HIV/AIDS epidemics affect the functioning of society in several ways. The inability of the extant literature to adequately highlight cultural factors and practices that favour and/or mitigate the spread of the disease necessitated the study. The study examined how socio-cultural factors engender vulnerability to HIV epidemic in Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Health Belief Model was used as analytical framework in explaining explains why belief, vulnerability and attitudes of people affect disease spread. The study adopted two-prong methodological approach – qualitative and quantitative research technique: primary data was gathered using structured questionnaire while secondary data was gathered from relevant and related literature. The sample size of this research study was 200 respondents, method of selection was multi-stage cutting across sex, age, income level, faith/religion, etc. The method of analysis was principal component analysis (factor analysis). The major findings from the study showed that blood covenants/oaths, tribal marks, having multiple female partners, and polygamy were key factors engendering vulnerability to HIV epidemic in Enugu South Local Government Area. The study further recommended awareness campaign with socio-cultural sensitive messages geared towards bringing HIV/AIDS under control in Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria.
This study was designed to investigate the attrition rate of boys and girls in some selected secondary schools in Enugu State. Some pertinent objectives were set out to be achieved which are: To analyse the school-type and students’ preference to stay at school the most; To compare the gender-type that prefers to stay at school the most and; To determine the factors that influence students’ preference to stay in secondary schools. The study is restricted to some selected public and private secondary schools in Enugu State: Government Secondary School Enugu, Enugu Educational Zone; Community Secondary School Umuidah, Obollo Educational Zone; Community Secondary School Ugbaike, Obollo Educational Zone; Saint Patrick’s Secondary School Obollo, Obollo Educational Zone; Immaculate Heart Secondary School Aji, Obollo Educational Zone; king’s College Enugu, Enugu Educational zone; New Haven Secondary School Enugu, Enugu Educational Zone; Baptist High School Enugu, Enugu Educational Zone. Hypotheses were set to this effect and tested.
The relationship between communication, readership and development cannot be overemphasized because development agents not only read, they also communicate such knowledge to the people. Newspaper is one of the media for such knowledge communication. This study x-rayed the effects of online publishing for the period 1997 to 2013 on the sales and revenues (profitability), employment, capital investment as well as productive and technical efficiency of The Punch and Thisday newspapers in Nigeria. The study analyzed annual averages including the median averages before and after online publishing, testing and validating the values using t-test and the two-tailed Wilcoxon signed–ranked test to ascertain the significance of the changes in the observed variables before and after online publishing process. The study also utilized trend analysis for revenue analysis and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for productive and technical efficiency analysis. With secondary data through on-site visits, interviews, and mails from the two newspaper houses, the study found that online publishing has significant effects on sales and revenues (profitability), capital investments as well as productive (operational) efficiency of the two Nigerian newspapers. Conversely, online publishing has negative effects on employment and technical efficiency. The study recommends a reduction in cover prices of newspapers which can be possible with intervention in the reduction of production costs and training sessions for media practitioners as well as the introduction of Digital Subscription Model (DSM) by these newspapers, for their online version.
This study set out to investigate the relationship between teacher motivation and students’ performance in the Enugu Education Zone of Enugu state, Nigeria. The Enugu Education Zone is one the six Education zones as classified by the State Ministry of Education. The study adopted the survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the study sample. To achieve the set objectives, the study applied regression method of data analysis to estimate the effects of teacher motivation on student performance. Findings from the study show that job satisfaction of teachers leads to improved teaching and learning. Motivation of teachers has positive effect on students ‘performance through improved teaching and learning as the log it result shows a coefficient that is greater than]. Also teacher supervision has a great deal of influence on teachers’ commitment to duly. However, only teacher financial motivation is sign Ulcant, while the other variables (experience and teacher training) are statistically in significant. The study recommends that teachers’ salaries and allowances need to be reviewed upwards with prompt payment like other professionals. Professional teachers should be considered more for employment, while teachers should be exposed to regular capacity upgrade programmes as a way of keeping them abreast of developments in their subject areas. The school environment should be made sufficiently stimulating to facilitate learning through the provision of functional school facilities and necessary instructional materials, for education not to witness a bleak future that would have adverse effect on the society. This will make the teachers teach with commitment, demonstrate high morale, productivity and a high sense of professional vista.
This study evaluates the community care in Nigeria intervention in OVC, a case study of three communities in Anambra state. The objective of the study among others is to determine sustainability and what difference SHP programme has made in enhancing access to basic needs/welfare among beneficiaries, evaluate to what extent this model can be replicated and what factors can enhance that replication. Primary and secondary sources of data collection were employed. Questionnaires were used to gather primary data from the respondents while secondary data was gotten from necessary publications. The sample size used is three hundred and eighty seven (387) and this was randomly selected from three communities Umuawulu, Isseke, and Inland Town St Stephen’s from three local government of Awka South, Ihiala and Onitsha South respectively and one hundred and twenty nine (129) respondents were randomly selected and forty three from each community by stratified sampling technique.
The study aimed to ascertain the extent to which gender differences impact on staff turnover in SMEs in Enugu Urban, compare the factors responsible for staff turnover, compare the staff welfare packages, and ascertain whether the rate of staff turnover affects the performance in male and female headed SMEs in Enugu Urban. The questionnaire was used to elicit information from 292 stratified randomly selected out of 1,080 respondents. The average mean score (AMS) technque was adopted to test four hypotheses. The findings indicate that there were significant differences in staff turnover, in male (90.5%) and female (9.5%) SMEs, factors responsible for staff turnover, and welfare package in male and female headed SMEs. Also, the rate of staff turnover had significant effect on the performance of male and female headed SMEs in Enugu. The study recommended that male and female headed SMEs should be conscious of staff turnover and provide improved staff welfare packages to minimize it.
Antisocial behaviour has been a problem among the university students in Enugu metropolis. This could be as a result of the existence of many tertiary institutions in the city and its environs. This study was designed to identify the key causative factors of some selected anti-social behaviours such as cigarettes smoking, alcohol consumption, drug abuse, involvement in illicit sex, fighting and stealing. The factors include father’s highest education, mother’s highest education, family financial status, relationship with mother, relationship with father, relationship with friends, mother’s reaction about smoking, father’s reaction about smoking, satisfaction with personal financial status, satisfaction with own health. Survey research method was employed while simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the samples for the study. Sample of one hundred and ninety seven (197) students were drawn from among the third and final year university students of University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Godfrey Okoye University and Enugu State University of Technology. Data for the study were collected using questionnaires. Data collected for the study were analysed using linear regression and ANOVA.
This study examined condom use campaign and its influence in the sexual life of students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka.The objectives of this study include the following: To determine the level of awareness in the use of condom among the students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka ,to analyze the trend of condom use campaign in Nigeria with particular reference to the students community of the university of Nigeria Nsukka and to determine the influence of condom use campaign on the sexual life of the students of University of Nigeria Nsukka.A total of 287 respondents were randomly selected within the two campuses and in various male and female hostels.Simple frequencies and tables were used to analyze date generated from the study. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component Analysis (PCA) was used to test the postulated hypotheses. The result of ANOVA recorded a P-value of 0.001 which showed significant difference on the perception of student on level of awareness of condom use campaign in the Campus. The PCA recorded total variance of 94.38120. This entailed significant pattern in condom use campaign and sexual life of students. Finding from the study ‘reveals that condom campaign is responsible for increase in sex habit of students as is the case of about 33% of students. This study established that condom use campaign and sexual innovation model is responsible for increase in sex habit and associated problems like have in 42% of sexual debut among students. The study also showed that 34% of students strongly agree that condom use campaign promotes sex addiction. However, the study upheld the fact that condom use have helped in saving life and controlled sexually transmitted diseases, there is therefore need to find a way to pass the message without causing more sexual habit problems. The study, therefore recommends, among others that emphasis must not only be on condom use. Abstinence should be emphasized as the best option, the government should re-orient our youth by putting together a Wholistic Reproductive Health Programme that will focus more on protective behaviour other than condom use.
This research work evaluated the effect of the World Bank Assisted Commercial Agricultural Development Project on rice farmers’ productivity and profitability in Badagry of Lagos state with a view to ascertain the availability of the intervention variables, their effects on farmers’ productivity, profitability and constraint that may be militating against the desired result. In pursuant of these objectives, a sample size of 134 of registered rice farmers was used and survey research method was adopted. Data collected through questionnaire were presented in tables and analyzed. The hypotheses were tested using T-test and the rice farmers’ productivity and profitability during the first three years of the project were compared with the last three years before the inception of the project. The findings revealed among others the availability of the intervention variables and confirms the fact that the World Bank assisted CADP has done well in some areas like the provision of access road, erosion control measures and farmers’ training and supervision by extension officers. This reflects the first objective of the study which is to confirm the availability of the intervention variables. Also, Productivity and profitability increased more during the CADP period than the pre-CADP period. This reflects the second objective which is to determine the effects if any of the World Bank Assisted CADP on rice farmers productivity and profitability in Badagry of Lagos state.
Minimum wage legislation is meant to give wage earners the necessary social protection in terms of minimum permissible level of wage. But despite these positive intentions, the policy has been highly criticized by many as its performance has also been doubted. This study examines
the effect of minimum wage in the public sectors on selected macro economic variables in Nigeria between 1970-2010 with special focus to find the effect of minimum wage on inflation, private consumption, fiscal balance and total factor productivity. The study made use of secondary data which were analysed using the ECM model by applying Eview software. Unit Root test was first conducted for both dependent and independent variables using the Augmented Dickey Fuller(ADF) approach at 5% level of significance and all variables were found to be stationary, co-integration test was also conducted using the Enger- Granger approach. The study used ECM having realized that there were some co-integrated series within the models. The result revealed among others that minimum wage legislation had a negative (-0. 707718) and insignificant ( 0.8966) relationship with inflation rate. Results also indicated that minimum wage had a positive (0.155680) and significant (0.0350) relationship with private consumption but the effect of minimum wage is negative (-0.659084 ) and insignificant (0.2044) on fiscal balance and finally it was found that minimum wage had a negative (-0.116879) but insignificant (0.0654) relationship with productivity index. Following the findings, it is therefore recommended that policies be designed to increase minimum wage even further especially because it will increase welfare and consequently private consumption generally without increasing inflation. Further research on some area of the study were also suggested.
Irregularity of pipe-borne water supply in Enugu metropolis is a lingering issue. This study aimed at identifying the challenges to regular safe water supply to Enugu metropolis by the Enugu State Water Corporation (ENSWC), Enugu. A total of 228 staff of ENSWC participated in the study as respondents. Questionnaire was used to elicit information on the challenges of regular water supply, their effects on the Corporation’s performance, measures taken to address the challenges, and the strategies to improve safe water supply in Enugu metropolis. Data collected were analyzed using Average Mean Score (AMS) technique, which also tested the hypotheses. Results showed that about 61.7% of respondents agreed that there were significant challenges facing Corporation. They were lack of competition, operational constraints, consumer uncooperative attitudes, vandalism, inadequate funding, corrupt practices by staff, irregular payment of salaries, political interference and increasing population. About 74.92% of respondents agreed that these challenges had significant effects on the staff performance of the Corporation. Low return in revenue collection, loss of revenue, loss of professionals, lack of motivation, pipe-rusting and damaging and low labour productivity were effects of these challenges. About 57.6% agreed that ENSWC had not taken measures against these challenges, nor adopt strategies to tackle the problem. About 67.1% of respondents agreed that there were strategies that could be adopted to improve the supply of pipe-borne water in Enugu metropolis.
In the face of cultural inhibitions and poor policy protection of the reproductive rights of women, women in Nigeria device coping mechanisms in order to strategize for their desired family sizes. This study sought to identify coping mechanisms that women resident in Enugu State adopt in their negotiations with spouses, and the effectiveness of these strategies as perceived by them in achieving the desired family sizes. The survey research design was adopted. Three hundred and seventy-six women between the ages of twenty and thirty-nine years were systematically selected in Enugu rural and urban areas. The instruments for data collection were questionnaire, focus group discussion and personal interviews. Information collected included demographic characteristics of informants, cultural norms and practices of family planning in Enugu State, techniques that women employ in negotiating with their husbands for desired family sizes, differences in the coping strategies adopted by rural and urban women in achieving desired family sizes, and effectiveness of the coping strategies adopted by women in achieving desired family sizse in Enugu State. Responses were rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1= Strongly Disagree to 5 = Strongly Agree. The 3.05 upper limit and 2.95 lower limits value for the opinion index for agree and disagree were respectively, used. Data were presented and analyzed using tables, charts, percentages, means, standard deviation and t-test. Research findings show that most women adopted the subservient position expected of them in negotiating with their spouses by generally submitting to them.
Recognising the need for everyone to sleep under a long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), th Roll-Back-Malaria (RBM) and African Heads of states, in April 2000, established the “Abuja targets,” which includes LLIN use by at least 60% of pregnant women and under-fives in Africa by 2005. These targets and those of the Millennium Development Goals to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality can only be achieved through high access rate of LLINs and insur¬ance that people who receive the nets actually sleep un¬der them on a regular basis. This study aimed to ascertain access and use of LLIN, as well as the effects of behavioural change on the use of LLIN among households in Enugu East Local Government Area (EELGA) of Enugu State, Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to 17 households selected from each of the 24 communities in EELGA by a combination of purposive and snowball techniques. Results showed that access to LLIN was signficant (76%), but the use of LLIN was not significant (21.1%). About 72.8% of respondents agreed that habit had significant effect on use of LLIN among hoseholds in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State of Nigeria. Apathy to government programmes (77.7%), fear of side-effects (82.1%), distortion of sleep¬ing arrangements inside the home (80.1%), interference of nets with daily activities in non-bed sites (79.1%), apparent absence of mosqui¬toes (77.7%), and perceived net ineffectiveness (76.7%) were aspects of habit or behavioural change that affected the use of LLIN by households in EELGA of Enugu State, Nigeria. It was recommended that behaviour change should become the next issue to tackle in the efforts to roll malaria back in communities.
Poverty is an issue of concern in socio-economic and sustainable development in Nigeria. The study sought to investigate the extent to which commercial tricycles business impacted on those who engaged in the business in Abuja Municipal Area Council. A total of 222 responds were randomly selected for the study. The instruments of data collection were questionnaire and interview. Simple percentages, chats, frequency tables, were used in the analysis. The study also used logit models to test the hypotheses. The study found that those who sourced their commercial tricycles from government-sponsored National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) were better and faster impacted positively than those than those who got their tricycles through hire-purchase and lease. It was also found that financial status of tricycle operators depended on the duration of involvement in commercial tricycles business. Hence, it was concluded that commercial tricycle business (KEKE) is a potent strategy for poverty alleviation. Based on the fact that poverty cuts across gender, it is recommended that the AMAC and NAPEP should extend the distribution of the tricycle to females too if poverty is to be sufficiently reduced.
This research is made to investigate the changing patterns of the Igbo traditional marriage costume till date. From the pre- colonial period, Igbo man was known for his plethora of materials and intelligence by making good use of his brain especially in harnessing materials around him creatively to achieve various useful purposes. Observably, there might not be specifically a particular attire or costume set aside for marriage ceremonies. In other words, they made use of the available materials that was within their reach at the time and explored them into their traditional wears such as the Ufa, Ukaw and the Akwete materials.