which has been inspired by the events of our time. it is therefore the outcome of a personal concern for, and reflection on, the crisis of socio-political community which, though it did not start today, has become a serious problem threatening the vital condition of integral human development as well as its essential ultimate fulfillment.