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The study evaluated the haematological and serum biochemistry profile of juvenile wild African giant rat
and determined the influence of sex on the haematological and serum biochemistry parameters. These
evaluations were carried out on 18 juvenile wild African giant rats of either sex, in Nsukka, southeastern
Nigeria, within the months of March–May 2014. Standard procedures were carried out in all the
haematological and serum biochemical determinations. The overall mean with the minimum and
maximum values for some of the hemato-biochemical parameters were as follows: packed cell volume
– 34.87 ± 0.76 % (31.00 – 39.00); red blood cell count – 9.33 ± 0.66 x 106/μl (6.26 – 13.40); hemoglobin
concentration – 10.27 ± 0.22 g/dl (9.26 – 12.63); total leukocyte count - 7.74 ± 0.14 x 103/μl (7.00 –
9.05); aspartate aminotransferase – 76.15 ± 6.68 IU/L (54.58 – 128.54); alanine aminotransferase – 18.09
± 1.61 IU/L(11.91 – 25.49); alkaline phosphatase – 102.08 ± 2.43 IU/L (83.18 – 111.82); total proteins –
4.70 ± 0.10 g/dl (4.03 – 5.18). The females had significantly higher (p < .05) serum ALT, blood urea
nitrogen and albumin values than males. The present study has presented preliminary information on
the range of haematological and serum biochemistry parameters which may be useful to biomedical
researchers and veterinary clinicians.
Abstract: Background: Antiretroviral
therapy is associated
with improved survival among
HIV-infected children. In Nigeria,
HIV treatment scale up was extended
to children over a decade
ago. This poses new challenges of
sustained quality care.
Aim: To determine the outcomes
for HIV infected children and
factors that influenced retention in
care at the University of Nigeria
Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla,
Methods: This was a study of HIV
-infected children seen between
September 2004 and October
2015 and at the Paediatric HIV
clinic of the University of Nigeria
Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla,
Enugu. Data collected include
regimen and outcomes. Data
analysis were done with Statistical
Package for Social Sciences
(SPSS) version 19 (Chicago IL).
Results: Five hundred and nineteen
of 555 enrolled children with
complete data were included in the
data analysis. Two hundred and
sixty-seven (51.4%) were females.
Three hundred and thirty-nine participants
(65.3%) were still in care,
12345 (23.7%) had been lost to
follow up, or 22 (4.2%) dead
while 35 (6.87%) were transferred
out to other health facilities or into
the adult ART clinic. Factors associated
with retention in care were
both parents being HIV positive
Taste preferences of pregnant West African dwarf (WAD) ewes were studied at different trimester periods using the multiple choice preference test method. A total of twelve WAD ewes of average body weight of 15.96 ± 4.17 kg, divided into two groups (A and B) were used for the study. Six pregnant ewes (in group A) served as the experimental group while the remaining six non pregnant ones (in group B) served as the control group. Preferences for test solutions; sucrose (sweet), salt, 0.09 % quinine sulphate (QS, bitter), 10 % solution of sodium hydrogen trioxocarbobnate (Na2HCO3, sour) and glutamic acid (GA, umami) were investigated compared to water. The preference result showed that pregnant WAD ewes at early trimester had strongest mean preference for Na2HCO3, sour taste (8431 ± 6.37 %) and moderate mean preference for (76.48 ± 6.11%) for bitter taste compared to other test solutions that were either non discrimnated or weakly preferred. At mid trimester, they showed moderate preference (71.15 ± 2.99 %) for sucrose which was highest compared to other test solutions that were either weaklypreferred (60.08 ± 7.04 % quinine sulphate; 68.34 ± 3.86 % Na
2HCO3), weakly rejected (45.13 ± 4.16 %, salt) or non discriminated (51.94 ± 6.14 %, GA). At late trimester, thepreference for sucrose was strong and highest (89.43 ± 6.76 %) as well as GA (80.16 ±4.95 %) compared to moderate preference for Na2HCO3 (76.14 ± 6.48 %), and rejection for salt (41.36 ± 5.73 %) and QS (28.14 ± 3.96 %). The results of this study have shown that pregnant WAD ewes respond differently to different tastants at different trimester periods. This information could serve as useful physiologic guide in appetite stimulation and probably explains the voluntary food selection behavior of the WAD ewes, during pregnancy.
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‑infected pregnant women have alterations in cellular and humoral
immunity that increase the risks to placental malaria infection.
Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of placental malaria among HIV‑positive women
Materials and Methods: It was a longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women receiving antenatal care at a tertiary
hospital in Nigeria. Peripheral blood sample for packed cell volume estimation and placental blood sample for malaria
parasite estimation were collected from each participant at a presentation in labor and upon delivery, respectively.
Results: The Prevalence of placenta malaria (68.6%) and anemia (66.7%) in HIV‑positive women were significantly
higher than the prevalence of placental malaria (35.3%) and anemia (44.1%) in HIV‑negative control (P < 0.001 and
P = 0.001 respectively). The employment status was the only sociodemographic factor significantly associated with the
development of placental malaria in HIV‑positive women (odds ratio: 21.60; 95% confidence interval: 7.1–66.2; P < 0.001).
Conclusion: The prevalence of placental malaria is very high among HIV‑positive women in Nigeria. Scaling up free
distribution of insecticide treated nets in the short term and employment opportunities of HIV‑positive women, in the
long run, may reduce the prevalence of placental malaria in our population.
Twelve adult West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep of mean age and body weight of 18 ± 1.19 months and 14.69 ± 256 kg body weight respectively were used to study the compatibility of concurrent rumen fisulation and duodenal cannulation with normal life. The compatibility with norma life was assessed by differences in body weight, voluntary feed intake, rectal temperature and some haematological and biochemical parameters for a period of eight weeks between test and contro groups. During the sudyperiod, all the six animals survived the surgery. There was no significant (p < 0.05) dfference in body weight between the test and control groups for the entire study period (week 1-8). The mean rectal temperature of the test group was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control group on week 1(44.6 ± 3.150C), week 2 (43.26 ± 414 0C) and week 3 (41.15 ± 6620C) after implantation. Packed cell volume (PCV) and erythrocyte count (EC) were significantly reduced in the test group within the frst three weeks (33.19 ± 141 to 24.45 ± 1.39%and 7.01 ± 134 to 437 ± 1.58 x 106μl) respectively. On the contrary, total leukocyte count (TLC), and neutrophils were significantly higher in the test group between weeks 1 to 3 (12.48 ± 435 and 31.09 ± 3.67 respectvely) compared to the control (8.06 ± 0.95 and 23.41 ± 2.09 respecvely. Lymphocytes were insignificantly higher in the test group while voluntary feed intake was insigniicantly reduced in the test group throughout the eight weeks. Biochemical analyses revealed that serum creatinine was signicantly higher in the test group at week 1 (3.62 ± 1.18) and week 2 (3.08 ± 1.44) afer surgery. There was however, no significant difference in serum total proteins during the study period. Serum potassium concentrations were sgniicantly decreased inthe test group at week 1 (4.96 ± 1.03 to 1.34 ± 0.04). Sodum was also signcanty reduced (146.08 ± 3.78 to 96.03 ± 6.21) but on week 3 post impantation (PI). On the other hand, serum globulin was significantly higher in the test group throughout the study period. Gross observationsof incision sites showed adhesions characterized by coalesced tissue granulations. The study has shown that the use of polymetric materials in fabricating rumen fistulae and duodenal cannuale could pave way for increased routine nutritional studies in ruminants particularly in developing countries where the availability of these materials constitute great limitationto research involving rumen studies.
The effect of pentazocine on diazepam/ketamine anaesthesia was evaluated in this
study. Pentazocine (10 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly (im) prior to injection
of diazepam (2 mg/kg, iv) and ketamine (15 mg/kg, im) in pentazocine
/diazepam/ketamine (P/D/K) group. In the diazepam/ketamine group, anaesthesia was
induced using diazepam (2 mg/kg, iv) and ketamine (15 mg/kg, im). All rabbits were
laparotomized after induction of anaesthesia. Intra operatively, anaesthetic indices,
physiologic variables and pain responses of rabbits were studied. Blood glucose and
serum cortisol of rabbits were monitored post laparotomy. The durations of analgesia and
anaesthesia were significantly shorter (p