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Survey of bacterial and fungal contamination on beef suya sold in Jos and environs.

By Ogbu, K.i.; Pam V.a., Ijomanta, O.j., Habiba, A., Chukwudi, I.c.

A survey was carried out to determine the bacterial and fungal contaminants associated with beef suya sold in Jos and environs. A total number of 20 (twenty) suya samples were collected randomly from major suya selling spots in Jos and environs and analyzed for bacterial and fungal contaminants. The following bacteria were detected: Salmonella species (18.84%), Klebsiella species (8.70%), Escherichia coli (13.04%), Enterobacter (10.14%), Staphylococcus species(7.25%), Streptococcus species (5.80%), and Serratia (11.59%). Fungi detected were Candida albicans (68.97%), Aspergillius species (13.79%), Absidia species (13.79%), and Cunnighamella species (3.45%). On the basis of location in respect to bacteria isolates, Secretariat junction and Aguldi junction had the highest bacteria isolates of 8.70% each, West of Mine, Kugiya, Miango, had 7.25%, each while Terminus, Apata and K-Vom market had 5.80% each. Zarmaganda, Angwan Doki, Gyel, Old Airport Junction, Bauchi Road, Abatoir and British America junction 2.9% each, while the lowest bacteria prevalence was Vom club which had 1.45%. Distribution of fungal isolates showed that K-Vom market had the highest percentage of 10.34%, Faringada, Terminus, Bauchi road, Anguldi, Kugiya, Miango, and Zarmaganda junction had 6.90% each while Vom club ,Angwandoki, Rayfield , Gyel, Old airport junction, Secretariat junction, Apata, Abattoir, Bauchi road, West of mine,Gangare and Gada biyu had the lowest percentage of 3.45% each. All the samples collected had bacteria and fungi contamination. It was concluded that the beef suya sold in Jos and its environs are contaminated with bacterial and fungal. This constitutes a public health problem.

Published: 14/01/2016

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Effects of Experimental Infection of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei on Parvoviral Vaccinated Dogs: A Clinico-Haematological Study.

By Ogbu, K.i.; Anene, B.m.; Nweze, N.e.; Chukwudi, I.c.; Eze, U.u.; Chinyere, C.n.; Pam, V.a.

Clinico-haematological effects of single and mixed experimental infection of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei on parvoviral vaccinated dogs were studied in mongrel dogs. Twenty dogs of mixed sexes and 4-6 months of age weighing an average of 6.3 kg were used for the experiment. The dogs were divided into five groups of four animals each. Group A were vaccinated and uninfected, group B were unvaccinated and uninfected, group C were vaccinated and infected with T. congolense, group D were vaccinated and infected with T. brucei and group E were vaccinated and infected with T. congolense and T. brucei. Clinical signs observed in the dogs were pyrexia, anorexia, emaciation, lethargy, rough hair coat, white ocular discharges and pale mucus membranes. Trypanosoma brucei and T. congolense had pre-patent period of 6 and 21 days respectively post infection while that of the mixed infection was 7 days post infection when T. brucei became evident. Although the clinical signs of infection due to both species were generally similar, pyrexia appeared to be more characteristic of T. brucei than of T. congolense infection. Significant decrease (P

Published: 09/04/2016

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Humoral Immune Response in Parvoviral Vaccinated Dogs Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei.

By Ogbu, K. I.; Anene, B.m.; Nweze, N.e.; Eze, U.u.; Chukwudi I.c.; Eze, I.o.; Agwu, E.o.

The humoral immune response in parvoviral vaccinated dogs experimentally infected with single
and mixed infection of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei was studied in mongrel dogs. Twenty mongrel dogs of mixed sexes and approximately 4-6 months of age weighing an average of 6.3 kg were used for the experiment. After the experiment, some of the dogs were given to the department of Veterinary medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka while the rest were sold out in dog market. They were acclimatized for three weeks prior to commencement of the study during which time routine treatments and screening were done. The dogs were divided into five groups of four dogs each. Group A was vaccinated and uninfected, group B was unvaccinated and uninfected, group C was vaccinated and infected with T. congolense, group D was vaccinated andinfected with T. brucei and group E was vaccinated and infected with T. congolense and T. brucei.
Results obtained from this study provided evidence that dogs vaccinated against canine parvovirus (CPV) produced protective antibody titre whereas those infected with trypanosome parasites failed to mount a strong humoral immune response to CPV vaccination. This was evident by the low Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titre shown in the study. The IgG titre significantly increased after revaccination in all vaccinated groups as evident in the increased S-value. The reduction in the immune response to the vaccination was partially dependent on the species of trypanosomes used in the infection. Furthermore, revaccination with canine parvoviral vaccine enhances immunity
against parvovirus in dogs. It was thus concluded that canine trypanosomosis affects the immune
response to parvovirus vaccination by decreasing the IgG antibody titre.

Published: 14/04/2016

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The effect of Iresine herbstii Hook on some haematological parameters of experimentally induced anaemic rats.

By Nweze, N.e.; Nwachukwu, K.a.; Adieme, I.c.

Iresine herbstii is fed to livestock in Southeastern
Nigeria in the belief that it boosts their blood
supply. The aim of this work is to study the effect of
the methanolic extract of I. herbstii Hook on some blood
parameters of experimentally induced anaemic albino rats.
For acute toxicity study, graded doses of the methanolic
leaf extract of I. herbstii at 10, 100, 1000, 1600, 2900 and
5000 mg/kg were administered orally to rats randomly
allotted to six groups of three animals each and signs of
toxicity were observed for 24 h. To evaluate its haematological
effects, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of extract was
administered orally to three out of five groups of six rats
each for 14 days after the induction of acute blood loss
anaemia. Parameters monitored were packed cell volume
(PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), weight gain and
red blood cell counts (RBC). Phytochemical, proximate
and nutritional analysis of the plant was done. I. herbstii
had an LD50> 5000 mg/kg. Mean group weight gain and
RBC were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in treated than
untreated groups. PCV and Hb did not differ significantly
between the treated and untreated groups. Plant contained
flavonoids; phenols; alkaloids; 22.85 % crude protein;
18.58 % ash; 9.62 % crude fibre; 1.5 % ether extract;
12.05 % moisture; vitamins A, C, E, B1, B3, B5, B6
and B12; zinc; iron; phosphorus; calcium; and magnesium.
Methanolic extract of I. herbstii significantly improved red
blood cell count of anaemic rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg
bw and the body weights of anaemic rats at all treatment
doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw).

Published: 07/04/2016

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Prevalence of Canine Parvovirus in Jos North and South Local Government Areas of Plateau State

By Ogbu, K. I.; Chukwudi, I. C.; Ijomanta, O. J.; Agwu, E. O.; Chinonye, C. N.

The research was conducted to determine the prevalence of canine parvovirus in dogs in Jos-North
and South Local Government Areas of Plateau State. The prevalence in relation to sex, location,
vaccination status, age and breed were evaluated. The samples for this research work were
collected from veterinary clinics and major dog breeders in the study areas and were analyzed in
the college laboratory using immunochromatographic assay technique. A total number of 70 dogs
were examined out of which 40 samples were from veterinary clinics (10 samples from each Vet
clinic) and the remaining 30 were from major dog breeders. A total of 12 (17.14%) were positive for
the infection while 58 (82.86%) were negative. Based on sex, 5 (14.71%) were positive females
while 7 (19.44%) were positive males. Based on the location, 5 (14.29%) positive samples were from
Jos-South while 7 (20%) were from Jos-North. Based on vaccination status, 2 (5.13%) and
10 (32.26%) were positive among the vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs respectively. A total of
12 (28.56%) samples were positive among the puppies (1-6 months old) while none were positive
among the adults. Based on the breed, 11 (21.15%) and 1 (5.56%) were positive exotic and local
breed respectively. The study showed that canine parvovirus occurs in all areas and breeds and it
affects mostly puppies, exotic breeds and non-vaccinated dogs. However adult dogs and
vaccinated dogs are less susceptible to the virus.

Published: 24/02/2016

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Synergy in antibacterial activities of Ampicillin trihydrate, stabilized with a synthetic aluminium-magnesium silicate and immune-stimulants, on resistant Escherichia coli infection.

By Ezeibe, M.c.o.; Ezeobele, O.k.; Esen, M.e.; Ngene, A.a.; Mbuko, I.j.; Chukwudi, I.c.; Omoja, V.u.; Ezeh, I.o.

To treat resistant Escherichia coli infection in chicks, Ampicillin was stabilized with a synthetic aluminum-magnesium silicate (AMS) to prolong its bioavailability. Its dose was also reduced to minimize adverse side effects. Vitamins A, C, E and Selenium levels in the chicks’ feeds were increased to enhance immune response of the chicks. E. coli coloning forming units, per ml of bile of the chicks, treated with Ampicillin and with Ampicillin in AMS, were: 228800.00 ± 90103.50 and 134500.00 ± 44937.97 at 10 mg/kg, 104400.00 ± 36024.44 and 34800.00 ± 8014.97 at 7.5 mg/kg, 198400.00 ± 129301.80 and 156800.00 ± 109392.70 at 5 mg/kg. Mean bacterial loads of the untreated groups, fed normal feed and those fed the fortified feed were 824400.00 ± 322424.80 and 534800.00 ± 277832.80. At 7.5 mg/kg. Ampicillin in the AMS, effectively (P < 0.05) treated resistant E. coli infection in chicks, fed immune- stimulants, with the infection rate reduced by 95.8%.

Published: 05/09/2013

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Effect of Peste des petits ruminants Vaccination on Clinico-haematological Parameters of West African Dwarf Sheep Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma congolense.

By Chukwudi, I.c.; Anene, B.m.; Chukwu, C.c.; Ezeh, I.o.; Ogbu, K.i.

Aim: The research was conducted to determine the clinico-haematological parameters and impacts
of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccination and trypanocidal treatment in Trypanosoma
congolense infected West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep.
Methodology: Twenty (20) WAD sheep were grouped into five (5) (A-E), each containing four (4)
sheep. Group A (Gp A) was the unvaccinated and uninfected control. Groups B, C, D and E were
first vaccinated with PPR vaccine, after which D and E were infected with T. congolense one (1)week post-vaccination, and then C and D were treated three (3) weeks post-infection.
Results: A prepatant period of 12-14 days was recorded. The infection was characterized by
fluctuating parasitaemia and pyrexia, decreased appetite, slight pale mucous membrane, starry hair
coat and enlargement of prescapular and perfermoral lymph nodes. There was no significant
change (P>0.05) in the mean body weight and pulse rate of the infected sheep. Decreased packed
cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb conc) and total erythrocyte count (TEC) were
observed in the infected sheep. Leucocytosis associated with lymphocytosis which was similar in
the infected and uninfected sheep were observed in all the vaccinated sheep starting from two
weeks post vaccination. The vaccination had no effect on clinical (temperature, pulse rate, weight
gain) and red blood cell (mean PCV, Hb conc and TEC) parameters. Following treatment with
diminazene aceturate, the infected and treated sheep became aparasitaemic within 24 hours post
treatment and there was no relapse infection. The declines in the clinical and haematological
parameters of the infected sheep were reversed by treatment.
Conclusion: Vaccination caused a marked leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis in both infected and
uninfected animals and also had no impact on the clinical parameters assessed which is an
indication that PPR vaccination had no untoward effect on the animals.

Published: 14/03/2016

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Effect of hemiorchidectomy on the growth performance, linear body and testis measurements of boars in the humid tropics

By Machebe N S, Abonyi F O And Onyeonagu A C

This experiment determined the effect of hemiorchidectomy on growth performance, linear body and testis measurements of weaner boars. Two groups of weaner boars (Hemiorchidectomized and normal boars) were used. Hemiorchidectomy impacted negatively on growth performance indices. However, compensatory testicular growth in the remaining testis after hemiorchidectomy was shown. The study concluded that hemiorchidectomy is a painful practise and should not be practised in pig production enterprise since it hinders growth performance of the affected boars

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Lexical semantics of planting terms in Ihiala dialect of Igbo.

By Ndiribe, Matthew Onyebuchi

The study focuses on the semantic field theory with special emphasis on the planting terms in
Ihiala dialect of the Igbo language of the Igbo language. The study adopts the semantic field
theory as a tool for an efficient descriptive analysis of the subject matter. In the discussion of
the topic, efforts are made to explain the five planting terms discovered in the dialect under
discussion. These terms are iso, [kx, [gba, [gha and [zq with the items that fall under each
term. It is also discovered that activities which characterise each item rather than the terms
are exclusive. It is equally important to note that iso is the only term that belongs to tuber
crops and cannot be associated with any other planting item in the dialect. Our concern in this
study is to point out the terms that associate with each planting item

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Lexical semantics of planting terms in Ihiala dialect of Igbo.

By Ndiribe, Matthew Onyebuchi

The study focuses on the semantic field theory with special emphasis on the planting terms in
Ihiala dialect of the Igbo language of the Igbo language. The study adopts the semantic field
theory as a tool for an efficient descriptive analysis of the subject matter. In the discussion of
the topic, efforts are made to explain the five planting terms discovered in the dialect under
discussion. These terms are iso, [kx, [gba, [gha and [zq with the items that fall under each
term. It is also discovered that activities which characterise each item rather than the terms
are exclusive. It is equally important to note that iso is the only term that belongs to tuber
crops and cannot be associated with any other planting item in the dialect. Our concern in this
study is to point out the terms that associate with each planting item

Size: 56.72KB

Uzo Mma: Pathway to Intangible heritage in Otobo Ugwu Dunoka Lejja

By Christian Chukwuma Opata, and Apex A Apex

This article studies the grid between tangible and intangible heritage in Otobo Ugwu Dunoka Lejja, an iron smelting site.

Published: 10/05/2016

Tags: Lejja, Otobo Ugwu, heritage, Iron smelting

Size: 4.52MB

Music as an Instrument of Punishment

By Christian Chukwuma Opata, and Sam Chukwu

This article details how music is used in correcting social vices among the Igbo

Published: 12/03/2012

Tags: Music, Punishment, Lejja, Igbo, Iron smelting

Size: 1.07MB

Comparative study on effect of chemical treatments on cassava peels for biogas production

By A.u. Ofoefule, E.l. Eme, et al

A comparative study of biogas production from cassava peels treated with different chemicals namely;
potassium hydroxide (KOH, 50% w/v) and locally available potash (“akanwu” 50% w/v) was investigated.
The untreated peels formed the control. The fresh cassava peels were degraded aerobically for 4
months before the chemical treatment, waste stabilization and charging of digesters took place. The
different variants from the treated peels were charged into 50 L metal prototype biodigesters in the ratio
of 2:1 of water to waste. The moisture content of the wastes determined the water to waste ratio. They
were charged as; Cassava peels treated with KOH (CP-K), Cassava peels treated with potash (CP-P) and
untreated cassava peels (CP-U). They were all subjected to anaerobic digestion under a 30 days
retention period and mesophilic temperature range of 25 - 37°C. Results obtained showed that while the
untreated cassava peels had cumulative gas yield of 68.7 ± 1.03 L/Total mass of slurry (TMS), the peels
treated with potash had highest cumulative gas yield of 124.1 ± 2.67 L/TMS, whereas cassava peels
treated with KOH had 111.3 ± 2.44 L/TMS. The flash point for the untreated cassava peels was on the 58th
day, while that for the CP-K and CP-P were 10 and 7 days, respectively. The general results showed that
the biogas yield from cassava peels can be enhanced by chemical treatment. Results further indicated
that locally available potash (“akanwu”) is a better chemical treatment to be employed in the biogas
production of cassava peels.
Key words: Cassava peels, biogas production, cumulative gas yield, onset of gas

Published: 12/12/2010

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The Transport System and Socio- Economic Development

By Mba, Chike H.

The Transport System and Socio- Economic Development

Published: 06/09/1989

Size: 2.10MB

Universal Basic Education and Nation Building: The Role of Libraries in Nigeria

By Okoye, M. O.

Universal Basic Education and Nation Building: The Role of Libraries in Nigeria

Size: 1.04MB