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On the 27th day of August, 1991, the new Anambra State was created along with 8 others by an act of the Federal Military Government; hitherto a more or less semi-urban settlement was proclaimed its Capital.
The aim of this study is to critically discuss and asses the relevant laws that affect business in Nigeria, this would also acquent us with otheer environmental factor that make or frustrate business operation in Nigeria
This study was designed to determine the effect of language of instruction on pupils’ academic achievement and interest in Agriculture in primary schools. The study adopted a pretest, posttest, non-equivalent control group, quasi-experimental research design which involved groups of pupils in their intact classes assigned to experimental and control groups. The population for the study was 17,542 primary five pupils in Owerri Education Zone of Imo State out of which 145 pupils were sampled using 2-stage purposive sampling technique and used for the study. Six research questions and eight null hypotheses, tested at 05 level of significance guided the study. The instruments used for data collection were Achievement Test in Agriculture (ATAGRIC) and Agriculture Interest Inventory (AGRICII). To ensure content validity of the ATAGRIC, a table of specification was built for the test. The lesson plans, ATAGRIC, AGRICII and the training manual were subjected to face validation by seven experts. The ATAGRIC was trial tested to determine its psychometric indices and reliability co-efficient. The trial test for determining the coefficient of stability of the ATAGRIC was carried out using test re-test reliability method. Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient of the ATAGRIC was found to be 0.81. Cronbach alpha was used to determine the internal consistency of the Agriculture interest inventory items. The reliability coefficient for the AGRICII was found to be 0.82. Data were analyzed using mean to answer the research questions; while ANCOVA was used to test the null hypotheses. The study found out that Igbo language as a medium of instruction is more effective in improving pupils’ academic achievement and interest in Agriculture than English language as medium of instruction in Imo State. The study also found out that Igbo language instruction is effective in improving both rural and urban pupils’ achievement and interest in Agriculture. There was an effect of gender on the pupils’ achievement and interest in Agriculture favouring boys. However, the effect on interest was not found significant. The study found out that there are no significant interaction effects of Igbo language as a medium of instruction and gender on the academic achievement and interest of primary school pupils in Agriculture. This implied that the effectiveness of Igbo language as medium of instruction on pupils’ achievement and interest in Agriculture does not depend on gender. Consequently, it was recommended that Government should review the language policy of the country with a view to incorporating and enforcing the use of language of the environment or mother tongue based instruction at the senior primary school level and the curriculum should be reviewed towards additive bilingualism in schools.
The study evaluated the chemical composition, nutrient adequacy, shelf life and organoleptic properties of complementary mixes based on “acha” (Digitaria exilis), benne seed (Sesamum indicum) and soybean (Glycine max). The staples (acha, benne seed and soybean) were purchased from Central Market Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Acha was fermented for 48hours and sundried for 2days, benne seed was washed and roasted with gas cooker on low heat at 80oC for 10 minutes and soybean boiled for 60 minutes at 100oC, fermented for 24 hours and roasted under low heat at 80oC for 10 minutes before milling separately into flours. The flours were combined at different ratios on protein basis to produce five complementary mixes namely D70S30 (acha70/benneseed30), D70G30 (acha70/soybean30), D70S15G15 (acha70/benneseed15/soybean15), D70S20G10 (acha70/benneseed20/soybean10 and D70S10G20 (acha70/benneseed10/soybean20). Each derived 70% of its dietary Nitrogen (N) from cereal (acha) and 30% from legume and or oil seed (soya been and or benne seed). The multi-mixes were analyzed for their nutrient, anti-nutrient and phytochemical composition before being used to prepare porridges. The nutrient content of the quantity of each porridge to be consumed daily by a child (6-24months old), who is breastfeeding was calculated and compared with recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for the age group. Nutritional adequacy of the porridges was assessed based on the percentage of the RNI met. Shelf life (keeping quality) of the complementary mixes was evaluated using free fatty acids (FFA), pH, water and microbial load for 60days. All analysis was done in triplicate using standard methods. The organoleptic properties the porridges made from the mixes were also evaluated.
The study examined the effectiveness of indigenous coping strategies in flood management and control in selected communities in Anambra State in recent times. Three usually flooded communities namely Umuleri, Umunze Anam and Onitsha were selected for study. The study adopted the survey research design. Sample size of 400 households were randomly selected from the three communities for study. The questionnaire and an interview schedule were used to elicit information from household heads and key community leaders. Respondents for interviews were purposively selected while respondents for questionnaire survey were randomly selected. Tables, percentages, and charts were used in the analysis, while the chi square test was used to test the postulated hypotheses. Findings show that the major cause of flooding in the area was increased rainfall. To contain the floods indigenous coping strategies adopted by the communities include construction of floodways/local drainages, raising the plinths of houses/shops, early planting and harvesting, planting flood resistant crops, sand bagging around houses/shops, manual water bailing system. These measures helped to reduce the damages caused by flooding prior to 2012 but wasn’t sufficient to manage the 2012 flooding due to the magnitude of the flood.
The study investigated locations and patterns of street begging in Enugu metropolis. One hundred and eight five beggars were purposively selected from twenty 20 begging locations across Enugu metropolis. Data were collected with the aid of an in-depth interview schedule as well as personal observations. Variables of interest were socio demographic characteristics of the beggars, usual locations for begging, styles of begging, choice of clients, and patterns of begging. Percentages and table summaries were used to analyse the data collected while the chi square test statistic was used to test the hypotheses. Findings show that begging was not confined to a particular age group although begging in the metropolis was more common among the elderly population (60%). There were more males beggars (59.5 %) than females (40.5%). Begging was found to be more common among married persons (75.7%) and persons without formal education (83.8%). Destitution and physical handicap were factors in begging but able bodied men and women were also found to pretend to be ill to indulge in begging (54.1% ).The daily income of street beggars in Enugu metropolis range from ₦500 to ₦1000 (60.3% ), with females earning more than the males. Location was significant in the nature of begging. Group beggars prefer market places (51.9%), while those that beg alone prefer worship centres (7%), physically challenged beggars that are led by other persons prefer traffic intersections (traffic light) (5.4%). The beggars were mostly Igbo’s (70.2%), Hausas (27.3%), Yoruba’s (0.8%) and nationals of Niger Republic (1.7%). Risks faced by street beggars include sexual exploitation (61.6%) and kidnapping of both sexes (16.2%) and physical assault of box sexes (10.8%). Factor that predisposes street beggars to begging is poverty (58.4%). It was revealed that Christians were more in street begging in Enugu metropolis (89.2%) and Islam (9.2%). In self worth females feel ashamed (71.2%), while don’t feel ashamed by male (61.2%), vocational training/trade as need of street beggars (62.2%) and begging with terminal ill persons (20%).
This study was motivated by the observed low life expectancy of men compared to women. Explanations to this observation were sought for in the health seeking behaviour of men in Enugu Metropolis. The study examined the differences in the health seeking behaviour by men of different age groups, educational attainment and income levels in Enugu Metropolis. The study was located in Enugu Metropolis, made up of three Local Government Areas (LGAs) namely: Enugu North LGA, Enugu East LGA and Enugu South LGA. A sample size of 384 men aged 18 years and above was selected through the multi stage sampling technique for the study. Simple percentages, frequencies, tables and charts were used in data analyses. The postulated hypotheses were tested with the aid of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The variables of interest included visits to hospital for regular medical checkup, completion of medication, choice of hospital, use of treated insecticidal nets, response when sick, and nature of treatment sought for when sick. Findings showed that income and age influence health seeking behaviour of men in Enugu metropolis. Elderly men were found to be more conscious of their health. Also men of higher income have better health seeking behaviour than those in lower income category. On the other hand, there is slight difference in the health seeking behaviour by men of different education levels since all abuse drugs, practice self-medication, neglect regular medical checkup. However, whenever a case of ill health develops, the more educated men respond more positively to finding appropriate remedy. The study recommended that there should be proactive health care programmes to promote the health of the young and middle aged men who are more reactive in their health seeking behaviour. Also, awareness on the benefits of preventive health practice for men should be intensified.
Across the world, it is postulated and indeed worthy of note that many prisons are as reformative as the schools (Drente, 2005). However, this is not so here in Nigeria as Ojo,(2007) made it emphatically clear that rather than being reformative and rehabilitative, the Nigerian Prisons system is punitive, degrading and very much dehumanising thereby leaving the Prisoners with the least opportunity of re-entry into the Society. It is also truism that those Prisoners who are lucky to come out alive find it exceedingly difficult to re-adjust to normal lives and eventually end in further commission of crimes (Recidivism) hence, the enquiry in this study: An Evaluation of the Effect of Prisons Reformatory Capacity on Recidivism: A Case Study of Enugu Prison. In interrogating this study, efforts were made repeatedly to have access to the inmates and prison officers who we relied on to elicit information as required; due to several denials as a result of Security issues and challenges as alleged. The tools for data collection used were the Focused Group Discussion (FGD) and Formal Questionnaires. Our research design is the survey method as we had earlier adopted the purposive sampling technique. Pursuant to attaining these objectives, about 203 copies of questionnaire were distributed out, only 195 was returned, leading to the sampling of 195 recidivists. A Logit regression analysis was done to ascertain the effect of prison reformatory capacity on recidivism and also to determine the effect of length of time in prison on recidivism in Enugu. It was found that the prisons reformatory activities are positively related to recidivism but have no significant effect on recidivism. The study also revealed that the duration or length of time in prison is positively related to recidivism and has no significant effect on recidivism. Hence by implication the longer the time in prison, the higher the rate of recidivism. Again the adequacy level of reformatory activities, the higher the rate of recidivism in Enugu, this result did not conform to the theoretical expectation. It is expected that the higher the level of reformatory activities, the lower the rate of recidivism. This might be as a result of the fact that the reformatory activities have not been properly modified to create the expected impact on the lives of prison inmates. We have carefully suggested some recommendations to this effect and it is our expectation that we find it revealing, interesting and useful too.
This research work is centered on demographic differentials on drug obtaining behavior of people living with HIV in Enugu state .The treatment and care of people living with HIV has become paramount because of the alarming rate of HIV infection .in order to effectively manage this pandemic, the need to effectively distribute the anti retroviral drugs to the affected patients becomes very vital and the essence of understanding the drug obtaining behavior of this patients is germane in order not to waste the effort and resources of government in setting up treatment centers The research work is highly descriptive and inferential in nature. This involves the use of tables, frequencies, and simple percentages as the basic statistical technique employed to analyze the raw data which was gotten from the primary sources. The raw data was subsequently subjected to chi-square test as a major tool for hypotheses and analysis. The alternative hypotheses were accepted showing that there are determinants that affect where PLHIV go to obtain their drugs. Findings reveals that the choice of where they go to obtain their drugs is mainly determined by the fear of stigmatization as they travel miles to treatment centers where they know that people that know them will not see them and recognize that they are PLHIV as 70.21% are not resident in Enugu while 29.79% only resides in Enugu. Furthermore, the roles that support groups play in fostering their common interest and ensuring that their right to dignity of life is maintained were properly x-rayed. It concluded that Fear of stigmatization is at the root of the drug obtaining behavior observed amongst the patients. It recommended that polices of anti stigmatization should be enacted/put in place by the government aimed at ensuring that stigmatization is a thing of the past. Government and non-governmental agencies should provide funding to the support groups to enable them carry out their roles effectively. This is in addition to the provision of more facilities and empowerment of the patients.
The flash flood event of July to August 2010 in Ngwo submerged many buildings, farmlands, business premises and economic trees. Flash floods are common in Ngwo, Udi Local Government Area as any other parts of Nigeria. The regular re-occurrence of flood in the area has also been detrimental to the health of the residents of Ngwo. Therefore, the study aims at examining the effects of flooding on the communities of Ngwo. Data were collected through the use of Handheld Global Positioning System (GSP),Geographic Information System (GIS) and questionnaire. GPS coordinates of Ngwo was collected to determine the topography, the landuse landcover, hydrological map (to identify the areas most prone to flooding) and the slope and soil type. The extent of flood inundation was determined through the use of GIS, SRTM(Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) , Digital Elevation Model ( DEM), Illwis and GPS. Coordinates and other data acquired during the field works at Ngwo were used to identify areas most prone to flood, flood plain and the areas impacted most during flood disaster. Using Illwis data, the digital elevation model of Ngwo was generated in ArcGIS. Land use classes were derived from visual image interpretation of Google earth images using the Multi-Resolution Land Cover classification (MRLC) system and handheld GPS. A total of 400 questionnaires were administered to the respondents in the study area. The questionnaires were distributed using the systematic random technique at interval of five communities in each ten villages. Data collated through questionnaire was coded and analyzed with the aid of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. Descriptive statistics which includes frequency, percentages, means and standard deviations were used to summarize the data and answer the research questions. Spearman rho correlation was used in testing the first hypothesis to determine if significant relationship exists between flood disaster occurrence and the effects. In the second hypothesis, ANOVA was used to determine the significant difference among the communities in Ngwo as regards the impacts of flood disaster. The third hypothesis was tested using factor analysis. P value less than 0.05 level of significance was considered. The level of effects were determined as it affects damage to farmland and economic tress (agricultural effects), damage to infrastructural facilities (roads, schools etc), Markets (economic activities), health (loss of lives and injured) and water sources. The areas with high effects were identified. The study reveals that topography, inadequate drainage system and heavy rainfall are major causes of flood disaster in Ngwo The study reveals that the major cause of flood in the study area was the non availability/insufficient drainage system or total absence of the drainage system as the case may be. Also, high rainfall and dumping of waste into the drainage have contributed to the regular occurrence of flood in the area.
Flood is a predominant natural hazard in Nigeria. In the last 30 years, Nigerian cities have experienced great physical development in terms of building, construction and reconstruction of roads, offices, markets, and stores, manufacturing industries and others without any appreciable infrastructures such as drainages for roads and canals to support them. These have made floods to be a serious challenge that plague many community in Nigeria including some communities in Anambra West Local Government in Anambra State, Nigeria . Hence, this research assessed the socio-economic effects of flooding in some Communities in Anambra West Local Government Area in Anambra State, Nigeria, and the imperative steps to be taken by the government and its host communities to reduce the effects of flood menace for sustainable development. Using an error of 0.05 level, questionnaire survey were utilized in gathering data for the study. Data collected through questionnaires was coded and analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Simple percentage, frequency distribution tables, chi-square, principal component analysis, linear regression and ANOVA were employed in the analysis of data. The study revealed very high socio-economic effects of flooding and significant pattern in the communities study area. The seven (7) significant critical aspects includes animal production, crop production, fish production, food availability/affordability, employment, health/loss of human resources, infrastructure and household properties. The study also found out that, there is significant relationship between flood incidence (frequency) and socio-economic effects in the communities studied area which implies that, an increase in the incidence (frequency) of flooding has an increasing socio-economic effects on the communities. It further revealed that a significant difference exists in the socio-economic effects of flooding across the communities in the study area. Finally, the study concluded by making recommendations.
Keywords: Flood menace, Community, Sustainable development, Socio-economic activities Floodplains, Drainage system, Environment.
Effects of Vocational; Guidance on Occupational Preferences and Values of Secondary Students in Calabar.
Proposed Onitsha Archdiocesan Retreat and Pastoral Centre
Influence Of Student’s Background On Their Achievement In Introductory Technology
Reservoir Characterization of an X-Field in the Niger-Delta, Using Petrophysical Parameters