The study was designed to determine the skills possessed by auto technology self employed graduates in Nasarawa state. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study was 110 respondents comprises of 30 auto technology entrepreneurs and auto technology employees. There was no sampling because of manageable size of the population. A structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The instrument was trial-tested on 15 respondents who were not part of the population used for the study after being subjected to face validation by three 3 experts from the department of vocational teacher education, university of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and 0.984 reliability coefficient value was obtained. Five research questions and five null hypotheses were formulated for the study. Mean was used to analyze the data for research questions while t-test was used to test the hypotheses of no significant difference at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed 36 technical skills, 16 managerial skills, 11 financial management skills, 21 marketing skills and 16 communication skills possessed by graduates of auto technology for self-employment in Nasarawa state. There was no significant difference in the mean responses of auto technology entrepreneurs and auto technology employees on the skills possessed by auto technology self employed graduates for entrepreneurial ventures. The study recommended that all the skills identified in this study should be packaged and uses to retain the graduates of auto technology as prospective entrepreneurs in the country. It was also recommended that the entrepreneurial skills identified should be introduced as one of the compulsory subjects in all secondary schools in the country. Through this methods students who transcend into technical institutions to the university level, would have become conversant with the tenets of entrepreneurial demand.
The emergence of emerging technologies in automobile industry has necessitated the need for new skill acquisition by automobile teachers teaching in technical colleges. The general purpose of this study was to identify and determine the skill needs of automobile teachers in teaching emerging technologies in technical colleges in Benue state. Five specific purposes were drawn and based on them. Five research questions were formulated based on related areas of old skills in automobile, ICT skill, pedagogical skill and how these skills can be acquired. Expert’s opinions on areas of skill needs in related areas of emerging technologies were drawn. Theories related to the study were also included as well as related empirical studies. Descriptive survey research design was chosen to guide the study. The area of study is Benue state of Nigeria. 36 subjects made up of automobile teachers teaching in 8 technical colleges and a basic skill acquisition center located in rural and urban areas responded to the 102 items designed in a questionnaire to answer the research questions. The entire population was studied. Three experts face validated the contents of instrument. Cronbach Alpha coefficient reliability of 0.939 was established for the instrument. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while the two hypothesis formulated for the study and tested at 0.05 level of significance were analyzed using t-test statistics. The findings of the study revealed that automobile teachers teaching in technical colleges in Benue state possessed skills in maintenance and repairs of motor vehicle based on old system of detecting and rectification of faults through trial and error process but lack skills in ICT and diagnostic process on emerging technology vehicles to effectively maintain and repair them. The findings also revealed that automobile teachers in technical colleges need further training for skill acquisition in emerging technology vehicle especially on operating and servicing of computerized components and systems. Base on the findings, some recommendations were made, one of which is that automobile teachers teaching in technical colleges should be trained for skill in ICT and emerging Technologies so as to be able to teach in technical colleges in Benue state effectively.
The study was carried out to identify technical work skills required by College of Education (Technical) graduates for self employment in plastic production industries in Rivers State while six research questions were posed and answered by the study, six null hypotheses were formulated and tested at p≤0.05 level of significance. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and was carried out in Rivers State, Nigeria. The population for the study consists 104 respondents which include twenty eight (28) lecturers in Technical Education and seventy six (76) technicians in the five plastic industries in Rivers State. Due to manageable size of the population, the entire 104 lecturers and technicians were involved. Therefore, there was no sampling for the study. The instrument used for data collection is 157-item structured questionnaire titled “Required Plastic Work-skill Questionnaire RPWSQ”. The instrument was subjected to face-validation by three experts. The validates’ suggestions and inputs were taken into consideration in developing the final draft of the questionnaire that was used for data collection. To test for internal consistency of the instrument, Cronbach alpha reliability technique was employed, to obtain reliability coefficient of 0.84 for compounding plastic material, 0.81 for moulding plastic, 0.76 for reinforcing plastic, 0.83 for joining plastic, 0.69 for machining plastic products and 0.75 decorating plastic products. The overall reliability coefficient of 0.79 was obtained for the entire instrument. The data for the study were collected by the researcher with the help of four research assistants. Out of the 104 copies of the questionnaire administered, 101 copies were duly completed and retrieved representing 97% return rate. The data collected were analyzed using mean to answer the research questions and t-test for testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Based on the data collected and analysed, the study identified 52 technical work-skill items very highly required and 105 technical work-skill items highly required by college of education graduates in plastic production for self employment in plastic industry in Rivers State. On the hypotheses tested, the study found that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of lecturers and plastic technicians on the technical work-skills required by technical education graduates for self employment in plastic industry in Rivers State. Based on the findings of the study, the study among others recommended that all the identified technical work-skills be used for improving the existing curriculum of technical programmes of Colleges of Education and Universities with technical education programme in the country, and that all the identified technical work-skills in plastic production be integrated into the programmes of skill acquisition centres in the state to take care of skill needs of the vulnerable youths and other groups with desire for salable skills for work in the area.
The study titled Equipment and Skills determinants for Adopting Blended Instructional Techniques by Metalwork Technology Lecturers in North Western Nigeria was influenced by the great concern about the need for effective teaching and learning of metalwork technology as a skill oriented course which equip learners with relevant skills for the world of work. The concern emanated from the advancement and sophistication in metalwork industries, which demand metalwork technology lecturers to alter their skill and adopt modern instructional techniques. The study therefore, focused on the Equipment and Skills Required by Metalwork Lecturers to efficiently adopt the Blended Instructional Techniques in North Western Nigeria. Four research questions developed and four hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A questionnaire titled ‘Questionnaire on Equipment and Skills Determinants forAdopting Blended Instructional Techniques by MetalworkTechnology Lecturers (QUESDABIT), consisting of 77 items was structured based on the four research questions. The Instrument was administered to forty metalwork teachers in seven tertiary institutions in North Western Nigeria (Kano, Kaduna, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara states). Data collected were analyzed using mean toanswer the research questions and ANOVA statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the research questions showed that all the 58skills and 19 equipmentwere required by the metalwork lecturers. The hypotheses tested revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean responses of the Lecturers, Instructors and Heads of Department in the skills and Equipment required for efficient adoption of Blended Instructional Techniques in North Western Nigeria. Therefore, the result of the study showed that there is the need for re-training of metalwork lecturers for effective transfer of knowledge to the learners. The study recommended that the management of colleges of education should often organize conferences, seminars, workshops, industrial visits, training and re-training (including on-the-job trainings) for metalwork technology lecturers to acquire the new skills and to discover new equipment and their operations in metalwork industries.
The major purpose of the study was to identify child-care skills needed by care-givers in pre-primary schools in Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. Specifically, the study identified feeding, clothing, toilet training, interacting, safety and hygiene skill needs by care-givers in pre-primary schools in FCT. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population for the study was made up of 581 respondents in the six local area councils in the area of study. These include 236 pre-primary school care-givers, 265 secondary schools Home Economics teachers, 16 early child care experts and 64 nurses from public medical centres in the study area. Due to the manageable size of the population, the entire 581 respondents were used for the study, therefore, there was no sampling. Two sets of instruments were used for data collection. These include structured questionnaire titled: “Child Care Skill Needs by Care-givers Questionnaire” (CCSNCQ) and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Guide. The instruments were validated by experts from Home Economics section of the Department of Vocational Teacher Education and Early Childhood Education from the Department of Educational Foundation, all in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha reliability technique was used to test the internal consistency of the Child Care Skill Needs by Care-givers Questionnaire (CCSNCQ). Reliability coefficients of 0.74 was obtained for feeding skills, 0.69 for clothing skills, 0.82 for toilet training skills, 0.85 for safety skills, 0.78 for interacting skills and 0.83 for hygiene while an overall reliability coefficient of 0.79 was obtained for the entire instrument. The quantitative data were analysed using mean and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) while the qualitative data were summarised. The study found that care-givers in pre-primary schools in FCT, Abuja needed 17 feeding skills which include: ability to have basic idea of nutrition (3.55± 0.65), ability to feed children on time and teaching children to avoid talking when eating (3.38 ± 0.48) among others, 16 clothing skills which include: changing children’s cloths anytime they are dirty (3.47 ± 0.46), clothing children with woolen fabrics in cold weather (3.55 ± 0.54) and allowing children to dress themselves atimes (3.33 ± 0.51) among others, 11 toilet training skills which include: ability to toilet training the child using potty (3.68 ± 0.53), cleaning the potty immediately after the child finishes defecating (3.57 ± 0.71) and washing hands properly with soap after visiting toilet (3.39 ± 0.55) among others, 21 interacting skills which include: ability to listen carefully to the children and their parents (3.50 ± 0.56), being clear and specific when interacting with the children’s parents (3.51 ± 0.61) and ability to recognize the right of the child (3.46 ± 0.58) among others, 11 safety skills which include: ability to know what to do in emergency cases (3.50 ± 0.50), keeping children within the school premises to avoid going to the roads (3.69 ± 0.54) and being vigilant at all times with children (3.54 ± 0.49) among others and 14 hygiene skills which include: thorough washing and drying hands before feeding the children (3.65 ± 0.47), avoiding coughing/sneezing into children’s food (3.67 ± 0.60) and ability to ensure that children’s toilet facilities are clean (3.57 ± 0.46) among others for caring for pre-school children in the area. The responses of the discussants used for the Focus Group Discussion (FGD) also helped a great deal in identifying the skills needed by caregivers for effective care-giving of children in early child care centres. There are no significant (p < 0.05) difference in the mean ratings of the responses of care-givers, Home Economics teachers, early childcare experts and Nurses on the care-giving skills needed by the care-givers in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Based on the above findings, the study recommended that: the Federal and state governments through their respective administrators of pre-school education should help package the identified care-giving skills into programmes for training care-givers for proper physical, social and psychological development of the child, that there should be adequate efforts by the government to provide framework that will ensure timely and constant in-service training to the care-givers for updating their care giving skills.
The major purpose of the study was to evolve safety practices in pre-primary schools in Enugu state. Specifically, the study was designed to identify the common types of accidents in pre-primary schools; identify the common causes of accidents in the activity areas in pre-primary schools; identify safety practices that are presently being adopted by the stakeholders in the activity areas in the pre-primary schools; determine safety practices that still need to be adopted by the stakeholders in the activity areas and determine the ways stakeholders could be assisted in the adoption of the needed safety practices in pre-primary schools. The area of the study was Enugu state. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Seven research questions and twelve null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The population for the study was made up of 2,242 pre-primary schools. The sample for the study was 1060 stakeholders from 400 pre-primary schools drawn from the population through a multi-stage sampling technique. Structured questionnaire, checklist and observation schedule were the instruments used for data collection. The instruments were validated by three experts. Twenty copies of the questionnaire were administered to stakeholders at Awka in Anambra state in order to determine the internal consistency and stability of the instrument. Coefficient of 0.93, 0.97, 0.87, 0.82, 0.96, 0.89 and an overall value of 0.91 were obtained. Data was analyzed using mean and percentages to answer the seven research questions. t-test was used to test null Ho1, Ho¬2, Ho3, Ho4, Ho9, Ho10 and Ho11 while chi -square was used to test null H05, Ho6, Ho7 and Ho8 at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed twenty six types of accidents in the pre-primary schools. These include: falls, slips, cuts, and bruises, fingers getting caught in doors / windows and human bites. One hundred and twenty seven causes of accidents in the various activity areas include: inadequate provisions of age appropriate facilities, lack of ample space. One hundred and seven important required safety practices for the activity areas include: provision of well equipped first aid kits, safety training for workers. Fifty eight safety practices presently adopted in pre-primary schools in Enugu state include: provision of adequate lighting, adequate ventilation, and proper arrangement of the classroom. One hundred and forty safety practices that still need to be adopted in the activity areas include: installation of safety devices like fire extinguishers, use of finger jam protectors on the doors. Twenty four constraints to the adoption of safety practices include: unqualified workers, lack of safety training for workers and preschoolers. Fifteen ways stakeholders could be assisted in the adoption of the required safety practices include: organizing seminars, workshops and conferences on safety. The result showed that there was no significant difference in the prevalent types of accidents based on pre-school types. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of administrators and teachers on the causes of accidents in the activity areas in preschools (p > 0.05). There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) on the mean responses of administrators and teachers on constraints to adoption of safety practices in pre-primary schools. There is no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the mean responses of administrators and teachers on the ways stakeholders could be assisted in adoption of the required safety practices in pre-primary schools in Enugu state. Based on the findings of this research work, eight recommendations were made and some of these include: standard and uniform pre-primary education programme detailing the components should be made available in the pre-primary schools in the state by the state ministry of education unit for pre-primary schools; vibrant and functional government body or committee for early childhood education to oversee the programme should be appointed to oversee the facilities, standard, establishment, personnel selections among others in the state; the identified required safety practices in the activity areas should be implemented in the pre-primary schools through the government unit in charge of early childhood education in Enugu state to ensure safe pre-primary school environment so as to cut down or eradicate common accidents among preschoolers in the school.
The major purpose of this study was to develop functional clothing for workers in food service enterprises in tertiary institutions of Anambra State. Specifically, the study identified the necessary features included in the functional clothing: determined the essential body measurements for the construction of the functional clothing for the workers in food service enterprises in tertiary institutions and validated the comfort and suitability of the functional clothing developed for workers in food services enterprises in tertiary institutions of Anambra State. The area of the study was in tertiary institutions in Anambra state. Research and development design were used. The study are guided by three research questions and one hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance, questionnaire was used for data collection, which was used to develop functional clothing. Three experts from University of Nigeria Nsukka validated it. Questionnaire were administered to lecturers in tertiary institutions of Anambra State. All the copies were completed and retrieved. It was hundred percent returns. The study was in three phases. The target population for phase I and III were made of 36 lecturers while phase II were made of one hundred and forty (140) workers in food service enterprises. The sample size for phase I and III were six (6) lecturers while that of phase II were 30 workers in food service enterprises. A questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The data were analyzed using mean and percentage for research questions, while ANOVA used to test hypothesis. According to the eleven (11) features were identified as necessary to be included; open front with buttons, big buttons, large armhole, large front hip pocket, large neckline, narrow breast pocket on the left, large sleeves, and length of coat should be loosely fitted, open slit at the back, coat with collar and cap to cover the hair. The body measurements ranged from 98.4cm for small sized workers to 114.0cm for large sized workers at the waist and 101.4cm for small sized workers to 121.4cm for the large sized workers at the bust respectively. Based on the measurements obtained, functional clothing of three categories (small, medium and large) were produced and were found to be comfortable and suitable to workers of tertiary institutions of Anambra State. Based on the findings: the following (3) recommendations were made (1) Features of functional clothing as identified in the study be considered while making functional clothing for workers in food service enterprises in tertiary institutions of Anambra State. (2) The use of functional clothing for workers in food service enterprises in tertiary institutions of Anambra state should be mandatory to ensure protection of their clothes from dirt, spills and puree e.t.c. (3) the blocks developed can be used for teaching pattern adoption to students. The research area for further studies includes replication of the study in all states of the federation.
Toxic effects of dye-stuff and other organic compounds, as well as acidic and alkaline contaminants from “Itoku” fabric dyeing cluster in Ogun State have generated lots of public concern about environmental issues. The chemicals used in fabric dyeing are very toxic and are the significant causes of environmental degradation. Hence, the major purpose of this study was to determine strategies for achieving eco-friendly fabric dyeing system in “Itoku” cluster in Abeokuta, Ogun State. Five research questions were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a case study research design. The population for the study was five hundred and seven (507) which comprised of thirty-eight (38) family dyers, sixty-seven (67) staff of Public Health Services Unit of Ministry of Health, one hundred and twenty-eight (128) staff of Ogun State Ministry of Environment and two hundred and seventy-four (274) registered wholesalers of “Adire”. Sample for the study was three hundred and sixty-three (363) which comprised all the thirty-eight (38) family dyers and sixty-seven (67) staff of Ogun State Ministry of Health. “Taro” Yamane statistical method of determining sample size was used in determining one hundred and sixty-three (163) “Adire” wholesalers and ninety-five (95) staff of Ogun State Ministry of Environment. Instruments for data collection were three structured questionnaire and one observation checklist. The instruments were face validated by five experts. The internal consistency of the questionnaire items were determined by the use of Cronbach Alpha reliability test and it yielded reliability indices of 0.83 for FDMED, 0.76 for HFD, 0.94 for HRSEDS and the observation checklist yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.92. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. It was found from the study among others that methods of effluent disposal are channeling effluents to river, throwing them directly to drains and gutters, channeling them to shallow wells and disposing gaseous emissions directly into the air. It was also found out that fabric dyeing systems adopted by the dyers poses health hazards on the dyers. Findings also revealed that Eco-friendly fabric dyeing systems can be achieved when dyers wear protective clothing such as aprons, hand gloves, goggles and respirators; when dyers use natural dyes that are environmentally friendly, use chemicals that are non-toxic and also when effluents are adequately treated before their disposal into the environment. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there should be strict enforcement of environmental laws by the Ministries of Environment and Health, offenders of environmental laws should be adequately sanctioned and Effluent Treatment Plants (ETPs) should be set up to enable the dyers treat their effluents before disposal.
This study developed an Elderly Care Education Courses for integration into Home Economics Curriculum of Nigeria Certificate in Education(NCE). Specifically it determined: the challenges faced by elderly persons that could necessitate care for them; the objectives of Elderly Care Education Courses (ECEC); the content needed for achieving the objectives of ECEC for NCE Home Economics Curriculum; the instructional strategies and materials that could be employed for teaching ECEC; the evaluation activities that could be adopted for assessing the objectives of ECEC; developed a draft ECEC; validated the draft ECEC; revised the draft ECEC that can be integrated into NCE Home Economics Curriculum. Six research questions and five hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The study adopted the Research and Development (R & D) design. The study was carried out in five phases as follows; phase I: determination of the challenges faced by elderly persons that could necessitate care for them by other family members; phase II: determination of possible component of elderly care education courses to be developed, phase III: production of the draft ECEC, phase IV: validation of the draft ECEC; phase V: Revision and development of the ECEC. The study was conducted in South-Eastern Nigeria. The population was made up of 846,960 respondents namely: 63 Home Economics lecturers, 193 Home Economics students, 3,092 nurses and 843,612 elderly. The entire population of Home Economics lecturers and Home Economics students were used. While a sample of 200 nurses were randomly selected and 40 elderly persons were purposively drawn to participate in the Focus Group Discussion (FGDs). Three instruments were developed and used to collect data for the study namely: the Elderly Care Education Courses Questionnaire (ECECQ), Elderly Persons Challenges Focus Group Discussion Guide and Elderly Persons Care Content Focus Group Discussion Guide. The ECECQ was face validated by five experts from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient index was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and it yielded an overall coefficient of α = .97. The draft Elderly Care Education Courses developed was validated by seven experts namely; two Home Economics lecturers, two Curriculum experts, two Social work lecturers, and one Health Education lecturer. The research questions were analyzed using mean, while ANOVA was used to analyze the hypotheses then, Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT) was used for pair wise comparison of means of items that were significantly different to determine the differences in the means. The findings include 10 challenges faced by elderly persons that could necessitate care for them , 24 objectives of elderly care education, 32 content of elderly care education, 21 instructional strategies, 18 instructional materials and 18 evaluation activities of elderly care education Based on the findings, eight recommendations were made. These include among others that curriculum planners should incorporate the Elderly Care Education Courses developed by this study into the current NCE Home Economics Curriculum.
The study was on assessment of tailoring programme of the SOW scheme of the NDE in alleviating poverty among beneficiaries in Anambra State. Specifically, the study ascertained; the extent of coverage of basic tailoring course content within the six months of the SOW scheme training, the adequacy and functionality of availability training facilities, competency of administrators of the scheme, income earnings of beneficiaries before and after participating in the scheme, challenges facing the scheme and strategies for its improvement. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. It was carried out in Anambra State. The population was 379 that comprised of 328 beneficiaries of the scheme trained on tailoring, 15 instructors and 36 staff of the NDE. Snowball sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 103 beneficiaries. All the instructors (15) and NDE staff (36) were used for the study bringing the total sample size to154. Four sets of instruments were used for data collection namely: School-On-Wheels Scheme Assessment Questionnaire (SOWSAQ -1), (SOWSAQ- 11), (SOWSAQ -111) that were administered to beneficiaries, instructors and NDE staff respectively and a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) guide. The instruments were duly validated. Overall internal consistency reliability co-efficient of the questionnaires were: 0.93 for SOWSBAQ-1 for beneficiaries, 0.96 for SOWSBAQ-11 for instructors and 0.90 for SOWSBAQ-111 for NDE staff respectively which were determined using Cronbach Alpha. The data were analyzed using frequency for research question 2, frequency and percentage for research question 6, mean and standard deviation for research questions 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8, while t – test was used to test HOs 1-3 at 0.05 level of significance. Six out of 20 contents of the study were covered. Six facilities out of twelve stipulated basic tailoring facilities were adequately provided while the other half were inadequately provided. Nine out of the twelve facilities were functionally available. The non- functional but available facilities were electrically operated tools. Instructors possessed core tailoring competencies but lacked pedagogical skills. Beneficiaries possessed 9 tailoring competencies out of 28. The NDE staff did not adequately perform their administrative roles. There were agreements in the opinions of beneficiaries and instructors on; extent of content coverage, functionalities of available facilities, adequacy of other resources, and competencies of NDE staff that were not significant. There were no differences in the income earnings of beneficiaries before and after their participation in the scheme. Challenges facing the scheme caught across: design, funding, maladministration and unhealthy socio-economic training environment with strategies for improving the scheme covering wide range of issues that included proper; programme design, funding, implementation and evaluation including engagement of qualified personnel. The study recommended; two years training period, provision of adequate resources, quality administrative services and decentralization of power within NDE establishment including regular monitoring and evaluation of the scheme by stakeholders among others.
This study was aimed at determining the level of computer appreciation skills acquired by junior secondary school students in Nsukka Local Government of Enugu State,Nigeria. Specifically the study determined the level of acquisition of word processing skills, data processing skills, spreadsheet application skills, computer virus detection skills, database application skills, graphic application skills, and internet skills among junior secondary school students in Nsukka Local Government of Enugu State. Seven research questions and fourteen null hypotheses were formulated in line with the objectives to guide the study. Related literature and some empirical studies were reviewed. The study employed a descriptive survey research design and was conducted in three secondary schools in Nsukka to include: St Theresa’s College Nsukka, Urban girls’ secondary school Nsukka and community Secondary school Obukpa. The population for the study was 2,229 junior secondary school three students in the thirteen secondary schools that offer computer studies and a sample of 272 respondents was selected. The instrument used for the study was a 41 structured questionnaire items, which was face validated by 3 lecturers; structured in into a four point Likert rating scale. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to answer the seven research questions, while inferential statistics such as t-test statistic was used to test the fourteen null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The reliability of the instrument for the study was 0.72, 0.94, 0.83, 0.49, 0.96, 0.83, and 0.80 using split half reliability coefficient. It was found that students’ acquisition of word processing skills, data processing skills, computer virus detection skills and internet skills are at high level while spreadsheet application skills, database skills and graphic skills are at moderate level of performance. The study also revealed that there is no significant difference among male and female student in acquisition of computer appreciation skills while a significant difference exist among student in the urban and rural areas as urban students performed better than their rural counter parts. The educational implications of the study was given, recommendations made based on the findings of the study and suggestions for further studies were also made.
The demands and expectations from local government councils over the years have been on the increase while delivering the dividend of democracy and good governance at the grassroots continues to dwindle owing to mismanagement and misappropriation of funds. As a result of the above factors, local government administrators are most times unable to meet up with their financial obligations in terms of payment of staff salaries, provision of social services and infrastructural development to the urban and rural dwellers. This has led the public to asking questions on the extent to which local government administrators comply with government financial regulations. It is on this note that this study seeks to determine the extent of compliance with government financial regulations in local government administration. Specifically, the study was carried out to determine: the extent of compliance with financial estimates regulations in local government administration in Enugu State, the extent of compliance with revenue collection procedures in local government administration in Enugu State, extent of compliance with expenditure procedures in local government administration in Enugu State and extent of compliance with financial statement regulation in local government administration in Enugu State. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and was conducted in the 17 Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The population for the study was 331 financial administrators in local government areas in Enugu State and due to the manageable nature of the population, no sample and sampling technique was conducted. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled Compliance with Government Financial Regulations Questionnaire (CGFRQ) which was face-validated by three research experts: two from the Department of Vocational Teacher Education (VTE) and one from Department of Public Administration and Local Government (PALG), all from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument. The result yielded a high coefficient of 0.92. Three hundred and thirty one copies of the questionnaire were administered and retrieved from the respondents by the researcher with the help of three research assistants. The data collected for this study was analyzed using mean to answer the 4 research questions and standard deviation to determine the closeness or otherwise of the responses from the mean while Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics was used to test the 4 null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance and at 327 degree of freedom with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The findings of the study showed that financial administrators to a low extent comply with financial estimates regulations; revenue collection procedures, expenditure procedures, and financial statement regulations in local government administration in Enugu State. It was recommended among others that a monitoring body should be put in place by both the state and federal government to sanction all offending officers who would not comply with the estimation procedure stipulated in the Revised Financial Memoranda.
The need to determine the utilization of ratio analysis by civil servants for profitable financial investment decisions before retirement in Ekiti State in order to provide them with the financial information to predetermine expected future dividend in companies that distribute high returns to their investors led to this study. This is because preliminary study revealed that most civil servants in the state are facing the challenge of unprofitable financial investment decisions in companies that distribute low or no return which does not guarantee their future financial security. Hence, the study adopted descriptive survey research design and was carried out in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The population for the study comprised all the 261 civil servants under the Local Government Civil Service Commission (LGCSC) in Ekiti State capital, Ado-Ekiti. A purposive sampling technique was used to select 152 civil servants from grade level seven and above. A 25-item structured questionnaire in four-response options tagged ‘Utilization of Ratio Analysis for Profitable Financial Investment Decisions Questionnaire (URAPFIDQ)’ was used to elicit responses from the respondents with internal consistency of 0.83 reliability coefficient using Cronbach Alpha technique. Five research questions were answered and analyzed using mean. Decision was based on mean limit of numbers for independent analysis of each questionnaire item and a criterion mean of 2.50 for each cluster of the research questions. A t-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses one to four while chi-square (x2) was used to test the null hypothesis five at 0.05 probability level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that efficiency ratio, liquidity ratio, leverage ratio, profitability ratio and investment ratio were not utilized by civil servants to predetermine expected future dividend for profitable financial investment decisions before retirement in Ekiti State which accounted for low or no return. Finally, constructive recommendations on the utilization of ratio analysis to predetermine expected future dividend for profitable financial investment decisions in companies that can guarantee the financial security of civil servants in Ekiti State and Nigeria at large were made.
Keywords: Utilization, Ratio Analysis, Civil Servants, Profitable Financial investment Decisions, Retirement.
Motivation focuses on encouraging employees to contribute their best, or upgrading their commitment to the goal of the organisation. This study adopted the survey research design. A sample of 117 accounting teachers drawn by cluster sampling technique, from a population of 404, in 289 secondary schools in Egba education zone in Ogun State was used for the study. Four research questions and two null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. Questionnaire is the instrument used for data collection. The questionnaire was validated by three experts. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was computed using Cronbach alpha . Mean was used to answer the research questions, while t-test was employed to test the null hypotheses. The study revealed that only three facilities are provided for motivating better performance among accounting teachers to a high extent in Egba education zone. Whereas, nineteen facilities, which represent a large proportion are provided only to a moderate extent. The remaining facilities are provided to a low extent. None of the remuneration packages are provided to a high extent for the purpose of motivating the performance of accounting teachers in Egba education zone of Ogun State. Only five remuneration packages are provided to a moderate extent while seven remuneration packages which represent a larger proportion are provided to a low extent. Only one of the staff training activities is provided, is provided to a moderate extent while the remaining eight are provided to a low extent in Egba education zone of Ogun State. Job security was provided for motivating better performance of accounting teachers in Egba education zone to a moderate extent. Opinion of accounting teachers based on gender significantly differ on few of the items while they have agreement on most of the items. Opinion of public and private secondary school accounting teachers significantly differ on few of the items while they have agreement on most of the items. After pointing out some educational implications of the findings, it was thereafter recommended that the management of secondary schools should ensure that accounting teachers are well motivated by providing the enabling environment for them to discharge their duties. The management of secondary schools should develop a culture of rewarding outstanding performance.
The study was carried out in six Universities in the North East Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey design and involved a population of 218 female lecturers drawn from six Universities in the North East Nigeria. No sample was drawn for the study as the entire population of 218 was surveyed. The instrument for data collection was face validated by three experts, two from the department of vocational teacher education, University of Nigeria Nsukka and one from the department of technology education Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. The instrument was tested for reliability using the Cronbach Alpha formula and obtained a coefficient of 0.82, 0.81,0.81,0.80,0.81 and 0.82 with the overall reliability coefficient of 0.89. The research questions were answered using Mean while the Null hypotheses were tested using t-test and ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance. The major findings were that low price goods, small size goods, colourful goods, low weight goods, portable goods and branded goods constitute to a high extent, determinants of female lecturers’ impulse buying. It was therefore recommended, among others, that retailers should utilize the findings of the study to develop better strategies to attract significant share of consumers’ impulse purchases. It was also recommended that advertising agents or practitioners should utilize the findings of this study as the focal point in both advertising campaign and production of advertisement materials. Furthermore, it was recommended that impulse buying should be regarded as a recognized marketing concept and normal buying behaviour widely practiced world wide.