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The major purpose of the study was to identify strategies for enhancing stress management among spouses in Katsina State, Nigeria. Eight research questions and eight null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and was carried out in Katsina State, Nigeria. The population of this study was made up of the entire 986,453 spouses in Katsina State. Purposive and multistage sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 900 respondents made up of 450 husbands and 450 wives. Two sets of instruments were used for data collection for the study. These include the Focus Group Discussion Guide (FGD) and structured questionnaire titled: “Spousal Stress Management Strategies Questionnaire (SSMSQ). The questionnaire was face-validated by five experts. Internal consistency of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha reliability method and reliability coefficient of 0.78 was obtained. Six trained research assistants were involved in data collection. Out of the 900 copies of questionnaire administered, 846 copies were properly completed and returned representing 94% return rate. Mean was used for answering the research questions while t-test statistics was used in testing the eight null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The focus group discussion was summarized and organized based on the purposes of the study. The major findings of the study include: causes of stress among spouses in Katsina State with major causes as spouses related intimacy, children; economic/finance related causes among others, appropriate physical stress management strategies include: regular body exercises with spouse, control body weight and relaxation techniques among others psychological stress management strategies include: building faith in God, listening to music and being optimistic among others, social supports stress management strategies include: owning a pet, counseling by social workers and prayers among others; environment related stress management strategies include: avoiding noisy environment in both official and residential houses and ensuring clean and safe environment among others; time management strategies for controlling stress include: setting priorities, applying work simplification techniques and planning time use by scheduling among others. Problems that can hinder the adoption of stress management strategies by spouses include: wide age differences, uncompromising attitudes of spouses and large family size among others and the ways through which spouses could be helped to adopt stress management strategies include: developing and using good listening skills, showing appreciation to each other and adopting positive attitude towards stressful events among others. On the hypotheses tested, the study found out that there are no significant differences in the mean ratings of the responses of husbands and wives on 171 out of the 217 items in the study while on the remaining 46 items, there are significant differences. Based on these findings, the study recommended among others, regular awareness campaign about causes of stress among spouses in the State; there should be government and NGOs organized sponsored drama to enlighten spouses on the dangers of unhealthy stress management adopted by spouses and their negative consequences on the individual, family and society in general.
This study sought to examine the motivational factors and vocational preference of secondary school adolescents. Four research questions and two null hypotheses were generated to guide the study. The design of the study was a descriptive survey design. The sample consisted of 349 Senior Secondary School (SSS) III students in the secondary school in Onitsha Education Zone of Anambra State. The instrument used for the study was vocational interest and motivational factor questionnaire (VIMFQ). Means, standard deviation, chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Major findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference between male and female students who showed preferences to various vocational areas; there was a significant difference between urban and rural students who showed preferences to various vocational areas; the male and female students are motivated by external influences to a low extent, rewards/benefits, self expression values and people oriented motivated them in their choice of a vocation to a great extent, the urban students are motivated by external influence to a low extent while rural students are influenced to a great extent; rewards/benefits, self-expression values and people oriented values motivated both urban and rural students to a great extent. Based on these findings, conclusions were drawn and the educational implications were extensively discussed. Among the recommendations made were that more professional guidance counsellors should be posted to schools to perform functions like providing students with vocational information, helping students to identify their interest, capabilities and abilities in relation to their vocational choices. counsellors should guide the students in selection of school subjects which are related to their area of aspiration than allowing non-professionals to remain in that Post. Teachers should emphasis during their lesson, the career implications of subjects so that students will see how individual subjects relate to existing careers thus increasing their knowledge of occupations.
The demand for palm fruit products such as edible oil, soap, margarine and so on has led to the need for more efficient mechanized and automated methods of processing palm fruits to substitute the traditional and crude methods of digesting palm fruits, with its bulk of demerits ranging from low production capacity, unhygienic nature, large consumption of time and energy.
The study focused on the assessment of poverty level and environmental
degradation among farmers in the central Agricultural Zone of Osun State.
Specifically the study sought for: (1) the extent of the manifestations of
environmental degradation in the agricultural zone; (2) the level of poverty
among farmers in the study area; (3) determination of the relationship between
environmental degradation and poverty level of the farmers; (4) other predisposing
factors to environmental degradation in the area; and (5) suggest ways
of reducing environmental degradation, so as to avert poverty in the study area.
The area of the study was the Central Agricultural Zone of Osun - State, which
was made up of 9 Local Government Areas. Survey research design was
employed for the study covering a target population of 1,220 registered farmers,
out of which a sample of 120 farmers was taken. Fifty two (52) items structured
questionnaire divided into five sections (A, B, C, D & E) was developed,
validated, tested for reliability and administered. Out of 150 copies given out, 120
copies were duly completed and returned mean and standard deviation was
used to answer the research questions while ANOVA was used to test
hypothesis 1, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient together with ttransformation
was used to test hypothesis 2 at .05 level of significance. The
findings of the study revealed that: environmental degradation manifested to
higher extent in the area, level of poverty among the farmers in the area was
equally high; there was a close association and significant relationship between
poverty and environmental degradation in the area. The study recommended
that: (i) faculties of education in universities and other institutions of higher
learning should incorporate Environmental Agriculture into their training
programme; (ii) officials of the ministries should use the findings in making
reform in secondary school Agricultural Science curriculum; and (iiiO State and
Local Governments can use the findings to organize radio talk, workshop and
seminars for their farmers.
The study was aimed at determining the influence of oil and gas exploitation on agricultural production and coping mechanisms required by farmers for sustainable agriculture in Bayelsa State. The study specifically determined the activities of oil and gas exploitation, influence of oil and gas exploitation on crop and aquacultural production as well as the influence on farmers and also explored the coping mechanisms to curtail problems of oil and gas exploitation. Five research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was 67,551 registered farmers of the federal ministry of agriculture and rural development in the state. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to select 1% of the farmers according to their LGAs (strata) bringing the sample to 674 respondents. A 75-items structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The items on the questionnaire were assigned four response options of High Influence/Strongly Agree (HI/SA= 4), Moderate Influence/Agree (MI/A=3), Slight Influence/Disagree (SI/D=2) and No Influence/Strongly Disagree (NI/SD=1). The instrument was face validated by three experts: all from the Department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The reliability of the questionnaire was established using Cronbach Alpha method and a coefficient of 0.78 was obtained. Out of the 674 copies of the instrument administered, 650 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and utilized for analysis representing 96% retrieval. The data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions and t-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance at the appropriate degrees of freedom. The findings of the study revealed that the influence of oil and gas exploitation on crop, aquacultural production as well as on farmers in Bayelsa state is moderate. Findings further revealed that Oil and gas exploitation has resulted to reduction of crop yield, retarded growth rate in crops and has led to reduction in total land for crop production activities as well as led to high displacement of farmers from their original settlements and has resulted to loss of farmland for agricultural activities as indicated by farmers in Bayelsa State. Recommendations made included continuous training of extension workers on current information about curtailing problems of oil and gas exploitation so as to enable them enlighten farmers, the encouragement of farmers by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and other well-meaning non-governmental organization in the providing incentives and subsidizing inputs for the farmers in Bayelsa State.
The study was carried out to determine the adequacy of the content and the readability of the recommended textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education in Enugu state. Eighteen research questions were posed and answered by the study. Evaluation research design was adopted. The population of the study was the 29 recommended textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education schools in Enugu state. The sample for the study was 27 recommended main textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education schools in Enugu state. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the textbooks. All the 27 main textbooks which are separate volumes for either of the upper basic education I or II or III students’ class levels were selected. Quantitative Approach to Content Evaluation of Science Textbooks (QACEST) with A 5-point Quantitative model instrument was used by the expert lecturers to obtain information on the topical coverage, learning activities illustrations, chapter summaries and study questions variables of the content of the textbooks, while Cloze procedure was used to develop the Readability Tests of the Recommended Agriculture Textbooks (RTRAT) instrument, which was used to obtain information from the students on the readability of the textbooks. The RTRAT instrument is of three categories: RTRAT I version of the instrument for Upper Basic Education (UBE) I students, RTRAT II version of the instrument for UBE II students and RTRAT III version of the instrument for UBE III students. Each version of the RTRAT instrument test items were drawn from the passages of the textbooks for each class level. Each class level test items consists of 180 words which were omitted in the drawn passages and were filled by each students of a particular class level. The QACEST and RTRAT instruments were face validated by three experts. The temporary stability of the RTRAT instrument test items was determined using test re-test method. The sets of scores obtained were correlated using Spearman rank order correlation coefficient, which yielded coefficients of 0.85, 0.80 and 0.70 for RTRAT I, RTRAT II and RTRAT III versions of the instrument respectively. Three hundred and ninety-eight copies of the RTRAT questionnaire were administered to the students through the researcher and the three research assistants. All the administered 398 copies of the RTRAT questionnaire were retrieved and analyzed. QACEST Index which consists of Topical coverage index (TCI), Learning activities index (LAI), Illustrations index (ILI), Chapter summaries index (CSI) and Study questions index (SQI) were used to analyze data that answered research questions 1 to 15, while percentage and bar charts were used to analyze data for answering research questions 16 to 18. It was found out that the content of 2 of the 27 evaluated textbooks were inadequate in learning activities, illustrations, chapter summaries and study questions variables. It was also found that 25 out of the 27 books were not readable while 2 were readable. It was recommended that the Enugu state ministry of education should ensure that the authors improve on their books by providing for the deficits found in the textbooks in their subsequent editions.
This study focused on the development of motivational training programme for enhancing the entry of almajiris into cotton production occupations in Northwest, Nigeria. Six research questions guided the study and five hypotheses were formulated and tested at the probability of 0.05 level of significance. Research and Development (R & D) design was used for the study. The population for the study was 2,717 comprising 1,528 Agricultural Extension Agents; 1,138 Teachers of Agricultural Science; 24 Cotton Processors and 27 Marketers. The sample for the study was 580 consisting 301 Agricultural Extension Agents, 228 Teachers of Agricultural Science and 51 Cotton Processors and Marketers. The population of Agricultural Extension Agents and Teachers of Agricultural Science were sampled using 20% proportionate stratified random sampling technique while the entire population of Cotton Processors and Marketers were adopted because of their small size. The questionnaire which is divided into five sections (growing, processing, and marketing of cotton, motivational strategies and training procedures) were developed from the review of the literature and function of industry and used for data collection from the respondents and were face-validated by five experts. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instruments. Reliability coefficients of 0.79, 0.71, 0.73, 0.82 and 0.89 were obtained for the five sections of questionnaire respectively. Agricultural Extension Agents and Teachers of Agricultural Science responded to 529 copies of the questionnaire on growing of cotton, motivational strategies and training procedure, while Cotton Processors and Marketers responded to 51 copies of the questionnaire on processing and marketing of cotton. The questionnaires were administered to the respondents by the researcher with the help of seven research assistants. A total of 571 copies were retrieved out of the 580 copies administered with return rate of 98.4%. The data collected were analyzed using weighted mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at the probability level of 0.05 and at relevant degrees of freedom. It was found out that the almajiris required 182 competencies in growing cotton, 57 competencies in processing cotton and 27 competencies in marketing of cotton for entry into any of the occupation in cotton production enterprises. It was also found out that 34 motivational strategies were required for motivating the almajiris for entry into training in cotton production occupations. The trainers also required 10 motivational strategies for enhancing their performance in training the almajiris in cotton production enterprises. The study further revealed that 28 competencies were identified as training procedure to be utilized by trainers for empowering the almajiris with skills at the skill acquisition centres. The findings from the test of hypotheses revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of Agricultural Extension Agents and Teachers of Agricultural Science on 182 competencies on growing of cotton, 44 motivational strategies required for motivating the almajiris as well as trainers in cotton production occupations. It was also found out that there was no significant difference in the mean rating of the responses of Cotton Processors and Marketers on 52 out of 57 competency items required by almajiris for entry into cotton processing enterprise. Also, there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of Cotton Processors and Marketers on 27 competencies in marketing for enhancing the entry of almajiris into marketing of cotton. The identified competencies in cotton production occupation and motivational strategies for the training of almajiris in cotton production were used to package the motivational training programme for the training of almajiris in cotton production. It was recommended that the identified motivational strategies with competencies in cotton production should be utilized by the state government in Northwest, Nigeria for training the almajiris in cotton production for entering into occupation in cotton enterprises.
This study was carried to find the determinants of adoption of modern agroforestry technologies among ADP contact farmers in Enugu State Nigeria. 360 ADP contact farmers constituted the sample of the study. A-120 item structured questionnaire validated by three experts was used to collect data for the study. The Cronbach Alpha method was used to test the internal consistency of the instrument. The weighted mean, percentages, and multiple regression were used to analyse data that answered the research questions, while t-test statistic and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA ) were used to test the hypotheses. The socioeconomic characteristics of contact farmers that were determinants of adoption of the technologies were gender, experience of the farmers with agricultural extension workers,educational qualification and frequency of visit of agricultural extension workers. Agricultural extension teaching methods identified as determinants were – farm/home visits, group discussion, circle meetings, exhibition and conducted tours .agroforestry inputs identified as determinants were improved tree seedlings, modern beehives, vertiver grasses and organic/inorganic fertilizers. Environmental factors identified as determinants were rainfall, sunlight, temperature, fertility status of the soil, topography, soil erosion drought, pests and diseases. The study equally revealed that there is no significant difference between the mean responses of male and female ADP contact farmers on stages of adoption of the technologies . The study found that there is no significant difference in the mean responses of literate and non-literate contact farmers on the adoption of modern agroforestry technologies. The study found that the environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, soil fertility determined the adoption of modern agroforestry technologies in Awgu, Enugu and Nsukka agricultural zones of Enugu state. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made among which include that; the educational qualifications of agricultural extension agents of the state ADP should be raised to a minimum of a University degree in Agricultural Extension/Education or related discipline. Contact farmers should be involved both in designing, planning and execution of modern agroforestry technologies, so that their socio-economic characteristics will be taken into consideration. There should be capacity building for agricultural extension workers particularly in educational methodology. Government, non-governmental organizations, donor agencies should subsidize agroforestry inputs, while communities, schools and private individuals should establish tree nurseries. Governments and non governmental organization should invest in agroforestry researches which will benefit the society.
The study was conducted to determine the impact of Fadama II project services on skill acquisition in agricultural practices among rural farmers in the North Central Zone, Nigeria. To enable the researcher achieve the purpose of the study nine (6) research questions were generated and answered, also five (5) hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Ex post facto Research Design was adopted for this study. The area of the study was the North Central zone of Nigeria comprising of Abuja the Federal Capital Territory, Niger, Kogi, Nassarawa Kaduna, Benue and Plateau states. The population for the study consisted of 93,084 beneficiaries and non beneficiaries of the project. The sample for the study consisted of 465 respondent comprising of 281 beneficiaries and 184 non beneficiaries selected by stratified simple random sampling technique. Interviews, Focused Group Discussion and questionnaire were the major instruments for data collection. The researcher developed same sets of instruments which were administered to the two groups. The instruments were validated by two senior lecturers in the Department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka and a Chief Agricultural Officer with the National Fadama Office Abuja. The reliability of the instrument was obtained using Cronbach Alpha Reliability Test. A reliability coefficient of 0.97 was obtained. Qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis were employed in the study. The standard deviation, mean and t-test statistics were employed to analyze the data collected. Among the major findings of this study was the identification of skills acquired in agricultural practices by farmers in the North Central zone. Also, the study revealed that as a result of the Fadama project services, skills have been acquired to an average level in natural resource use, agricultural input use and animal production practices. Furthermore, skills were acquired to a fair level in crop production practices and selected micro livestock enterprises (snail farming, bee keeping and hunting). Results revealed that beneficiaries acquired higher levels of skills when compared with non beneficiaries in the areas of natural resource use, agricultural input use, crop production, animal production and micro livestock enterprises. Although the differences were insignificant, it was an indication that the project impacted positively on the beneficiaries. The implication of the findings is that the continued implementation of the Fadama project and its expansion to areas yet to benefit from it will enable more farmers acquire relevant agricultural skills for the adoption of right practices. The acquisition of these skills surely will translate into sustained increase in productivity, income and standard of living of rural farmers in particular and the nation at large. Among the major recommendations based on the findings of this study is that Government should encourage more rural farmers to participate in the Fadama project. This could be achieved through aggressive multimedia campaign aimed at showcasing the dividend of the project no matter how small they may be. Also recommended is that all agricultural intervention projects in Nigeria should adopt the Fadama II project’s demand driven strategy in identification and execution of project in our communities
Snail farming (heliciculture) is increasingly becoming popular in Bayelsa State, occasioned by the high demand for snail meat due to shortage of other sources of animal protein and the expected income from the increasing price of snail. However, there is dearth of documented empirical research record on the level of application of heliciculture technologies as well as the productivity of farmers’ which could form basis for improving this area of food production. The study was thus designed to determine the level of application of snail farming technologies by the farmers, farmers’ productivity, constraints and measures for enhancing their productivity. The study was guided by ten research questions and seven null hypotheses. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. There was no sampling as the entire population of 153 registered snail farmers was used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a 214 items questionnaire that was face validated by five experts. An internal consistency coefficient of 0.66 was obtained for the instrument through the Cronbach alpha procedure. Data collected were analyzed using the mean to answer research questions 1-5 and 9-10, while gross margin and profit analysis were employed to answer research questions 6-8. The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test. It was found that the following technologies were highly applied by the farmers in snail farming: farm fencing, raised wooden snailery, Archachatina marginata species, feeding with plant parts, de-shelling, gutting, de-sliming and treading live snails with ropes for sale; whereas substrate liming, moating and trapping with nets were moderately applied. Technologies such as substrate inoculation, commercial feeding, egg candling, foot dipping and stocking Achatina achatina species, were seldomly adopted whereas purging snails, quarantine services, substrate sterilization, employing veterinary services, keeping farm records and stocking Achatina fulica species, were not applied by the snail farmers. Literacy, experience, location, gender and scale of production have no influence on the level of application of snail farming technologies by the farmers. An average production cost of N6,449/m2/yr was incurred while a yield of 317 adult snails/m2/yr was produced. On the average, farmers realized a net profit of N13,162/m2/yr, as well as a proceed of N2.00/yr per naira outlay with a pay back period of 121/2 months. However, shortage of improved species, lack of heliciculture extension services, seasonal flooding of snail farms among others were identified as the major constraints of farmers. Thus, it was recommended among others that modern heliciculture technologies that can improve snail farming should be packaged and made available at affordable price to agric. extension agents and farmers, regular workshops should be organized for farmers by ADP, state government should establish snail breeding centers and that good drainages be constructed in the farms to improve this area of food production in the study area.
The study examined critically, women empowerment and poverty alleviation of rural women in Nsukka education zone of Enugu state. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. The total population of this study was 411 registered women co-operatives socities in the two selected Local government areas in Nsukka Education zone of Enugu state comprising of Igbo-Etiti and Nsukka local government areas. Four research questions guided the study. There was no sample and sampling technique due to the fact that the population of the study was small and of manageable size. A structured questionnaire titled women empowerment and poverty alleviation questionnaire (WEPAQ) which contained forty items was used as an instrument for data collection. The reliability of the instrument was ascertained through trial-tested, with the overall reliability co-efficient of 0.82.Direct delivery Method was used for the purpose of administering an instrument for data collection. The instrument was face-validated by three experts and retrieving the questionnaire with the help of two research assistants. The four research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. An overview of the findings showed that poverty alleviation programmes rural women engaged in include only the production of soya milk powder and detergent, factors that militate against women empowerment in rural areas include; gender disparity, illiteracy, some cultural belief such as men being superior to women, societal cultural activities and others. Based on the findings of the study, the study among others recommends that government should create the culture of industrial production and management in rural areas as a strategy to empower the rural women and ensure that fund meant for women empowerment and poverty alleviation programmes are properly utilized. Limitations of the study were identified and suggestions for further studies were made.
This study was designed to investigate students’ assessment of geography teacher’s instructional effectiveness in Cross River State. Seven research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. A survey research design was employed as the research methodology. A total of 400 Senior Secondary geography students of Cross River State public and private school participated in the study. A structured student’s assessment of geography teacher’s instructional effectiveness. Questionnaire was adapted for data collection with an alpha coefficient of 0.84. Two experts in measurement and evaluation validated the instrument. Research hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using independent t-test while mean and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions. The results among other things showed that geography teachers’ possess the knowledge of the subject matter, geography teachers’ possess good communication skills, not all geography teachers that use effective teaching method to enhance learning, geography teachers’ posses good classroom management skills, geography teachers relate and interact with students despite their individual differences and geography teachers’ encourage and assess students’ work to improve their learning abilities. It was recommended that geography teachers should be equipped with current information communication technology facilities and materials to measure up to meet the world challenges, students should be involved in field trips, excursion exercises to gain practical experience of the subject-geography, current publications should be provided to equip and up-date teachers and students in teaching and learning of geography, the teacher should improvise instructional materials like world maps and information to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of geography lessons.
This study ascertained the level of Senior Secondary School Students’ Acquisition of Science Process Skills in Volumetric analysis in Ondo state. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A sample of 240 made up of 130 male students and 110 female students were used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a 20-item rating scale. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while the null hypotheses were tested using t-test statistic. The findings of the study revealed that the level of senior secondary school students’ acquisition of science process skills in volumetric analysis is low. Also, it was revealed that senior secondary school male students demonstrated high level of science process skills acquisition in volumetric analysis than female students. Likewise, the senior secondary school students from urban location demonstrated high level of science process skills acquisition in volumetric analysis than students from rural location. The study further revealed there is significant difference between urban and rural senior secondary school students’ mean level of acquisition of science process skills in volumetric analysis, among others. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that chemistry teachers should present the science process skills in clearer terms, starting from simple to complex in order for the students to acquire them. Chemistry teachers should direct more attention to female students to make them improve on the science process skills acquisition to enhance their performance in chemistry. Laboratories especially those in the rural areas should be equipped and teachers should adopt methods that will help students acquire the appropriate skills and that chemistry concepts such as volumetric analysis should be practical oriented so that students will do science instead of learning about science, among others.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Jigsaw instructional strategy on students’ achievement and interest in quadratic equation. Four research questions and six null hypotheses were posed and formulated respectively to guide the study. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. This study adopted a quasi-experimental research design, precisely nonequivalent control group design. A total of 156 SS2 mathematics students were used as sample for this study. A 30 multiple choice achievement test and quadratic equation interest scale were used to collect data for the study. Three experts validated the instrument. The instrument was trial tested and the reliability coefficient of 0.86 and 0.87 were obtained using Kuder-Richardson formula (KR-20) and Cronbach Alpha respectively. The Research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation and the null hypotheses were tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).The results of the study revealed among others that Jigsaw instructional strategy improved students’ achievement and interest in quadratic equation than lecture method. Male and female students’ achievements in quadratic equation appear to improve equally. However, female students’ interest score appears to be more improved in quadratic equations than their male counterpart. Also there was no significant interaction effect of method and gender on students’ mean achievement and interest in quadratic equation. The implications of the above findings were examined and it was recommended among other things that the mathematics educators, federal and state ministries of education, and secondary school education management board should organize seminars, workshop, conference, and in service training to inform and train teachers on the use of Jigsaw instructional strategy
The controversy over the lapses noticed in the conduct of examinations and the process of admission of candidates into Nigerian Universities through University Matriculation Examination (UME) necessitated the call for the introduction of post-UME (PUME). Certain problems were found to be associated with these processes such as content coverage, variation in question type and structure, admission through quota system, peculiarities of different Universities. The evident uncertainty in the validity and uniformity of admission criteria called for empirical investigation of the predictive validities of UME, PUME and combined UME/PUME chemistry scores used for admission into chemistry-based programmes in public Universities. The study was guided by four research questions and four hypotheses. The design of the study was correlational. Multistage sampling technique, were used to select a total of 1370 students that sat for UME and PUME and admitted into the public universities in Enugu State, in 10, departments from 20, chemistry-based faculties, used for the study. Records on performances of students in the examination were obtained from departmental admission lists and the students' records of their various universities. The stepwise multiple regression technique was used for the data analysis. The correlation coefficients were tested for significance using F-test at 0.05% level of significance. The study revealed among others that: In federal University, UME score did not predict students’ first year result in all the courses in public Universities except in Industrial chemistry (R2=0.14) in Federal University, where weak relationship was recorded. PUME chemistry scores predicted students’ first year scores in all the departments studied in Federal University: Agricultural Economics (R2= 0.17); Biochemistry (R2=0.02); Electrical/Electronics (R2=0.06); Industrial Chemistry (R2=0.39); Medicine (R2=0.06). In State University, PUME chemistry scores predicted students’ first year scores in Electrical Electronics (R2=0.07) but did not predict students’ scores in Agricultural Economics, (R2=0.02) Industrial Chemistry (R2= 0.01), Biochemistry (R2=0.01) and Medicine (R2=0.02). The average scores of both UME/PUME chemistry predicted students first year scores in all the courses in Federal University: Ag/Econs (R2=0.07); Bio/Chem ( R2=0.06); E/E (R2=0.05); Ind/Chem (R2=0.36); Med (R2=0.78), but in State University, the average scores of UME/ post-UME chemistry predicted students’ first year scores in Electrical Electronics only (R2=0.04).There were no relationships between students’ average scores of UME/PUME and their first year result in Agricultural Economics (R2= 0.01), Industrial chemistry (R2=0.01), Biochemistry (R2=0.04) and Medicine (R2=0.01). Students’ UME chemistry scores predicted their PUME chemistry scores in Biochemistry (R2=0.02) and Industrial chemistry (R2=0.27) in Federal University but did not predict the students’ PUME chemistry scores in Agricultural Economics (R2=0.01), Electrical Electronics (R2=0.01) and Medicine (R2=0.01). In State University, UME chemistry scores only predicted post-UME chemistry scores in Biochemistry (R2=0.06) and Electrical Electronics (R2=0.11) but did not predict their post-UME scores in Agricultural Economics (R2=0.02) Industrial chemistry (R2=0.01) and Medicine (R2=0.04). Based on the findings, the educational implications were highlighted. Appropriate recommendations were made, among which were, that all the problems associated with the process of UME have to be urgently addressed by JAMB and other stake holders in order to improve the quality and credibility of UME. A follow up policy should be made on post-UME and appropriate committee set up to look into the activities of PUME in public Universities. Chemistry questions should be standardized and unified within the chemistry-based faculties and across the public Universities.