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This study examined access to agro-credit by farmers in Kaduna state. This study employed survey research methodology which covered the three agricultural zones in the study area. To achieve the objective of the study, five research questions guided the study and one hypothesis was formulated. Hypothesis was tested using Chow test model. The data generated were analyzed using multiple regression and 4-point likert scale rating. A reliability coefficient of 0.78 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha to establish internal consistency. It was shown that, majority of the respondents (40%) were aged between 31 and 40 years, 32.5% where aged between 41 and 50 years and 18.33% were between 21 and 30 years. About 41.20% of the respondents had no formal education, 34.2% attended primary education, 16.7% obtained secondary certificate while 7.5% attended tertiary institution. About 48.3% of the respondents had farming experience of 20 years and above, 19.2% had farming experience of between 10 to 14 years and 17.5% had 15 to 19 years. Majority of the respondents (41.67%) sourced a total amount of between N100,000 and N400,000 from either formal or informal sources, 25.83% sourced less than or equal to N100,000. Others, 10.83%, 15% and 6.67% have obtained credit to the tune of N400,001 – 700,000, N700,000 – N1,000,000 and more than N1,000,000 respectively. Age, marital status, level of education, interest rate and credit awareness were the major determinants of (p
This study is necessitated by the persistent food shortage and low capacity utilization problem in agro-industries arising from the inadequate supply of agro-raw materials in Nigeria.
This study sought to examine the motivational factors and vocational preference of secondary school adolescents. Four research questions and two null hypotheses were generated to guide the study. The design of the study was a descriptive survey design. The sample consisted of 349 Senior Secondary School (SSS) III students in the secondary school in Onitsha Education Zone of Anambra State. The instrument used for the study was vocational interest and motivational factor questionnaire (VIMFQ). Means, standard deviation, chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Major findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference between male and female students who showed preferences to various vocational areas; there was a significant difference between urban and rural students who showed preferences to various vocational areas; the male and female students are motivated by external influences to a low extent, rewards/benefits, self expression values and people oriented motivated them in their choice of a vocation to a great extent, the urban students are motivated by external influence to a low extent while rural students are influenced to a great extent; rewards/benefits, self-expression values and people oriented values motivated both urban and rural students to a great extent. Based on these findings, conclusions were drawn and the educational implications were extensively discussed. Among the recommendations made were that more professional guidance counsellors should be posted to schools to perform functions like providing students with vocational information, helping students to identify their interest, capabilities and abilities in relation to their vocational choices. counsellors should guide the students in selection of school subjects which are related to their area of aspiration than allowing non-professionals to remain in that Post. Teachers should emphasis during their lesson, the career implications of subjects so that students will see how individual subjects relate to existing careers thus increasing their knowledge of occupations.
There is no gainsaying the fact that in spite of its relevance in social science curriculum and
practice, research methods is often a “better-avoided” area for university students. This attitude is largely
a product of the dearth of easily comprehensive texts in this area, and the esoteric approach often adopted
by both writers and teachers of the subject. As a result, this book seeks to overcome these constraints
while serving both the academic requirements of research methods in most disciplines in the social
sciences and the real life research needs of social science scholars.
This study is concerned with the challenges facing Africans as they strive to survive after colonization.
Examination of fair value measurement in determination of profitability of listed manufacturing firms in Nigeria was influenced by the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) in Nigeria. IFRS are a set of accounting standards developed by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) that is becoming the global standard for the preparation of public company financial statements. The standard favours a basis of valuing assets and liabilities known as Fair Value, different from Historical Cost promoted by Statement of Accounting Standards (SAS) and the former International Accounting Standards (IAS). The Fair Value measurement values assets and liabilities at their current market price as though the business is at liquidation and trying to realise its assets and dispose its liabilities, while the Historical Cost convention values assets and liabilities at their original costs of purchase or transfer thereby assuming a stable monetary unit disposition. The IFRS also presents with reclassification of returnable packaging material (RPM) as long term asset, and the depreciation of the components of a machine, instead of the whole machine. Previous research has shown that method of valuation may significantly influence reported profit; the problem therefore is, what effect would this newly adopted way of valuing assets and liabilities have on profitability? Thus, the study sought to: (i) ascertain the influence of depreciation on profitability of the manufacturing firms in Nigeria using fair value measurement and historical cost convention, (ii) examine the effect of inventory on reported profit of manufacturing firms in Nigeria under fair value measurement and historical cost convention, (iii) determine the relationship between volume of tax and reported profit of manufacturing firms in Nigeria using fair value measurement and historical cost convention and (iv) compare the mean of the two sampled populations. The ex-post facto research design was adopted for this study. A cross sectional data from the financial reports of manufacturing companies quoted on the 1 st tier security market of the Nigerian Stock Exchange for Pre-IFRS of 2011 and Post IFRS of 2012 periods were used. The dependent variable is profitability while the independent variables are depreciation, inventory and taxation. The five companies studied were those that have complied with IFRS and they include: Champion Breweries Plc, Guinness Breweries Plc, International Breweries Plc, Nigerian Breweries Plc and 7-up Bottling Company Plc. The simple least square regression technique, correlation coefficient, and t-statistic were analytical tool were used; using Econometric Views (EViews) statistical software. Depreciation has positive and significant impact on profitability using fair value measurement (R 2 = 0.959; AR 2 = 0.945; p-value = 0.0036) and historical cost convention (R 2 = 0.997; AR 2 = 0.996; p-value =0.0001). Inventory has positive and significant effect on profitability under fair value measurement (R 2 = 0.939; AR 2 = 0.918; p-value = 0.0066) and historical cost convention (R 2 = 0.983; AR 2 = 0.977; p-value = 0.0010). A positive and significant relationship exist between taxation and profitability using fair value (r = 0.998) and historical cost convention (r = 0.979). The two populations from which sample were taken have the same mean (t cal = 0.467 < tcritical = 2.306, 0.05 significant level). Conclusively, depreciation, cost of sales, and Taxation has significant and positive impact, effect and relationship respectively on what is reported as profit under historical cost convention and under fair value measurement. Thus, indicating that fair value measurement can serve as a replacement to historical cost convention. As such, fair value should be encouraged.
The study was designed to examine the utilization and implementation of ICT in adult education programmes in Cross River State. The specific purposes of the study were; identify the available ICTs for adult education programmes in Cross River State, find out the extent of utilization of ICT in adult education programmes, identify the implementation process adopted in adult education programmes in Cross River State. determine the constraints to the utilization and implementation of ICT in adult education programmes in Cross River State and ascertain the strategies for effective utilization and implementation of ICT in adult education programmes in Cross River State. The study was guided by five research questions and three hypotheses. The design of the study was a descriptive survey. The study showed available ICT facilities to include, the internet, computers, radios, mobile phones etc. The study revealed that the identified ICTs available will aid in the utilization and implementation of adult education programmes in Cross River State. The work also highlighted the extent of utilization of ICT in adult education propgrammes which is to a very large extent. The study identified the implementation process to include; the use of virtual libraries, emails, discussion groups, mailing list, video conferences and collaboration with others. The study also identified the constraints to include; absence of internet facilities, lack of funds to procure computer, high cost of linking computers to the internet etc. The identified strategies are training of staff, encouraging the participation in seminars, conferences and workshops, establishing cyber cafes that allows easy usage of the internet. Based on the findings, the researcher made some recommendations which are ranging from the national and state agencies for adult and non-formal education should create an environment where instructors can become conversant with the identified ICts, to the organization of seminars, conferences and training of staff by the agency. The limitations, suggestions and summary of the study were made based on the findings.
Education is indispensable to national development. The Federal
Government of Nigeria in her national Policy on Education (FRN, 2004),
highlighted this. The policy states that education is an instrument for
national development and that it fosters the worth and development of the
individual, for each individual’s sake and for the general development of
the society. The Federal Government made provisions for education at the
pre-primary, primary, secondary, tertiary levels and adult literacy and non-
The main purpose of this study was to ascertain the extent to which motivational initiatives promote citizens’ participation in community development activities in Anambra and Imo States of Nigeria. Six research questions and six null hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was 2, 357 respondents made up of members of registered Community Based Organizations (CBOs) in Anambra and Imo States. A sample of 853 respondents was drawn from the population using multi-stage proportionate sampling technique. Data collection instrument was self-structured questionnaire titled, ‘Questionnaire on Motivational Initiatives for Citizens’ Participation in Community Development Activities(QMICPCDA). The instrument was face validated by three experts, two in Community Development unit of Department of Adult Education & Extra-Mural Studies and one in Measurement and Evaluation Unit of Department of Science Education both from University of Nigeria, Nsukka. An overall reliability index of 0.91 was obtained using the Cronbach Coefficient Alpha. The null hypotheses were tested using t-test at 0.05 level of significant. Weighted mean and Standard Deviation were used in analyzing the collected data. Copies of the instrument were administered to the respondents through direct delivery technique. Data collected from respondents were analyzed using frequency counts, mean ratings were used for other six research questions. Result of findings indicated that to a high extent, decentralization of power in communities, good leadership, identification of needs, respect for people’s culture, adequate funding and need selection has assisted citizens’ participation in communities in Anambra and Imo States. The findings further revealed that significant differences were not found in decentralization of power, good leadership and need selection in the communities of Anambra and Imo States. However, significant difference was found in the mean ratings of respondents from the two states regarding the extent to which identification of needs, adequate funding and respect for peoples’ culture has assisted citizens’ participation in the communities in Anambra and Imo States. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were made that government and community leaders should encourage decentralization of power that is, power should be transferred from higher to local level to empower communities to work together, define and resolve their problems.
This study developed a training package for enhancing the effectiveness of CommunityBased Organizations (CBOs) in Anambra State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to determine specific objectives of training package, determine content of training package determine delivery system to be used in teaching training package, determine the evaluation activities to be adopted for assessing the achievement of the objective of training package: develop a draft training package based on the findings from specific purpose 1-4, validate the draft training package developed and revise the draft training package based on feedback from the evaluation. Four research questions and four hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The study adopted the research and development (R and D) design. The study was carried out in five phases as follows: phase i: determination of the important leadership skills, knowledge and attitude needed by community based organization leaders. Phase ii: determination of the component of training package to be developed. Phase iii: development of the draft training package. Phase iv: validation of draft training package, Phase v: revision of the draft training package. The study was conducted in Anambra State Nigeria. The population was made up of 1,701 (Executive members of the 189 registered CBOs. 504 respondents were sample from the total population using proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments were developed and used to collect data for the study, namely: the Training Package for Enhancing Leaders Questionnaire (TPELQ) and open ended interview (OEI). The TPELQ was face validated by three experts from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronback alpha reliability coefficient index was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and it yielded an overall coefficient of .94. The draft training package developed was validated by two experts namely: One Curriculum expert and one Adult education expert. Mean, Standard deviation and t-test Statistics were used to analyze the data collected, and test the hypotheses. The findings included: 34 Objectives of training package, 33 content of training package, 30 delivery systems and 19 evaluation activities for assessing the achievement of the objectives of training package. There were significant differences in the mean rating responses of trained and untrained CBO leaders on ten objectives of training package. There was however no significant difference in the mean rating responses of trained and untrained CBO leaders on 24 out of the 34 objectives, 27 out of 33 content, 25 out of 30 delivery system, and 15 out 19 evaluation activities of the training package. Based on the findings it was recommended among others that 1. Policy makers and community development officers should utilize the training package developed in this study to review the current leadership training content. 2. Government should provide fund to assist the CBO leaders in the development of their communities. 3. CBO leaders should update their knowledge and skills by going for training regularly.
Explores the effectiveness of Audit Report on the improvement of Financial management.
This study tries to look at the accessibility of credit facility from financial institutions by small and Medium Scale Enterprises: Evidence from Nigeria. Small and Medium Scale Enterprises have been faced with poor funding when developing nations like ours are considered. This however distorts the outstanding function of SMEs as the engine and pivot for the economic growth and national development. No wonder Nigeria has continued to experience high level of emergence of new enterprises that would only exist for two to three years and fizzle out. This study has a broad objective of determining the degree of accessibility of credit facility by SMEs from the financial institution in Nigeria with such variables like government policies, collaterals, tax incentives etc. The study adopted the analytical survey method to gather information on the variables. The population was made up of all the financial controllers in the 360 manufacturing enterprises in the three states under study. We in turn used judgmental sampling technique to select the financial controllers in these manufacturing enterprises. Data were collected by means of questionnaires with response option graduated into a five- likert scale designed to capture information on the variables that affect SMEs. The linear regression analysis was used to test hypotheses one, three and four. One sampled t-test was used to test hypothesis two while a multiple regression analysis was used to test the multiple effects of three independent variables on credit accessibility. The result obtained using the test statistics shows a positive relationship between government policies, access to credit as the greatest problems facing SMEs, tax incentives, availability of collaterals as regards the accessibility of credit facility by SMEs. The research questions proved that international financial assistance abounds for SMEs. The study also showed that the level of the operation of SMEs has not improved when compared with other developed nations. SMEs in Nigeria are faced with numerous challenges and such has affected their performances. We therefore recommend that attention and support be given to the sub- sector so as to enhance their performance as the engine of growth and catalyst for socio- economic transformation in Nigeria. The study has provided opportunities for further research into other factors that could affect SMEs credit accessibility, in order to ascertain if such factors actually affect them in equal measures or not.
The principal objective of this research is to ascertain the Impact of Sustainability
Reporting on Corporate Performance of Selected Quoted Companies in Nigeria. The
specific objectives of this research are: to ascertain the level of impact of
sustainability reporting on return on equity of companies listed on the Nigeria Stock
Exchange; to examine the level of impact of sustainability reporting on return on
assets of companies listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange; to ascertain the level of
impact of sustainability reporting on earnings per share of companies listed on the
Nigerian Stock Exchange; to examine the level of impact of sustainability reporting
on net profit margin of companies listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. This
research employed ex-post facto design. The sample for the study was made up of
64 companies selected from 76 non financial companies quoted on the Nigerian
Stock Exchange. This research utilised secondary data. A model specification based
on regression model was used. The statistical technique employed in testing the
hypotheses was the student t – test statistic. Findings from this study show that
Sustainability Reporting impacted positively on financial performance of companies
investigated. Companies are therefore encouraged to adopt this reporting system.
This study examined the impact of working capital management on the profitability of Nigerian quoted
Manufacturing firms. The working capital variables studied comprise accounts payable, accounts
receivable, cash conversion cycle, stock/inventory turnover and liquidity. This study also used sales growth
and Debt as control variables in examining the impact of working capital management on the profitability of
Nigerian firms. Secondary sources of data were sourced from the Annual Reports of the 22 manufacturing
firms selected for this study for the period 2000-2011. Five Hypotheses were estimated with the use of
Generalized least square multiple regression. The findings of the study show that, accounts payable ratio
[AP] had negative relationship with the industries’ profitability. On the other hand, accounts Receivable
ratio [AR] had positive and significant relationship with profitability of the firms studied. Stock turnover
ratio had negative and significant relationship with profitability of the firms under study. Results also show
that firms cash conversion cycle [CCC] had positive but non-significant relationship with the industries
profitability, and Liquidity ratio had negative relationship with the industries profitability. Based on the
findings of the study, the following recommendations were made; there should be a balance between
liquidity and profitability. They should also avoid stock-outs because of the huge sales they made during the
years under study. They are encouraged to reduce their cost of sales to make more profit. There should also
increase their credit sales so as to have enough cash to settle their obligations. Specialized persons should be
hired by these companies for expert advice on working capital management. One of the greatest
contributions of this study is the perspective we followed in the measurement of variables (Descriptive and
four functional models of multiple regression).
A study was undertaken to produce lubricant grease from plantain peel ash. The quality of grease produced was evaluated by determining its consistency at various specific gravities and volumes of plantain peel ash extract in a 5x5 factorial experiment in three replicates. The five specific gravities investigated were 1.245, 1.250, 1.255, 1.260 and 1.265 while the volumes of the extract investigated were 33%, 36%, 39%, 42% and 45%. The consistency of the grease at these combinations of specific gravities and volumes were analyzed using ANOVA at p ≤0.05. The plantain peels were burnt into ashes and the ashes were turned into solution with water and filtered. The filtrate was the bio-alkali used in the experiment. The grease was formulated by mixing the alkali with palm oil and lube oil. The mixture was heated and stirred continuously until saponification and dehydration took place, and grease formed. The consistency of the grease was tested according to the standard laboratory procedures.