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Inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide byInhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide by extract of Emilia sonchifolia L. aerial parts extr

By Chukwuemeka S. Nworu1, Peter A. Akah1, Festus B. C. Okoye3,4, And Charles O. Esimone2

Emilia sonchifolia L. (Asteraceae) is used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of a wide array of inflammatory disorders.
This practice has also been supported by scientific reports which showed that extracts of E. sonchifolia possess antiinflammatory
effects in rodents. However, the mechanism(s) through which the extracts produce these effects is not
known. In this study, the effect of a methanol/methylene chloride extract of E. sonchifolia (ES) on the levels of IL-1β
and TNF-α after an intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg) challenge was investigated in mice. The effect
of ES on TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide (iNO) production by LPS-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages
(BMMDM) was also investigated in vitro. BMMDM were pre-incubated for 2 h with ES (20, and 100 μg/mL) or with
Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, PDTC (100 μM) and then activated with LPS, and then the IL-1β, TNF-α and NO production
measured in the cell-free conditioned culture supernatant after 24 h of incubation. In groups of mice pre-treated with
ES, the systemic levels of IL-1β and TNF-α induced by LPS were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) lower. In vitro, ES
treatment caused a concentration-dependent decrease in LPS-inducible IL-1β, TNF-α, and NO production by BMDM
compared to the effects of treatment of the cells with LPS alone without affecting the viability of the cells. The results
of these studies suggest that treatment with ES alleviated inflammatory responses possibly through a suppression of
pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as IL-Emilia sonchifolia L. (Asteraceae) is used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of a wide array of inflammatory disorders.
This practice has also been supported by scientific reports which showed that extracts of E. sonchifolia possess antiinflammatory
effects in rodents. However, the mechanism(s) through which the extracts produce these effects is not
known. In this study, the effect of a methanol/methylene chloride extract of E. sonchifolia (ES) on the levels of IL-1β
and TNF-α after an intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg) challenge was investigated in mice. The effect
of ES on TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide (iNO) production by LPS-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages
(BMMDM) was also investigated in vitro. BMMDM were pre-incubated for 2 h with ES (20, and 100 μg/mL) or with
Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, PDTC (100 μM) and then activated with LPS, and then the IL-1β, TNF-α and NO production
measured in the cell-free conditioned culture supernatant after 24 h of incubation. In groups of mice pre-treated with
ES, the systemic levels of IL-1β and TNF-α induced by LPS were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) lower. In vitro, ES
treatment caused a concentration-dependent decrease in LPS-inducible IL-1β, TNF-α, and NO production by BMDM
compared to the effects of treatment of the cells with LPS alone without affecting the viability of the cells. The results
of these studies suggest that treatment with ES alleviated inflammatory responses possibly through a suppression of
pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNO.1β, TNF-α, and iNO.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Cytokines, Emilia sonchifolia, inducible nitric oxide, interleukin (IL-1β), pro-inflammatory mediators, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α

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Extracts of Ficus exasperata leaf inhibit topical and systemic inflammation in rodents and suppress LPS-induced expression Extracts of Ficus exasperata leaf inhibit topical and systemic infla

By Chukwuemeka S. Nworu1, Henry C. Nwuke1, Peter A. Akah1, Festus B.c. Okoye2,3, And Charles O. Esimone

The leaves of Ficus exasperata are mashed and prepared as poultices that are placed on swellings, wounds, and arthritic
joints to relieve swelling and pains by the Igede tribal community of Nigeria. The leaf and stalk are also squeezed and
used to mitigate itching or inflammation. These claimed benefits inspired this study in which topical and systemic
(acute, chronic) anti-inflammatory activities of a methanol/methylene chloride leaf extract of F. exasperata (MFE)
were assessed in rodents. Effects of an aqueous leaf extract (AFE) on lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of
interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and inducible nitric oxide (iNO) were also investigated in murine
bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) cultures. Treatment of rats with MFE (200 and 400 mg/kg) led to significant
inhibition of acute and chronic inflammation induced by, respectively, agar and formaldehyde in the paws. Topically,
pre-application of mice with MFE (5 μg/ear) also significantly inhibited (by up to 21%) ear edema induced by xylene.
In vitro, pre-treatment of BMDM with 5–100 μg AFE/ml significantly inhibited IL-1β, TNFα, and iNO production in a
dose-related manner. BMDM viability was not significantly affected AFE at concentrations up to 200 μg/ml. Initial
studies showed that flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids were the predominant phytoconstituents in each extract. In
conclusion, the results of the various investigations indicated that F. exasperata leaf extracts possess anti-inflammatory
properties that could underlie the benefits associated with the folklore use of the plant. The results also show that the
extracts may be acting through a suppression of mediators of inflammation, such as IL-1β, TNFα, and The leaves of Ficus exasperata are mashed and prepared as poultices that are placed on swellings, wounds, and arthritic
joints to relieve swelling and pains by the Igede tribal community of Nigeria. The leaf and stalk are also squeezed and
used to mitigate itching or inflammation. These claimed benefits inspired this study in which topical and systemic
(acute, chronic) anti-inflammatory activities of a methanol/methylene chloride leaf extract of F. exasperata (MFE)
were assessed in rodents. Effects of an aqueous leaf extract (AFE) on lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of
interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and inducible nitric oxide (iNO) were also investigated in murine
bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) cultures. Treatment of rats with MFE (200 and 400 mg/kg) led to significant
inhibition of acute and chronic inflammation induced by, respectively, agar and formaldehyde in the paws. Topically,
pre-application of mice with MFE (5 μg/ear) also significantly inhibited (by up to 21%) ear edema induced by xylene.
In vitro, pre-treatment of BMDM with 5–100 μg AFE/ml significantly inhibited IL-1β, TNFα, and iNO production in a
dose-related manner. BMDM viability was not significantly affected AFE at concentrations up to 200 μg/ml. Initial
studies showed that flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids were the predominant phytoconstituents in each extract. In
conclusion, the results of the various investigations indicated that F. exasperata leaf extracts possess anti-inflammatory
properties that could underlie the benefits associated with the folklore use of the plant. The results also show that the
extracts may be acting through a suppression of mediators of inflammation, such as IL-1β, TNFα, and iNO. iNO.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Arthritis, chronic inflammation, Ficus exasperata, inflammatory mediators, macrophages, paw edema

Size: 831.10KB

Statistical Assessment of Average Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation on Horizontal Surfaces in Tropical Climate P

By P. .e. Ugwuoke* ,c. .e. Okeke

The hourly and monthly average global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surfaces in Nsukka, a tropical
climate on Lat. 60 52' N, Long. 70 24' E and 397 metres above sea level, were critically evaluated for each month of the year,
starting from November 2009 to October 2010. For each month, the hourly average global and diffuse irradiance obtained were
correlated with local time of the day, using second degree polynomials, while the monthly average values were correlated with
the months of the year, using third degree polynomials. These correlations were performed to facilitate easy prediction of
global and diffuse irradiance at any time and month of the year in Nsukka. The maximum hourly average global irradiance of
773 W/m2 was observed at 12.00 noon for the month of January 2010, while the minimum hourly average value of 426 W/m2
was observed at 2.00 pm for the month of August 2010. The monthly average global radiation varied from 243 W/m2 for the
month of August 2010 to 427 W/m2 for the month of January 2010, while the monthly average diffuse irradiance varied from
28.83 W/m2 in June 2010 to 42.84 W/m2 in January 2010.The hourly and monthly average global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surfaces in Nsukka, a tropical
climate on Lat. 60 52' N, Long. 70 24' E and 397 metres above sea level, were critically evaluated for each month of the year,
starting from November 2009 to October 2010. For each month, the hourly average global and diffuse irradiance obtained were
correlated with local time of the day, using second degree polynomials, while the monthly average values were correlated with
the months of the year, using third degree polynomials. These correlations were performed to facilitate easy prediction of
global and diffuse irradiance at any time and month of the year in Nsukka. The maximum hourly average global irradiance of
773 W/m2 was observed at 12.00 noon for the month of January 2010, while the minimum hourly average value of 426 W/m2
was observed at 2.00 pm for the month of August 2010. The monthly average global radiation varied from 243 W/m2 for the
month of August 2010 to 427 W/m2 for the month of January 2010, while the monthly average diffuse irradiance varied from
28.83 W/m2 in June 2010 to 42.84 W/m2 in January 2010.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Statistical Assessment, Global and Diffuse Solar radiation, Horizontal Surfaces, Tropical Climate

Size: 455.28KB

Optimal Evaluation of Coag-Flocculation Factors for Alum-Brewery Effluent System by Response Surface Methodology

By M.c. Menkiti1*, M.c. Aneke2, E.b. Ogbuene3, O.d. Onukwuli1, E.o. Ekumankama4

This work investigates coag-flocculation optimization treatment of alum-brewery effluent system
via response surface methodology (RSM). To minimize suspended and dissolved particles (SDP),
experiments were carried out using nephelometric jar test and 23-factorial design with three
star-points, six-center-points and two replications. A central composite design, which is the
standard design of RSM, was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of three major factors
(coagulation pH, coagulant dosage, settling time) on the treatment efficiency. Multivariable
quadratic model developed for the response studied indicates the optimum conditions to be 9,
500mg/l and 20minutes for coagulation pH, coagulant dosage and settling time, respectively. At
optimum, the SDP was reduced from 10831.490mg/l to 801.451mg/l, representing 92.601%
removal efficiency. RSM has demonstrated to be appropriate approach for the optimization of
the coag-flocculation process by statistical evaluaThis work investigates coag-flocculation optimization treatment of alum-brewery effluent system
via response surface methodology (RSM). To minimize suspended and dissolved particles (SDP),
experiments were carried out using nephelometric jar test and 23-factorial design with three
star-points, six-center-points and two replications. A central composite design, which is the
standard design of RSM, was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of three major factors
(coagulation pH, coagulant dosage, settling time) on the treatment efficiency. Multivariable
quadratic model developed for the response studied indicates the optimum conditions to be 9,
500mg/l and 20minutes for coagulation pH, coagulant dosage and settling time, respectively. At
optimum, the SDP was reduced from 10831.490mg/l to 801.451mg/l, representing 92.601%
removal efficiency. RSM has demonstrated to be appropriate approach for the optimization of
the coag-flocculation process by statistical evaluationtion.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Coag-flocculation, Brewery effluent, Alum, Response surfacCoag-flocculation, Brewery effluent, Alum, Response surface methodology, Central composite designe methodology, Central composite design

Size: 375.10KB

Quality Characteristics of Bread Made from Wheat and Nigerian Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus plumonarius) Powder

By J.n.c. Okafor1, G.i. Okafor2, A.u. Ozumba1 And G.n. Elemo1

Bread containing graded levels of Mushroom Powder (MP) were produced by replacement of
Wheat Flour (WF) with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% MP. Effect of MP supplementation on the bread making
properties, proximate composition and sensory qualities were evaluated. Water absorption was significantly
(p0.05) difference between 5% MP fortified bread and 100% WF bread
(control) in all the attributes evaluated. Equally, 10% MP fortified bread did not differ significantly in crust color,
taste, chew ability and overall acceptability, it compared favorably well with control bread in these attributes.
Bread with 15% MP though had significantly (p

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Mushroom powder, bread, fortification, quality, acceptability

Size: 80.67KB

Paracetamol use (and/or misuse) in children in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

By Herbert A Obu1*, Josephat M Chinawa1, Agozie C Ubesie1, Christopher B Eke1 And Ikenna K Ndu2

Paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen) is the commonest available analgesic and anti-pyretic. It
is readily accessed from pharmacy, patent medicine and provision shops as over the counter drug making it a
potential drug of abuse, especially in children. We sought to find its use and/or misuse in children seen at the
paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu.
Objective: To determine the dosage, formulation, and frequency of paracetamol administration to children by
caregivers and factors associated with its use and/or misuse.
Method: An observational prospective study involving 231 children and their caregivers seen at the paediatric
outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku - Ozalla, Enugu between June and November
2011 was undertaken. Data on paracetamol use before presentation to the clinic, in addition to demographic and
other data were obtained from the caregivers using a structured questionnaire. Ethical consent for the study was
obtained from the Hospital Ethics and Research Committee and informed consent was further obtained from the
caregivers of the children.
Results: A total of 231 children aged six weeks to 16 years and their caregivers participated in this study. The mean
ages of the children and their caregivers were 3.8 and 33.9 years, respectively. One hundred and thirty three of the
children studied were males while 98 were females. Most of the children (75.6%) received paracetamol at home
before presenting. Paracetamol tablet alone or in combination with the syrup was mostly used (60%) and this
observation was made across all age groups. The commonest reason for using paracetamol tablet instead of the
syrup was that it was more effective. Most caregivers relied on past experience (71.2%) rather than on enclosed
information leaflet to decide the appropriate dosage. Half of the children also received other medications, mainly
anti-malarials and antibiotics.
Conclusions: Paracetamol was commonly given to children on “self prescription” basis and the tablet formulation
was most frequently used, with the possibility of misuse and overdose. Caregivers need to be educated on ageappropriate
formulatioParacetamol (also known as acetaminophen) is the commonest available analgesic and anti-pyretic. It
is readily accessed from pharmacy, patent medicine and provision shops as over the counter drug making it a
potential drug of abuse, especially in children. We sought to find its use and/or misuse in children seen at the
paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu.
Objective: To determine the dosage, formulation, and frequency of paracetamol administration to children by
caregivers and factors associated with its use and/or misuse.
Method: An observational prospective study involving 231 children and their caregivers seen at the paediatric
outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku - Ozalla, Enugu between June and November
2011 was undertaken. Data on paracetamol use before presentation to the clinic, in addition to demographic and
other data were obtained from the caregivers using a structured questionnaire. Ethical consent for the study was
obtained from the Hospital Ethics and Research Committee and informed consent was further obtained from the
caregivers of the children.
Results: A total of 231 children aged six weeks to 16 years and their caregivers participated in this study. The mean
ages of the children and their caregivers were 3.8 and 33.9 years, respectively. One hundred and thirty three of the
children studied were males while 98 were females. Most of the children (75.6%) received paracetamol at home
before presenting. Paracetamol tablet alone or in combination with the syrup was mostly used (60%) and this
observation was made across all age groups. The commonest reason for using paracetamol tablet instead of the
syrup was that it was more effective. Most caregivers relied on past experience (71.2%) rather than on enclosed
information leaflet to decide the appropriate dosage. Half of the children also received other medications, mainly
anti-malarials and antibiotics.
Conclusions: Paracetamol was commonly given to children on “self prescription” basis and the tablet formulation
was most frequently used, with the possibility of misuse and overdose. Caregivers need to be educated on ageappropriate
formulations which are less likely to lead to overdose.ns which are less likely to lead to overdose.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Paracetamol, Use, Misuse, Children, Caregivers

Size: 221.73KB

Obstacles to Obtaining Optimal Physiotherapy Services in a Rural Community in Southeastern Nigeria

By Chinonso Igwesi-chidobe

Background. Many people continue to live with physical disabilities across the globe, especially in rural Africa despite expertise
of Physiotherapists and available evidence of effectiveness of Physiotherapy. Objective. To determine the obstacles to obtaining
Optimal Physiotherapy services in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria. Methods. Population-based cross-sectional study
of individuals and health facilities in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria. Results. The obstacles to obtaining optimal
physiotherapy services in this community were unavailability of physiotherapy services, poor knowledge of health workers and
community dwellers of the roles and scope of physiotherapy, poor health care seeking behavior of community dwellers, patronage
of traditional health workers, and poor referral practices by health workers. Conclusion. Rural health workers in NkanuWest Local
Government and other rural communities in Nigeria and Africa should be educated on the roles and scope of physiotherapy. There
is a need for raising awareness of the management options for movement/functional problems for rural indigenous communities
in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. Physiotherapists should be made aware of the growing need for physiotherapy in
rural areas of Nigeria and AfricBackground. Many people continue to live with physical disabilities across the globe, especially in rural Africa despite expertise
of Physiotherapists and available evidence of effectiveness of Physiotherapy. Objective. To determine the obstacles to obtaining
Optimal Physiotherapy services in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria. Methods. Population-based cross-sectional study
of individuals and health facilities in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria. Results. The obstacles to obtaining optimal
physiotherapy services in this community were unavailability of physiotherapy services, poor knowledge of health workers and
community dwellers of the roles and scope of physiotherapy, poor health care seeking behavior of community dwellers, patronage
of traditional health workers, and poor referral practices by health workers. Conclusion. Rural health workers in NkanuWest Local
Government and other rural communities in Nigeria and Africa should be educated on the roles and scope of physiotherapy. There
is a need for raising awareness of the management options for movement/functional problems for rural indigenous communities
in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. Physiotherapists should be made aware of the growing need for physiotherapy in
rural areas of Nigeria and Africa largely comprising of the elderly.a largely comprising of the elderly.

Published: 07/03/2018

Size: 558.19KB

Obstacles to Obtaining Optimal Physiotherapy Services in a Rural Community in Southeastern Nigeria

By Luc Vanhees

Background. Many people continue to live with physical disabilities across the globe, especially in rural Africa despite expertise
of Physiotherapists and available evidence of effectiveness of Physiotherapy. Objective. To determine the obstacles to obtaining
Optimal Physiotherapy services in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria. Methods. Population-based cross-sectional study
of individuals and health facilities in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria. Results. The obstacles to obtaining optimal
physiotherapy services in this community were unavailability of physiotherapy services, poor knowledge of health workers and
community dwellers of the roles and scope of physiotherapy, poor health care seeking behavior of community dwellers, patronage
of traditional health workers, and poor referral practices by health workers. Conclusion. Rural health workers in NkanuWest Local
Government and other rural communities in Nigeria and Africa should be educated on the roles and scope of physiotherapy. There
is a need for raising awareness of the management options for movement/functional problems for rural indigenous communities
in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. Physiotherapists should be made aware of the growing need for physiotherapy in
rural areas of Nigeria and Africa largely Background. Many people continue to live with physical disabilities across the globe, especially in rural Africa despite expertise
of Physiotherapists and available evidence of effectiveness of Physiotherapy. Objective. To determine the obstacles to obtaining
Optimal Physiotherapy services in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria. Methods. Population-based cross-sectional study
of individuals and health facilities in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria. Results. The obstacles to obtaining optimal
physiotherapy services in this community were unavailability of physiotherapy services, poor knowledge of health workers and
community dwellers of the roles and scope of physiotherapy, poor health care seeking behavior of community dwellers, patronage
of traditional health workers, and poor referral practices by health workers. Conclusion. Rural health workers in NkanuWest Local
Government and other rural communities in Nigeria and Africa should be educated on the roles and scope of physiotherapy. There
is a need for raising awareness of the management options for movement/functional problems for rural indigenous communities
in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. Physiotherapists should be made aware of the growing need for physiotherapy in
rural areas of Nigeria and Africa largely comprising of the elderly.comprising of the elderly.

Published: 07/03/2018

Size: 558.19KB

Obstacles to Obtaining Optimal Physiotherapy Services in a Rural Community in Southeastern Nigeria

By Luc Vanhees

Background. Many people continue to live with physical disabilities across the globe, especially in rural Africa despite expertise
of Physiotherapists and available evidence of effectiveness of Physiotherapy. Objective. To determine the obstacles to obtaining
Optimal Physiotherapy services in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria. Methods. Population-based cross-sectional study
of individuals and health facilities in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria. Results. The obstacles to obtaining optimal
physiotherapy services in this community were unavailability of physiotherapy services, poor knowledge of health workers and
community dwellers of the roles and scope of physiotherapy, poor health care seeking behavior of community dwellers, patronage
of traditional health workers, and poor referral practices by health workers. Conclusion. Rural health workers in NkanuWest Local
Government and other rural communities in Nigeria and Africa should be educated on the roles and scope of physiotherapy. There
is a need for raising awareness of the management options for movement/functional problems for rural indigenous communities
in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. Physiotherapists should be made aware of the growing need for physiotherapy in
rural areas of Nigeria and Africa largely Background. Many people continue to live with physical disabilities across the globe, especially in rural Africa despite expertise
of Physiotherapists and available evidence of effectiveness of Physiotherapy. Objective. To determine the obstacles to obtaining
Optimal Physiotherapy services in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria. Methods. Population-based cross-sectional study
of individuals and health facilities in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria. Results. The obstacles to obtaining optimal
physiotherapy services in this community were unavailability of physiotherapy services, poor knowledge of health workers and
community dwellers of the roles and scope of physiotherapy, poor health care seeking behavior of community dwellers, patronage
of traditional health workers, and poor referral practices by health workers. Conclusion. Rural health workers in NkanuWest Local
Government and other rural communities in Nigeria and Africa should be educated on the roles and scope of physiotherapy. There
is a need for raising awareness of the management options for movement/functional problems for rural indigenous communities
in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. Physiotherapists should be made aware of the growing need for physiotherapy in
rural areas of Nigeria and Africa largely comprising of the elderly.comprising of the elderly.

Published: 07/03/2018

Size: 558.19KB

The Co-existence of the Mosque and the Catholic in our Contemporary Nigeria.

By Agha, U. Agha

This paper emphasizes that both Christians and Muslims must divest themselves of a disposition to censure, but should be possessed with feelings of love and decorum, tolerance and sobriety.

Published: 07/03/1989

Tags: Muslim, Catholic, Mosque, Love.

Size: 437.27KB

Haematological and serum biochemistry profile of the juvenile wild African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse – 1840) in Nsukka, South- Eastern Nigeria – a preliminary investigation

By Casmir Onwuaso Igbokwe, Onyinyechukwu Ada Agina, Chidozie Nwabuisi Okoye & Remigus Ibe Onoja

The study evaluated the haematological and serum biochemistry profile of juvenile wild African giant rat
and determined the influence of sex on the haematological and serum biochemistry parameters. These
evaluations were carried out on 18 juvenile wild African giant rats of either sex, in Nsukka, southeastern
Nigeria, within the months of March–May 2014. Standard procedures were carried out in all the
haematological and serum biochemical determinations. The overall mean with the minimum and
maximum values for some of the hemato-biochemical parameters were as follows: packed cell volume
– 34.87 ± 0.76 % (31.00 – 39.00); red blood cell count – 9.33 ± 0.66 x 106/μl (6.26 – 13.40); hemoglobin
concentration – 10.27 ± 0.22 g/dl (9.26 – 12.63); total leukocyte count - 7.74 ± 0.14 x 103/μl (7.00 –
9.05); aspartate aminotransferase – 76.15 ± 6.68 IU/L (54.58 – 128.54); alanine aminotransferase – 18.09
± 1.61 IU/L(11.91 – 25.49); alkaline phosphatase – 102.08 ± 2.43 IU/L (83.18 – 111.82); total proteins –
4.70 ± 0.10 g/dl (4.03 – 5.18). The females had significantly higher (p < .05) serum ALT, blood urea
nitrogen and albumin values than males. The present study has presented preliminary information on
the range of haematological and serum biochemistry parameters which may be useful to biomedical
researchers and veterinary clinicians.

Published: 06/03/2018

Tags: Haematology; serum biochemistry; juvenile; wild; African giant rat

Size: 786.80KB

Outcomes of Paediatrics HIV care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu after ten years of service

By Ubesie Ac Iloh Kk Ayuk Ca Ibeziako Sn Emodi Ji Obumneme-anyim I

Abstract: Background: Antiretroviral
therapy is associated
with improved survival among
HIV-infected children. In Nigeria,
HIV treatment scale up was extended
to children over a decade
ago. This poses new challenges of
sustained quality care.
Aim: To determine the outcomes
for HIV infected children and
factors that influenced retention in
care at the University of Nigeria
Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla,
Enugu.
Methods: This was a study of HIV
-infected children seen between
September 2004 and October
2015 and at the Paediatric HIV
clinic of the University of Nigeria
Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla,
Enugu. Data collected include
socio-demographics, HAART
regimen and outcomes. Data
analysis were done with Statistical
Package for Social Sciences
(SPSS) version 19 (Chicago IL).
Results: Five hundred and nineteen
of 555 enrolled children with
complete data were included in the
data analysis. Two hundred and
sixty-seven (51.4%) were females.
Three hundred and thirty-nine participants
(65.3%) were still in care,
12345 (23.7%) had been lost to
follow up, or 22 (4.2%) dead
while 35 (6.87%) were transferred
out to other health facilities or into
the adult ART clinic. Factors associated
with retention in care were
both parents being HIV positive
(p

Published: 06/03/2018

Tags: Paediatric HIV, children, outcomes, Enugu

Size: 190.77KB

TASTE PREFERENCES OF WEST AFRICAN DWARF EWES AT DIFFERENT TRIMESTER PERIODS

By Aka, Lawrence Okonkwo

Taste preferences of pregnant West African dwarf (WAD) ewes were studied at different trimester periods using the multiple choice preference test method. A total of twelve WAD ewes of average body weight of 15.96 ± 4.17 kg, divided into two groups (A and B) were used for the study. Six pregnant ewes (in group A) served as the experimental group while the remaining six non pregnant ones (in group B) served as the control group. Preferences for test solutions; sucrose (sweet), salt, 0.09 % quinine sulphate (QS, bitter), 10 % solution of sodium hydrogen trioxocarbobnate (Na2HCO3, sour) and glutamic acid (GA, umami) were investigated compared to water. The preference result showed that pregnant WAD ewes at early trimester had strongest mean preference for Na2HCO3, sour taste (8431 ± 6.37 %) and moderate mean preference for (76.48 ± 6.11%) for bitter taste compared to other test solutions that were either non discrimnated or weakly preferred. At mid trimester, they showed moderate preference (71.15 ± 2.99 %) for sucrose which was highest compared to other test solutions that were either weaklypreferred (60.08 ± 7.04 % quinine sulphate; 68.34 ± 3.86 % Na
.
i
2HCO3), weakly rejected (45.13 ± 4.16 %, salt) or non discriminated (51.94 ± 6.14 %, GA). At late trimester, thepreference for sucrose was strong and highest (89.43 ± 6.76 %) as well as GA (80.16 ±4.95 %) compared to moderate preference for Na2HCO3 (76.14 ± 6.48 %), and rejection for salt (41.36 ± 5.73 %) and QS (28.14 ± 3.96 %). The results of this study have shown that pregnant WAD ewes respond differently to different tastants at different trimester periods. This information could serve as useful physiologic guide in appetite stimulation and probably explains the voluntary food selection behavior of the WAD ewes, during pregnancy.

Published: 06/03/2018

Tags: Taste, Pregnancy preference, WAD ewes, Trimester periods

Size: 101.93KB

Prevalence and predictors of placental malaria in human immunodeficiency virus‑positive women in Nigeria

By Human Immunodeficiency Virus‑positive Women, Nigeria, Placental Malaria

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‑infected pregnant women have alterations in cellular and humoral
immunity that increase the risks to placental malaria infection.
Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of placental malaria among HIV‑positive women
in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: It was a longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women receiving antenatal care at a tertiary
hospital in Nigeria. Peripheral blood sample for packed cell volume estimation and placental blood sample for malaria
parasite estimation were collected from each participant at a presentation in labor and upon delivery, respectively.
Results: The Prevalence of placenta malaria (68.6%) and anemia (66.7%) in HIV‑positive women were significantly
higher than the prevalence of placental malaria (35.3%) and anemia (44.1%) in HIV‑negative control (P < 0.001 and
P = 0.001 respectively). The employment status was the only sociodemographic factor significantly associated with the
development of placental malaria in HIV‑positive women (odds ratio: 21.60; 95% confidence interval: 7.1–66.2; P < 0.001).
Conclusion: The prevalence of placental malaria is very high among HIV‑positive women in Nigeria. Scaling up free
distribution of insecticide treated nets in the short term and employment opportunities of HIV‑positive women, in the
long run, may reduce the prevalence of placental malaria in our population.

Published: 06/03/2018

Tags: Human immunodeficiency virus‑positive women, Nigeria, placental malaria

Size: 530.82KB

PHYSIOLOGIC EVIDENCES OF GOOD TOLERANCE OF CONCURRENT RUMEN FISTULATION AND DUODENAL CANNULATION IN WEST AFRICAN DWARF SHEEP

By Aka, Lawrence Okonkwo, 1obidike, Reginald Ikechukwu, 2eze, Chinedu Athenasius And 3igbokwe, Casmire Onwuaso

Twelve adult West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep of mean age and body weight of 18 ± 1.19 months and 14.69 ± 256 kg body weight respectively were used to study the compatibility of concurrent rumen fisulation and duodenal cannulation with normal life. The compatibility with norma life was assessed by differences in body weight, voluntary feed intake, rectal temperature and some haematological and biochemical parameters for a period of eight weeks between test and contro groups. During the sudyperiod, all the six animals survived the surgery. There was no significant (p < 0.05) dfference in body weight between the test and control groups for the entire study period (week 1-8). The mean rectal temperature of the test group was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control group on week 1(44.6 ± 3.150C), week 2 (43.26 ± 414 0C) and week 3 (41.15 ± 6620C) after implantation. Packed cell volume (PCV) and erythrocyte count (EC) were significantly reduced in the test group within the frst three weeks (33.19 ± 141 to 24.45 ± 1.39%and 7.01 ± 134 to 437 ± 1.58 x 106μl) respectively. On the contrary, total leukocyte count (TLC), and neutrophils were significantly higher in the test group between weeks 1 to 3 (12.48 ± 435 and 31.09 ± 3.67 respectvely) compared to the control (8.06 ± 0.95 and 23.41 ± 2.09 respecvely. Lymphocytes were insignificantly higher in the test group while voluntary feed intake was insigniicantly reduced in the test group throughout the eight weeks. Biochemical analyses revealed that serum creatinine was signicantly higher in the test group at week 1 (3.62 ± 1.18) and week 2 (3.08 ± 1.44) afer surgery. There was however, no significant difference in serum total proteins during the study period. Serum potassium concentrations were sgniicantly decreased inthe test group at week 1 (4.96 ± 1.03 to 1.34 ± 0.04). Sodum was also signcanty reduced (146.08 ± 3.78 to 96.03 ± 6.21) but on week 3 post impantation (PI). On the other hand, serum globulin was significantly higher in the test group throughout the study period. Gross observationsof incision sites showed adhesions characterized by coalesced tissue granulations. The study has shown that the use of polymetric materials in fabricating rumen fistulae and duodenal cannuale could pave way for increased routine nutritional studies in ruminants particularly in developing countries where the availability of these materials constitute great limitationto research involving rumen studies.

Published: 06/03/2018

Tags: Duodenal cannulation, Rumen fistulation, West African Dwarf sheep

Size: 197.30KB