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Popular Participation For Rural Development in Nigeria.

By Igbokwe_ E.m., and Ajala_a.a.

Rural Development in Nigeria: Concepts, Processes, and Prospects

Published: 01/03/1995

Tags: Rural Development, Participation.

Size: 574.98KB

Evacuation as a Child Welfare Intervention Measure: The Case of the Nigerian Civil-War

By Obikeze, D. S.

Evacuation as a Child Welfare Intervention
Measure: The Case of the Nigerian Civil-War

Published: 12/03/2018

Tags: Evacuation, Child Welfare Intervention Measure

Size: 572.47KB

Value

By E.m Igbokwe, and Noble J. Nweze

Economic Evaluation of Environmental Resources.

Published: 12/03/1998

Size: 19.79MB

Son Preference Among Nigerian Mothers: Its Demographic and Psycho-Social Implications

By Obikeze, D. S.

This study explores son preference among Nigerian
mothers and its implications not only on desired fertility, but on
other aspects of social life (e.g. socialization, positions bascd on
gender, ctc.). The data for the study comcs from 1981-82
Nigerian Fertility Survey.
The practice of parents (in fact, the society) exprcssing and
showing prefcrence for male over female children has been reported
from virtually all raccs, all culturcs of the world (May, 1961; Goode,
1963; Williamson, 1976; Arnold and Zhcoxiang, 1986). However, its
prevalence and importance have differed greatly over time and space.

Published: 12/03/2018

Tags: Son, Mothers, Demographic, Psycho-Social

Size: 331.66KB

The Demographic Imperatives in Educational Planning: The Case of Nigeria

By Obikeze, D. S.

The Demographic Imperatives in Educational
Planning: The Case of Nigeria

Published: 12/03/2018

Tags: Demographic, Imperatives, Educational Planning

Size: 1.01MB

Issues in Child Welfare Intervention: A Study of the Rehabilitation Programme for War-Displaced Children in Nigeria

By Obikeze, D. S.

Issues in Child Welfare Intervention: A
Study of the Rehabilitation Programme for
War-Displaced Children in Nigeria

Published: 12/03/2018

Size: 678.93KB

Transformative Education: The Role of African Universities in the 21st Century

By Obikeze, D. S.

Transformative Education: The Role of
African Universities in the 21st Century

Published: 12/03/2018

Size: 1.37MB

Nigerian Journal Of Agricultural Teacher Education

By Igbokwe E.m

Determining Training needs of Broiler Farmers in Anambra and Enugu States of Nigeria.

Published: 12/03/1996

Tags: Livestock, Broiler production, Farmers.

Size: 234.58KB

Journal of Sustainable Tropical Agricultural Research...Volume 1

By Lawrence Etim Phd

Journal of Sustainable Tropical Agricultural Research...Volume 1

Published: 09/03/2001

Tags: Journal of Sustainable, Tropical, Agricultural Research.

Size: 341.95KB

Comparative analysis of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school children and rural farmers in Obollo-Eke, Enugu State, Nigeria: Implications for control

By Celestine Chidi Ogbonna1,2, Geme Urge Dori3,4, Emeka Innocent Nweze1,5, Gilbert Muoneke6, Innocent Ejike Nwankwo3, Nkiru Akputa7

aconmd mtou nciotmieps airne Osbuoclhlo p-aErkaem leotceartse da mino nSgo urtuhreaal sst,c hNoigoel rciah.i lMdreetnh oandds: rAu rcarl ofsasr-mseecrsti oinn asle sluecrvteedy
involving 1 337 school children and farmers was conducted in Obollo-Eke community between Spereppteamrebde rf o2r0 t0h6i sa npdu rJpuolys e2.0 07. Demographic data of subjects was collected using a questionnaire of Schistosoma haematobiuUmri ne samples were collected and examined for haematuria and ova (S. haematobium) using Medi-test Combi 9 and sedimentation
technique respectively. Results: The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis based on microscopic
examination of the urine sediment for the ova of S. haematobium was 17.5% while the prevalence
owfa hsa heimgahteurr iaam woansg 1 m5.6a%le.s I n(2fe0c.8ti%o)n tihnatnen fseimtya vlaersi e(1d4 f.r6o%m; lPig>h0t. 0to5 )h aenadvy w. Ians gselnigehratlly, thhieg hpreerv aamleonncge
primary school children (18.0%; n=762) than farmers (16.9%; n=575; P>0.05).The age-specific
apnredv a1l1e-n1c5e yoefa srcs haigsteo sgormouipassi sr easmpeocntgiv tehlye. sCtuodnyc sluusbijoenctss: rHaanegmeda tfurroima a8n.3d% m toe a2n1 .e2g%g /i1n0 0m-L5 uyerianres
(r = 0.95; Ph0t. 0to5 )h aenadvy w. Ians gselnigehratlly, thhieg hpreerv aamleonncge
primary school children (18.0%; n=762) than farmers (16.9%; n=575; P>0.05).The age-specific
apnredv a1l1e-n1c5e yoefa srcs haigsteo sgormouipassi sr easmpeocntgiv tehlye. sCtuodnyc sluusbijoenctss: rHaanegmeda tfurroima a8n.3d% m toe a2n1 .e2g%g /i1n0 0m-L5 uyerianres
(r = 0.95; P

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: SUcrhinoaorly c shcihldisretonsomiasis PRruervaall feanrcmeersSUcrhinoaorly c shcihldisretonsomiasis PRruervaall feanrcmeers

Size: 761.05KB

Kaurenoic acid isolated from the root bark of 3 Annona senegalensis induces cytotoxic and 4 antiproliferative effects against PANC-1 and 5 HeLa cells

By Theophine C. Okoye1*, Peter A. Akah1, Chukwuemeka S. Nworu1, Adaobi C. Ezike1

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with an estimated 6.7 million
deaths and 24.6 million people living with cancer in 2002. Presently, there is a global
increase in prevalence, mortality and health burden of various malignancies. World Health
Organization (WHO) report projected that cancer prevalence rates could further increase by
50% to 15 million new cases in the year 2020. The bioactivity guided isolation of the
bioactive constituent, and its characterization, responsible for the anticonvulsant effects of
the root bark extract of A. senegalensis yielded kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (KA). Therefore, the
aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-proliferative activity of kaurenoic acid from A.
senegalensis on selected cancer cell lines.
Study design: The study was designed to ascertain the antiproliferative and cytotoxic
effects of kaurenoic acid, a terpenoid isolated from the root bark of Nigerian Annona
senegalensis (Annonaceae).
Place and duration of study: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of
Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria, between October 2010 and
June, 2012.
Methodology: Human embryonic kidney cells expressing SV40 Large T-antigen (293 T),
Pancreatic tumour (PANC-1) and Henrietta Lacks’ cervical (HeLa) cell lines were used in the
study using standard MTT, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide,
assay method.
Results: Kaurenoic acid (KA) exhibited cytotoxic effects against the cells with estimated IC50
values of 0.93, 0.74 and 0.52 M concentrations for 293 T, HeLa and PANC-1 cells
respectively. This is an indication of the possible potentials of KA in the treatment of cervical
and pancreatic cancers.
Conclusions: Kaurenoic acid (KA), a diterpenoid, possesses antiproliferative effect against
HeLa and PANC-1 cell lines, and could be the anticancer constituent in the root bark extract
of A. senegalensis with potentials as a lead in the chemical synthesis of standard anti cancer
agentsCancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with an estimated 6.7 million
deaths and 24.6 million people living with cancer in 2002. Presently, there is a global
increase in prevalence, mortality and health burden of various malignancies. World Health
Organization (WHO) report projected that cancer prevalence rates could further increase by
50% to 15 million new cases in the year 2020. The bioactivity guided isolation of the
bioactive constituent, and its characterization, responsible for the anticonvulsant effects of
the root bark extract of A. senegalensis yielded kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (KA). Therefore, the
aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-proliferative activity of kaurenoic acid from A.
senegalensis on selected cancer cell lines.
Study design: The study was designed to ascertain the antiproliferative and cytotoxic
effects of kaurenoic acid, a terpenoid isolated from the root bark of Nigerian Annona
senegalensis (Annonaceae).
Place and duration of study: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of
Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria, between October 2010 and
June, 2012.
Methodology: Human embryonic kidney cells expressing SV40 Large T-antigen (293 T),
Pancreatic tumour (PANC-1) and Henrietta Lacks’ cervical (HeLa) cell lines were used in the
study using standard MTT, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide,
assay method.
Results: Kaurenoic acid (KA) exhibited cytotoxic effects against the cells with estimated IC50
values of 0.93, 0.74 and 0.52 M concentrations for 293 T, HeLa and PANC-1 cells
respectively. This is an indication of the possible potentials of KA in the treatment of cervical
and pancreatic cancers.
Conclusions: Kaurenoic acid (KA), a diterpenoid, possesses antiproliferative effect against
HeLa and PANC-1 cell lines, and could be the anticancer constituent in the root bark extract
of A. senegalensis with potentials as a lead in the chemical synthesis of standard anti cancer
agents.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Kaurenoic acid, Annona senegalensis, antiproliferative and cytotoxic

Size: 153.00KB

Genus Detarium: Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological profile

By Peter Achunike Akah*, Chukwuemeka Sylvester Nworu, Florence Nwakaego Mbaoji, Ifeoma Amarachukwu Nwabunike, Collins Azubuike Onyeto

The genus Detarium (Fabiaceae, Sub family Caesalpiniaceae) is indigenous to Africa.
In west Africa the genus is represented by 8 species, however only 3 species D.
macrocarpum, D. microcarpum and D. senegalense are of ethnomedicinal and pharmacological
interest. These three species are morphologically similar, but tend to
vary in regional distribution. Detarium species are widely and commonly used in
traditional medicine in the treatment of diverse ailments, including, fever, malaria,
bronchitis, convulsions, diabetes, microbial infections, etc. Some pharmacological
studies have been carried out to authenticate some of these claims. Phytoconstituents
with biological activities have been isolated from the genus. Among the
identified compounds include, flavenes, polysaccharides, clerodane diterpenes, dihydroclerodane
diterpenes, tetranoditerpenes, anthocyanidin alkaloids, as well as other
secondary metabolites. This paper reviews the comprehensive information on the
ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical profile and pharmacological activities of the
genus Detarium.The genus Detarium (Fabiaceae, Sub family Caesalpiniaceae) is indigenous to Africa.
In west Africa the genus is represented by 8 species, however only 3 species D.
macrocarpum, D. microcarpum and D. senegalense are of ethnomedicinal and pharmacological
interest. These three species are morphologically similar, but tend to
vary in regional distribution. Detarium species are widely and commonly used in
traditional medicine in the treatment of diverse ailments, including, fever, malaria,
bronchitis, convulsions, diabetes, microbial infections, etc. Some pharmacological
studies have been carried out to authenticate some of these claims. Phytoconstituents
with biological activities have been isolated from the genus. Among the
identified compounds include, flavenes, polysaccharides, clerodane diterpenes, dihydroclerodane
diterpenes, tetranoditerpenes, anthocyanidin alkaloids, as well as other
secondary metabolites. This paper reviews the comprehensive information on the
ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical profile and pharmacological activities of the
genus Detarium.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Detarium, Folkloric uses; phytochemistry; biological activities

Size: 200.77KB

Antidiabetic activity of the root extract of Detarium microcarpum (Fabacaee) Guill and Perr.

By Christian Ejike Okolo1, Peter Achunike Akah2,*, Samuel Uchnna Uzodinma3

Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder that impairs glucose homeostasis
resulting in severe diabetic complications including retinopathy, angiopathy, nephropathy,
and neuropathy thus causing neurological disorder. In this study, antidiabetic
activity of root extract of Detarium microcapum was investigated in rat model
of diabetes. A methanol root extract was prepared by soxhlet extraction and was
separated into fraction using chloroform, n-hexane and methanol to yield chloroform
fraction (CF), n-hexane fraction (HF) and methanol fraction (MF). The extract
and its fractions were screened for phytochemicals using standard methods. The
acute toxicity (LD50) of the extract was determined in mice. Diabetes was induced
by a single ip injection of 120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and glucose level
was analyzed as indices of diabetes. The acute toxicity test showed that the root
bark extract was safe at doses of up to 5 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of the
plant revealed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates and terpenoids in large
amount while saponins, resins, glycosides and flavonoids were present in moderate
amount. The results indicated that intraperitoneal injection of ME, MF, CF and HF
reversed the effect of alloxan in rats by different degrees. The antidiabetic potency
of the extract and fractions was in the order MF > ME > HF > CF. The results of
this study justify the use of this plant roots as traditional treatment for diabetes
mellitus.Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder that impairs glucose homeostasis
resulting in severe diabetic complications including retinopathy, angiopathy, nephropathy,
and neuropathy thus causing neurological disorder. In this study, antidiabetic
activity of root extract of Detarium microcapum was investigated in rat model
of diabetes. A methanol root extract was prepared by soxhlet extraction and was
separated into fraction using chloroform, n-hexane and methanol to yield chloroform
fraction (CF), n-hexane fraction (HF) and methanol fraction (MF). The extract
and its fractions were screened for phytochemicals using standard methods. The
acute toxicity (LD50) of the extract was determined in mice. Diabetes was induced
by a single ip injection of 120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and glucose level
was analyzed as indices of diabetes. The acute toxicity test showed that the root
bark extract was safe at doses of up to 5 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of the
plant revealed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates and terpenoids in large
amount while saponins, resins, glycosides and flavonoids were present in moderate
amount. The results indicated that intraperitoneal injection of ME, MF, CF and HF
reversed the effect of alloxan in rats by different degrees. The antidiabetic potency
of the extract and fractions was in the order MF > ME > HF > CF. The results of
this study justify the use of this plant roots as traditional treatment for diabetes
mellitus.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Diabetes mellitus; Detarium microcarpum, blood sugar, alloxan

Size: 225.79KB

Retention and loss to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment programmes in southeast NiRetention and loss to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment programmes in southeast Nigeria

By C. A. Onoka1, B. S. Uzochukwu2, O. E. Onwujekwe3, C. Chukwuka4, J. Ilozumba5, C. Onyedum4, E. A. Nwobi1, C. Onwasigwe1

This study generated new information about the outcomes of patients enrolled in antiretroviral
treatment programmes, as well as the true outcomes of those lost to follow-up (LTF).
Methods: Anonymized data were collected for patients enrolled over a 12-month period from two
programmes (public and private) in southeast Nigeria. Estimates of retention, LTF, mortality and transfers
were computed. All LTF enrollees (defined as patients who had missed three scheduled visits) whose
contact information met pre-defined criteria were traced.
Results: A total of 481 (public) and 553 (private) records were included. Median duration of follow-up was
about 14 months. Cumulative retention and LTF proportions were 66.5 and 32.8% (public), and 82.6 and
11.0% (private) respectively. LTF rates at third, sixth, ninth and twelfth months were 7.5, 19.3, 25.4 and
29.6% respectively (public), and 4.1, 7.1, 9.0 and 10.0% (private). LTF was higher among males, patients
with CD4z cell count(200 and public programme enrollees. For the public facility, 56.7% of 104 traceable
patients were dead and 38.8% were alive; the figures were 34.2 and 60.5% of 46 patients respectively for
the private. Most deaths had occurred by the third month.
Conclusion: Not all patients enrolled for treatment were retained. Though some died, many were LTF, lived
within the community, and could develop and transmit resistant viral stains. Most traced patients were dead
by the third month and poor contact information limited the effectiveness of tracing. Antiretroviral treatment
programmes need to improve documentation processes and develop and implement tracing strategiesThis study generated new information about the outcomes of patients enrolled in antiretroviral
treatment programmes, as well as the true outcomes of those lost to follow-up (LTF).
Methods: Anonymized data were collected for patients enrolled over a 12-month period from two
programmes (public and private) in southeast Nigeria. Estimates of retention, LTF, mortality and transfers
were computed. All LTF enrollees (defined as patients who had missed three scheduled visits) whose
contact information met pre-defined criteria were traced.
Results: A total of 481 (public) and 553 (private) records were included. Median duration of follow-up was
about 14 months. Cumulative retention and LTF proportions were 66.5 and 32.8% (public), and 82.6 and
11.0% (private) respectively. LTF rates at third, sixth, ninth and twelfth months were 7.5, 19.3, 25.4 and
29.6% respectively (public), and 4.1, 7.1, 9.0 and 10.0% (private). LTF was higher among males, patients
with CD4z cell count(200 and public programme enrollees. For the public facility, 56.7% of 104 traceable
patients were dead and 38.8% were alive; the figures were 34.2 and 60.5% of 46 patients respectively for
the private. Most deaths had occurred by the third month.
Conclusion: Not all patients enrolled for treatment were retained. Though some died, many were LTF, lived
within the community, and could develop and transmit resistant viral stains. Most traced patients were dead
by the third month and poor contact information limited the effectiveness of tracing. Antiretroviral treatment
programmes need to improve documentation processes and develop and implement tracing strategies.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Antiretroviral therapy, HIV, Retention, Loss-to-follow up, Nigeria

Size: 125.74KB

Parity related changes in obesity and some antioxidant vitamins in non-pregnant women of South-Eastern Nigeria

By Ui Nwagha, Ee Iyare1, Fe Ejezie2, So Ogbodo3, Cc Dim, Bu Anyaehie1

The delivery of many children at short interval is associated with micronutrient depletion and weight
gain. However, the relationship between the levels of the micronutrients and the body weight is yet to be ascertained.
Objectives: To determine the relationship between parity, body weight and some antioxidant vitamins in non-pregnant
Nigerian women.
Patients and Methods: Randomly recruited 200 non-pregnant women, comprising 82 primiparous and 118 multiparous
women completed the study. Their age, parity, mid-arm circumference (MAC), waist circumference (WC), weight, height
and body mass index (BMI) were determined. The serum levels of vitamins A, C and E were assayed using standard
methods.
Results: The mean BMI, WC and MAC of the multiparous subjects (parity = 3.0 ± 0.58) were significantly higher than
that of the primiparous subjects (parity = 1), (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, there were
statistically significant decrease in the vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E in multiparous compared with the primiparous
women (P < 0.005, P < 0.05 and P < 0.005), respectively.
Conclusion: Multiparty enhances weight gain, but depletes antioxidant vitamin micronutrients in non-pregnant Nigerian
women.The delivery of many children at short interval is associated with micronutrient depletion and weight
gain. However, the relationship between the levels of the micronutrients and the body weight is yet to be ascertained.
Objectives: To determine the relationship between parity, body weight and some antioxidant vitamins in non-pregnant
Nigerian women.
Patients and Methods: Randomly recruited 200 non-pregnant women, comprising 82 primiparous and 118 multiparous
women completed the study. Their age, parity, mid-arm circumference (MAC), waist circumference (WC), weight, height
and body mass index (BMI) were determined. The serum levels of vitamins A, C and E were assayed using standard
methods.
Results: The mean BMI, WC and MAC of the multiparous subjects (parity = 3.0 ± 0.58) were significantly higher than
that of the primiparous subjects (parity = 1), (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, there were
statistically significant decrease in the vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E in multiparous compared with the primiparous
women (P < 0.005, P < 0.05 and P < 0.005), respectively.
Conclusion: Multiparty enhances weight gain, but depletes antioxidant vitamin micronutrients in non-pregnant Nigerian
women.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Obesity, pregnancy outcome, antioxidant vitamins, parity

Size: 950.88KB