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Nigerian Journal Of Agricultural Teacher Education

By Igbokwe E.m

Determining Training needs of Broiler Farmers in Anambra and Enugu States of Nigeria.

Published: 12/03/1996

Tags: Livestock, Broiler production, Farmers.

Size: 234.58KB

Journal of Sustainable Tropical Agricultural Research...Volume 1

By Lawrence Etim Phd

Journal of Sustainable Tropical Agricultural Research...Volume 1

Published: 09/03/2001

Tags: Journal of Sustainable, Tropical, Agricultural Research.

Size: 341.95KB

Comparative analysis of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school children and rural farmers in Obollo-Eke, Enugu State, Nigeria: Implications for control

By Celestine Chidi Ogbonna1,2, Geme Urge Dori3,4, Emeka Innocent Nweze1,5, Gilbert Muoneke6, Innocent Ejike Nwankwo3, Nkiru Akputa7

aconmd mtou nciotmieps airne Osbuoclhlo p-aErkaem leotceartse da mino nSgo urtuhreaal sst,c hNoigoel rciah.i lMdreetnh oandds: rAu rcarl ofsasr-mseecrsti oinn asle sluecrvteedy
involving 1 337 school children and farmers was conducted in Obollo-Eke community between Spereppteamrebde rf o2r0 t0h6i sa npdu rJpuolys e2.0 07. Demographic data of subjects was collected using a questionnaire of Schistosoma haematobiuUmri ne samples were collected and examined for haematuria and ova (S. haematobium) using Medi-test Combi 9 and sedimentation
technique respectively. Results: The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis based on microscopic
examination of the urine sediment for the ova of S. haematobium was 17.5% while the prevalence
owfa hsa heimgahteurr iaam woansg 1 m5.6a%le.s I n(2fe0c.8ti%o)n tihnatnen fseimtya vlaersi e(1d4 f.r6o%m; lPig>h0t. 0to5 )h aenadvy w. Ians gselnigehratlly, thhieg hpreerv aamleonncge
primary school children (18.0%; n=762) than farmers (16.9%; n=575; P>0.05).The age-specific
apnredv a1l1e-n1c5e yoefa srcs haigsteo sgormouipassi sr easmpeocntgiv tehlye. sCtuodnyc sluusbijoenctss: rHaanegmeda tfurroima a8n.3d% m toe a2n1 .e2g%g /i1n0 0m-L5 uyerianres
(r = 0.95; Ph0t. 0to5 )h aenadvy w. Ians gselnigehratlly, thhieg hpreerv aamleonncge
primary school children (18.0%; n=762) than farmers (16.9%; n=575; P>0.05).The age-specific
apnredv a1l1e-n1c5e yoefa srcs haigsteo sgormouipassi sr easmpeocntgiv tehlye. sCtuodnyc sluusbijoenctss: rHaanegmeda tfurroima a8n.3d% m toe a2n1 .e2g%g /i1n0 0m-L5 uyerianres
(r = 0.95; P

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: SUcrhinoaorly c shcihldisretonsomiasis PRruervaall feanrcmeersSUcrhinoaorly c shcihldisretonsomiasis PRruervaall feanrcmeers

Size: 761.05KB

Kaurenoic acid isolated from the root bark of 3 Annona senegalensis induces cytotoxic and 4 antiproliferative effects against PANC-1 and 5 HeLa cells

By Theophine C. Okoye1*, Peter A. Akah1, Chukwuemeka S. Nworu1, Adaobi C. Ezike1

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with an estimated 6.7 million
deaths and 24.6 million people living with cancer in 2002. Presently, there is a global
increase in prevalence, mortality and health burden of various malignancies. World Health
Organization (WHO) report projected that cancer prevalence rates could further increase by
50% to 15 million new cases in the year 2020. The bioactivity guided isolation of the
bioactive constituent, and its characterization, responsible for the anticonvulsant effects of
the root bark extract of A. senegalensis yielded kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (KA). Therefore, the
aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-proliferative activity of kaurenoic acid from A.
senegalensis on selected cancer cell lines.
Study design: The study was designed to ascertain the antiproliferative and cytotoxic
effects of kaurenoic acid, a terpenoid isolated from the root bark of Nigerian Annona
senegalensis (Annonaceae).
Place and duration of study: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of
Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria, between October 2010 and
June, 2012.
Methodology: Human embryonic kidney cells expressing SV40 Large T-antigen (293 T),
Pancreatic tumour (PANC-1) and Henrietta Lacks’ cervical (HeLa) cell lines were used in the
study using standard MTT, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide,
assay method.
Results: Kaurenoic acid (KA) exhibited cytotoxic effects against the cells with estimated IC50
values of 0.93, 0.74 and 0.52 M concentrations for 293 T, HeLa and PANC-1 cells
respectively. This is an indication of the possible potentials of KA in the treatment of cervical
and pancreatic cancers.
Conclusions: Kaurenoic acid (KA), a diterpenoid, possesses antiproliferative effect against
HeLa and PANC-1 cell lines, and could be the anticancer constituent in the root bark extract
of A. senegalensis with potentials as a lead in the chemical synthesis of standard anti cancer
agentsCancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with an estimated 6.7 million
deaths and 24.6 million people living with cancer in 2002. Presently, there is a global
increase in prevalence, mortality and health burden of various malignancies. World Health
Organization (WHO) report projected that cancer prevalence rates could further increase by
50% to 15 million new cases in the year 2020. The bioactivity guided isolation of the
bioactive constituent, and its characterization, responsible for the anticonvulsant effects of
the root bark extract of A. senegalensis yielded kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (KA). Therefore, the
aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-proliferative activity of kaurenoic acid from A.
senegalensis on selected cancer cell lines.
Study design: The study was designed to ascertain the antiproliferative and cytotoxic
effects of kaurenoic acid, a terpenoid isolated from the root bark of Nigerian Annona
senegalensis (Annonaceae).
Place and duration of study: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of
Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria, between October 2010 and
June, 2012.
Methodology: Human embryonic kidney cells expressing SV40 Large T-antigen (293 T),
Pancreatic tumour (PANC-1) and Henrietta Lacks’ cervical (HeLa) cell lines were used in the
study using standard MTT, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide,
assay method.
Results: Kaurenoic acid (KA) exhibited cytotoxic effects against the cells with estimated IC50
values of 0.93, 0.74 and 0.52 M concentrations for 293 T, HeLa and PANC-1 cells
respectively. This is an indication of the possible potentials of KA in the treatment of cervical
and pancreatic cancers.
Conclusions: Kaurenoic acid (KA), a diterpenoid, possesses antiproliferative effect against
HeLa and PANC-1 cell lines, and could be the anticancer constituent in the root bark extract
of A. senegalensis with potentials as a lead in the chemical synthesis of standard anti cancer
agents.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Kaurenoic acid, Annona senegalensis, antiproliferative and cytotoxic

Size: 153.00KB

Genus Detarium: Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological profile

By Peter Achunike Akah*, Chukwuemeka Sylvester Nworu, Florence Nwakaego Mbaoji, Ifeoma Amarachukwu Nwabunike, Collins Azubuike Onyeto

The genus Detarium (Fabiaceae, Sub family Caesalpiniaceae) is indigenous to Africa.
In west Africa the genus is represented by 8 species, however only 3 species D.
macrocarpum, D. microcarpum and D. senegalense are of ethnomedicinal and pharmacological
interest. These three species are morphologically similar, but tend to
vary in regional distribution. Detarium species are widely and commonly used in
traditional medicine in the treatment of diverse ailments, including, fever, malaria,
bronchitis, convulsions, diabetes, microbial infections, etc. Some pharmacological
studies have been carried out to authenticate some of these claims. Phytoconstituents
with biological activities have been isolated from the genus. Among the
identified compounds include, flavenes, polysaccharides, clerodane diterpenes, dihydroclerodane
diterpenes, tetranoditerpenes, anthocyanidin alkaloids, as well as other
secondary metabolites. This paper reviews the comprehensive information on the
ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical profile and pharmacological activities of the
genus Detarium.The genus Detarium (Fabiaceae, Sub family Caesalpiniaceae) is indigenous to Africa.
In west Africa the genus is represented by 8 species, however only 3 species D.
macrocarpum, D. microcarpum and D. senegalense are of ethnomedicinal and pharmacological
interest. These three species are morphologically similar, but tend to
vary in regional distribution. Detarium species are widely and commonly used in
traditional medicine in the treatment of diverse ailments, including, fever, malaria,
bronchitis, convulsions, diabetes, microbial infections, etc. Some pharmacological
studies have been carried out to authenticate some of these claims. Phytoconstituents
with biological activities have been isolated from the genus. Among the
identified compounds include, flavenes, polysaccharides, clerodane diterpenes, dihydroclerodane
diterpenes, tetranoditerpenes, anthocyanidin alkaloids, as well as other
secondary metabolites. This paper reviews the comprehensive information on the
ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical profile and pharmacological activities of the
genus Detarium.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Detarium, Folkloric uses; phytochemistry; biological activities

Size: 200.77KB

Antidiabetic activity of the root extract of Detarium microcarpum (Fabacaee) Guill and Perr.

By Christian Ejike Okolo1, Peter Achunike Akah2,*, Samuel Uchnna Uzodinma3

Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder that impairs glucose homeostasis
resulting in severe diabetic complications including retinopathy, angiopathy, nephropathy,
and neuropathy thus causing neurological disorder. In this study, antidiabetic
activity of root extract of Detarium microcapum was investigated in rat model
of diabetes. A methanol root extract was prepared by soxhlet extraction and was
separated into fraction using chloroform, n-hexane and methanol to yield chloroform
fraction (CF), n-hexane fraction (HF) and methanol fraction (MF). The extract
and its fractions were screened for phytochemicals using standard methods. The
acute toxicity (LD50) of the extract was determined in mice. Diabetes was induced
by a single ip injection of 120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and glucose level
was analyzed as indices of diabetes. The acute toxicity test showed that the root
bark extract was safe at doses of up to 5 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of the
plant revealed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates and terpenoids in large
amount while saponins, resins, glycosides and flavonoids were present in moderate
amount. The results indicated that intraperitoneal injection of ME, MF, CF and HF
reversed the effect of alloxan in rats by different degrees. The antidiabetic potency
of the extract and fractions was in the order MF > ME > HF > CF. The results of
this study justify the use of this plant roots as traditional treatment for diabetes
mellitus.Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder that impairs glucose homeostasis
resulting in severe diabetic complications including retinopathy, angiopathy, nephropathy,
and neuropathy thus causing neurological disorder. In this study, antidiabetic
activity of root extract of Detarium microcapum was investigated in rat model
of diabetes. A methanol root extract was prepared by soxhlet extraction and was
separated into fraction using chloroform, n-hexane and methanol to yield chloroform
fraction (CF), n-hexane fraction (HF) and methanol fraction (MF). The extract
and its fractions were screened for phytochemicals using standard methods. The
acute toxicity (LD50) of the extract was determined in mice. Diabetes was induced
by a single ip injection of 120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and glucose level
was analyzed as indices of diabetes. The acute toxicity test showed that the root
bark extract was safe at doses of up to 5 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of the
plant revealed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates and terpenoids in large
amount while saponins, resins, glycosides and flavonoids were present in moderate
amount. The results indicated that intraperitoneal injection of ME, MF, CF and HF
reversed the effect of alloxan in rats by different degrees. The antidiabetic potency
of the extract and fractions was in the order MF > ME > HF > CF. The results of
this study justify the use of this plant roots as traditional treatment for diabetes
mellitus.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Diabetes mellitus; Detarium microcarpum, blood sugar, alloxan

Size: 225.79KB

Retention and loss to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment programmes in southeast NiRetention and loss to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment programmes in southeast Nigeria

By C. A. Onoka1, B. S. Uzochukwu2, O. E. Onwujekwe3, C. Chukwuka4, J. Ilozumba5, C. Onyedum4, E. A. Nwobi1, C. Onwasigwe1

This study generated new information about the outcomes of patients enrolled in antiretroviral
treatment programmes, as well as the true outcomes of those lost to follow-up (LTF).
Methods: Anonymized data were collected for patients enrolled over a 12-month period from two
programmes (public and private) in southeast Nigeria. Estimates of retention, LTF, mortality and transfers
were computed. All LTF enrollees (defined as patients who had missed three scheduled visits) whose
contact information met pre-defined criteria were traced.
Results: A total of 481 (public) and 553 (private) records were included. Median duration of follow-up was
about 14 months. Cumulative retention and LTF proportions were 66.5 and 32.8% (public), and 82.6 and
11.0% (private) respectively. LTF rates at third, sixth, ninth and twelfth months were 7.5, 19.3, 25.4 and
29.6% respectively (public), and 4.1, 7.1, 9.0 and 10.0% (private). LTF was higher among males, patients
with CD4z cell count(200 and public programme enrollees. For the public facility, 56.7% of 104 traceable
patients were dead and 38.8% were alive; the figures were 34.2 and 60.5% of 46 patients respectively for
the private. Most deaths had occurred by the third month.
Conclusion: Not all patients enrolled for treatment were retained. Though some died, many were LTF, lived
within the community, and could develop and transmit resistant viral stains. Most traced patients were dead
by the third month and poor contact information limited the effectiveness of tracing. Antiretroviral treatment
programmes need to improve documentation processes and develop and implement tracing strategiesThis study generated new information about the outcomes of patients enrolled in antiretroviral
treatment programmes, as well as the true outcomes of those lost to follow-up (LTF).
Methods: Anonymized data were collected for patients enrolled over a 12-month period from two
programmes (public and private) in southeast Nigeria. Estimates of retention, LTF, mortality and transfers
were computed. All LTF enrollees (defined as patients who had missed three scheduled visits) whose
contact information met pre-defined criteria were traced.
Results: A total of 481 (public) and 553 (private) records were included. Median duration of follow-up was
about 14 months. Cumulative retention and LTF proportions were 66.5 and 32.8% (public), and 82.6 and
11.0% (private) respectively. LTF rates at third, sixth, ninth and twelfth months were 7.5, 19.3, 25.4 and
29.6% respectively (public), and 4.1, 7.1, 9.0 and 10.0% (private). LTF was higher among males, patients
with CD4z cell count(200 and public programme enrollees. For the public facility, 56.7% of 104 traceable
patients were dead and 38.8% were alive; the figures were 34.2 and 60.5% of 46 patients respectively for
the private. Most deaths had occurred by the third month.
Conclusion: Not all patients enrolled for treatment were retained. Though some died, many were LTF, lived
within the community, and could develop and transmit resistant viral stains. Most traced patients were dead
by the third month and poor contact information limited the effectiveness of tracing. Antiretroviral treatment
programmes need to improve documentation processes and develop and implement tracing strategies.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Antiretroviral therapy, HIV, Retention, Loss-to-follow up, Nigeria

Size: 125.74KB

Parity related changes in obesity and some antioxidant vitamins in non-pregnant women of South-Eastern Nigeria

By Ui Nwagha, Ee Iyare1, Fe Ejezie2, So Ogbodo3, Cc Dim, Bu Anyaehie1

The delivery of many children at short interval is associated with micronutrient depletion and weight
gain. However, the relationship between the levels of the micronutrients and the body weight is yet to be ascertained.
Objectives: To determine the relationship between parity, body weight and some antioxidant vitamins in non-pregnant
Nigerian women.
Patients and Methods: Randomly recruited 200 non-pregnant women, comprising 82 primiparous and 118 multiparous
women completed the study. Their age, parity, mid-arm circumference (MAC), waist circumference (WC), weight, height
and body mass index (BMI) were determined. The serum levels of vitamins A, C and E were assayed using standard
methods.
Results: The mean BMI, WC and MAC of the multiparous subjects (parity = 3.0 ± 0.58) were significantly higher than
that of the primiparous subjects (parity = 1), (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, there were
statistically significant decrease in the vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E in multiparous compared with the primiparous
women (P < 0.005, P < 0.05 and P < 0.005), respectively.
Conclusion: Multiparty enhances weight gain, but depletes antioxidant vitamin micronutrients in non-pregnant Nigerian
women.The delivery of many children at short interval is associated with micronutrient depletion and weight
gain. However, the relationship between the levels of the micronutrients and the body weight is yet to be ascertained.
Objectives: To determine the relationship between parity, body weight and some antioxidant vitamins in non-pregnant
Nigerian women.
Patients and Methods: Randomly recruited 200 non-pregnant women, comprising 82 primiparous and 118 multiparous
women completed the study. Their age, parity, mid-arm circumference (MAC), waist circumference (WC), weight, height
and body mass index (BMI) were determined. The serum levels of vitamins A, C and E were assayed using standard
methods.
Results: The mean BMI, WC and MAC of the multiparous subjects (parity = 3.0 ± 0.58) were significantly higher than
that of the primiparous subjects (parity = 1), (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, there were
statistically significant decrease in the vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E in multiparous compared with the primiparous
women (P < 0.005, P < 0.05 and P < 0.005), respectively.
Conclusion: Multiparty enhances weight gain, but depletes antioxidant vitamin micronutrients in non-pregnant Nigerian
women.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Obesity, pregnancy outcome, antioxidant vitamins, parity

Size: 950.88KB

Membrane stabilization as a mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum)

By Chioma A Anosike1*, Onyechi Obidoa2 And Lawrence Us Ezeanyika1

Background: Some observations and reports show that people with high consumption of Solanum aethiopicum
(African garden egg) have relief in arthritic pains and swelling. We aimed at assessing the effect of methanol extract
of Solanum aethiopicum in experimentally induced inflammation using leukocyte mobilization and vascular
permeability tests in rats and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization as studies.
Methods: Twenty five (25) adult Wistar rats of either sex (120 g – 200 g) divided into five groups of five rats each
were used for each of the animal models. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered varied doses of the extract (100,
200 and 400 mg/kg), while groups 1 (vehicle control) and 5 (treatment control) received normal saline and
indomethacin (50 mg/kg) respectively. Vascular permeability was induced by the intra-peritoneal injection of 1 ml
of acetic acid and monitored using 0.5 ml intravenous injection of 1% Evans blue solution. Leukocyte mobilization
was induced by the intra-peritoneal injection of 0.5 ml of 3% agar suspension in normal saline. Heat and
hypotonicity induced heamolysis of HRBC membrane was used to assess membrane stabilization.
Results: The methanol extracts of garden egg significantly and dose dependently reduced (p≤0.05) the acetic acid
induced vascular permeability and agar induced leukocyte mobilization in rats. The percentage inhibitions of
induced vascular permeability were 21 ± 3.39, 25 ±1.92 and 60 ± 3.81 for the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the
extract while the inhibitions of the agar induced leucocyte migration were 23 ± 2.17, 26 ± 1.58 and 32 ± 1.58 for
the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract respectively. The extract also, at doses of 100, 200, 400, 600 and
800 μg/ml significantly inhibited heat induced lysis of the human red cell membrane with values of 66.46 ± 2.89,
65.14 ± 4.58, 46.53 ± 2.52, 61.88 ± 4.51and 86.67 ± 3.06 respectively.
Conclusions: These results show that methanol extract of Solanum aethiopicum has anti-inflammatory properties
and can reduce inflammatory injury and tissue damage.Background: Some observations and reports show that people with high consumption of Solanum aethiopicum
(African garden egg) have relief in arthritic pains and swelling. We aimed at assessing the effect of methanol extract
of Solanum aethiopicum in experimentally induced inflammation using leukocyte mobilization and vascular
permeability tests in rats and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization as studies.
Methods: Twenty five (25) adult Wistar rats of either sex (120 g – 200 g) divided into five groups of five rats each
were used for each of the animal models. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered varied doses of the extract (100,
200 and 400 mg/kg), while groups 1 (vehicle control) and 5 (treatment control) received normal saline and
indomethacin (50 mg/kg) respectively. Vascular permeability was induced by the intra-peritoneal injection of 1 ml
of acetic acid and monitored using 0.5 ml intravenous injection of 1% Evans blue solution. Leukocyte mobilization
was induced by the intra-peritoneal injection of 0.5 ml of 3% agar suspension in normal saline. Heat and
hypotonicity induced heamolysis of HRBC membrane was used to assess membrane stabilization.
Results: The methanol extracts of garden egg significantly and dose dependently reduced (p≤0.05) the acetic acid
induced vascular permeability and agar induced leukocyte mobilization in rats. The percentage inhibitions of
induced vascular permeability were 21 ± 3.39, 25 ±1.92 and 60 ± 3.81 for the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the
extract while the inhibitions of the agar induced leucocyte migration were 23 ± 2.17, 26 ± 1.58 and 32 ± 1.58 for
the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract respectively. The extract also, at doses of 100, 200, 400, 600 and
800 μg/ml significantly inhibited heat induced lysis of the human red cell membrane with values of 66.46 ± 2.89,
65.14 ± 4.58, 46.53 ± 2.52, 61.88 ± 4.51and 86.67 ± 3.06 respectively.
Conclusions: These results show that methanol extract of Solanum aethiopicum has anti-inflammatory properties
and can reduce inflammatory injury and tissue damage.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Inflammation, Leucocyte migration, Vascular permeability, Human red cell membrane

Size: 305.00KB

Low-Dose Lisinopril in Normotensive Men With Idiopathic Oligospermia and Infertility: A 5-Year Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Pilot Study

By Au Mbah1, Go Ndukwu2,3, Si Ghasi1, En Shu1, Fn Ozoemena4,5, Jo Mbah6, Od Onodugo7, Ec Ejim7, Mi Eze8, Po Nkwo8 And Po Okonkwo1

The outcomes of drug treatment for male infertility remain conjectural, with controversial study results. Our pilot study
employed a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover methodology with intention-to-treat analysis. Thirty-three men
with idiopathic oligospermia were randomized to start either daily oral lisinopril 2.5 mg (n = 17) or daily oral placebo (n =
16). Lisinopril was found to cause a normalization of seminal parameters in 53.6% of the participants. Although the mean
ejaculate volume was unchanged (P ≥ 0.093), the total sperm cell count and the percentage of motile sperm cells increased
(P ≤ 0.03 and P < 0.001, respectively), whereas the percentage of sperm cells with abnormal morphology decreased (P ≤
0.04). The pregnancy rate was 48.5%, and there was no serious adverse drug event. It is concluded, albeit cautiously,
that prolonged treatment with 2.5 mg/day of oral lisinopril may be well tolerated in normotensive men with idiopathic
oligospermia, may improve sperm quantity and quality, and may enhance fertility in approximately half of those treated.

Published: 09/03/2018

Size: 290.29KB

Recent advances in lipospheres drug delivery system

By Salome A. Chime*, 1, Franklin C. Kenechukwu2, Godswill C. Onunkwo1, Anthony A. Attama2, John D. Ogbonna2

Liposphere delivery system is a suitable carrier system for the delivery of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. Highly unstable and labile drugs can be
incorporated into lipospheres because of their high stability, ease of formulation and low cost of materials for lipospheres preparation. This article presents
various aspects of lipospheres formulation, characterization and exhaustive screening of excipients used in formulation, various types of lipospheres drug
delivery, applications of lipospheres and suitable drug candidates for lipospheres drug delivery.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Lipospheres; Drug delivery; Amphiphiles; Phospholipids

Size: 80.37KB

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Three Leprosy Case Detection Methods in Northern Nigeria

By Charles Ezenduka, Erik Post, et al

Background: Despite several leprosy control measures in Nigeria, child proportion and disability grade 2 cases remain high
while new cases have not significantly reduced, suggesting continuous spread of the disease. Hence, there is the need to
review detection methods to enhance identification of early cases for effective control and prevention of permanent
disability. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of three leprosy case detection methods in Northern Nigeria to
identify the most cost-effective approach for detection of leprosy.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the additional benefits of using several case detection
methods in addition to routine practice in two north-eastern states of Nigeria. Primary and secondary data were collected
from routine practice records and the Nigerian Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme of 2009. The methods
evaluated were Rapid Village Survey (RVS), Household Contact Examination (HCE) and Traditional Healers incentive method
(TH). Effectiveness was measured as number of new leprosy cases detected and cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per
case detected. Costs were measured from both providers’ and patients’ perspectives. Additional costs and effects of each
method were estimated by comparing each method against routine practise and expressed as incremental costeffectiveness
ratio (ICER). All costs were converted to the U.S. dollar at the 2010 exchange rate. Univariate sensitivity analysis
was used to evaluate uncertainties around the ICER.
Results: The ICER for HCE was $142 per additional case detected at all contact levels and it was the most cost-effective
method. At ICER of $194 per additional case detected, THs method detected more cases at a lower cost than the RVS, which
was not cost-effective at $313 per additional case detected. Sensitivity analysis showed that varying the proportion of
shared costs and subsistent wage for valuing unpaid time did not significantly change the results.
Conclusion: Complementing routine practice with household contact examination is the most cost-effective approach to
identify new leprosy cases and we recommend that, depending on acceptability and feasibility, this intervention is
introduced for improved case detection in Northern Nigeria.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Cost-Effectiveness, Three Leprosy Case Detection

Size: 170.38KB

Intention to Continue with Ivermectin Treatment for Onchocerciasis Control After Eight Years of Annual Distribution in Cameroon, Nigeria, and Uganda

By Joseph C. Okeibunor, William R. Brieger, et al

statistics were employed in characterizing the respondents into high and
low compliers, while some socio-demographic and key perceptual factors
were employed in regression models constructed to explain levels of
compliance among the respondents. Demographic and perceptual factors
associated with intention to comply with prolonged treatment with ivermectin
were identified. Intention to comply was higher among married persons
(91.8%, p < 0.001); local populations (89.8%, p < 0.001); and those with
history of complying with treatment (98.2%, p < 0.001). Perception of onchocerciasis
and effectiveness of ivermectin influenced intention to continue.
The perceptual factors that drive the intention to comply should inform plans
for health education at the project and village levels.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Ivermectin Treatment, Onchocerciasis, Annual Distribution

Size: 151.05KB

Metabolic syndrome in Africa: Current trends

By Christian I. Okafor

Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of several cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to earlier thoughts, metabolic syndrome is no longer
rare in Africa. The prevalence is increasing, and it tends to increase with age. This increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome
in the continent is thought to be due to departure from traditional African to western lifestyles. In Africa, it is not limited to adults but is
also becoming common among the young ones. Obesity and dyslipidemia seem to be the most common occurring components. While
obesity appears more common in females, hypertension tends to be more predominant in males. Insulin resistance has remained
the key underlying pathophysiology. Though pharmacologic agents are available to treat the different components of the syndrome,
prevention is still possible by reverting back to the traditional African way of life.

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Africa, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome

Size: 600.60KB

Effects of sodium dodecyl sulphate on enhancement of lipoxygenase activity of hemoglobin

By F C Ezebuo, S O O Eze, et al

Lipoxygenases comprise a family of non-heme iron-containing enzymes that catalyze the stereospecific dioxygenation of
polyunsaturated fatty acids with 1, 4-cis-cis-pentadiene structure. Hemoglobin, a heme iron-containing protein has been
reported to have lipoxygenase activity but the assay conditions that could enhance the activity remain obscure. Therefore,
establishment of optimum assay conditions for lipoxygenase activity of hemoglobin could allow modeling of hemoglobin as
lipoxygenase. Hemoglobin was extracted from blood of an identified individual of genotype AA. The hemoglobin was
dialyzed at 4 oC for 24 h against 50 mM Tris-HCl buffers (pH 8.5 and 7.2) and effects of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)
and linoleic studied at pH 5.0 and 7.2 with UV–VIS Titration Spectrophotometry. The results show that 3.3, 8.6 and 88.1%
concentrations of met-hemoglobin were found in presence of 0.0 mM SDS at pH 5.0 and 7.2, 1.043 mM SDS at pH 7.2 and
0.404 mM SDS at pH 5.0 respectively. Also, the difference spectra of hemoglobin in presence of linoleic acid showed
positive peak at 285 nm which suggest the presence of oxodienes–a reaction product of hydroperoxidase activity of
lipoxygenase. Formation of met-hemoglobin/met-myoglobin is highly correlated with lipid oxidation. Since highest
concentration of met-hemoglobin (88.1%) was observed in presence of 0.404 mM SDS at pH 5.0, lipoxygenase activity of
hemoglobin was enhanced in presence of SDS under these conditions

Published: 09/03/2018

Tags: Hemoglobin, Linoleic acid, Lipoxygenase, Met-hemoglobin, Oxodienes, Sodium dodecyl sulphate

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