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Economic Analysis Of Street Food Vending In Anambra State

By Okoli, Phyllis Ifeoma

This study is on the socio-economic characteristics of and the profitability of the food vending business

Published: 08/03/2018

Tags: Economic Analysis, Street Food Vending

Size: 1.95MB

Effect of Poverty on Risk Attitudes of Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria

By Nzenwa, Goodness C.

The study investigated the Effects of Poverty on the Risk Attitudes of
Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. Nigeria has remained one of the poorest
countries in the world and Benue State in particular was ranked the eight poorest
of the thirty-six states of the Federation. The dominance of the oil sector and the
consequent neglect of agricultural sector is one of the major precursors of
poverty in Nigeria. Small-scale farmers who operate in an environment
characterized by risk and uncertainty produce the bulk of Nigeria's food and fibre.
Presently, the Nigerian agriculture is characterized by low productivity, low level
of technological adoption, and use of inefficient production techniques. The
present poor state of the Nigerian agriculture is related to farmers1 attitudes
towards risks in the production and socioeconomic environment.
Based on the above problems the specific objectives of the study
were to: determine the extent of poverty among farmers in Benue State; identify
the various risk situations faced and risk aversion strategies employed by
farmers with differing poverty levels; assess the risk attitudes of farmers; and
determine the effect of poverty and socioeconomic variables on risk attitudes of
the farmers.
A multistage random sampling technique was used for selecting the
respondents. One hundred and twenty (120) farm households were used for the
study. The data were collected during the 200312004 farming season. The data
were analyzed using the Foster Greer Thorbercke poverty measures, descriptive
statistics, Likert scale, safety-first model and multiple regression analysis.
.Results of the study showed that the households on the average
contained about 7.6 persons, with annual per capita income of 4432,491 and had
a total land holding of 4.8 hectares. The household head was about 44 years and
had spent about 5.5 years in school. Using the international poverty line of US$1
per day per person, the result revealed that 78.3% of the respondents were poor
and that the depth of poverty, that is the mean distance of the income of the poor
from the poverty line was 42.5% which is approximately 8119,800 below the
poverty line (0546,519 per annum). Majority of the respondents lived in thatched
mud houses (51.7%), fetched water from unsafe sources such as wells and
vii
rivers (96.7%), had no toilet facilities (49.2%), and no access to electricity (85%).
The degree of poverty was found to be related to farmers' socioeconomic
characteristics.
The study identified the following types of risk situations faced by farmers:
changes in crop yieldllivestock production (16.7%), cropllivestock prices (8.3%),
technology (4.2%), cost of inputs (9.2%), credit availability (1 1.7%), labour
scarcitylavailability (9.2%), weather (1 5%) etc. Analysis showed that risk
situations faced by farmers were independent of their poverty levels. The risk
management strategies used by the farmers included among others: combination
of different cropsllivestock (14.2%), combination of crop and livestock enterprises
(8.3%), replanting of crops (7.5%), use of .improved varieties (10.8%), use of
pesticideslherbicides (9.2%), spreading of saleslharvest (6.7%), engagement in
non farm income activities (10.8%) etc. Result showed that the risk management
strategies employed were independent of farmers' poverty levels.
The result of the assessment of farmers' attitudes toward price risk
showed that 86.7% were risk averse, 11.7% were risk seeking and 1.7% were
risk neutral using scale 1 classification, whereas all farmers were classified as
risk averse under scale 2. Using the safety first model to assess respondents
attitude towards yield risk, it was found that 71.7% were high risk averse, 25.8%
were intermediate risk averse, 1.7% were low risk averse and only 0.8% was risk
preferring. Regression analysis showed that age, household size, educational
level, extension contact, membership in a solidarity group and degrees of poverty
were significant determinants of risk attitudes.
.Based on the findings of the study there is need to consider socioeconomic
and poverty variables of farmers when designing new farm
technologies and other agricultural policies in Benue state. Policies to improve
the literacy level of the people, and access to agricultural inputs were
recommended. Also the use of social protection practices such as income
insurance, price-support schemes, credit insurance, etc, which may be helpful
strategies in mitigating the effects of poverty on risk attitudes of farmers were
recommended.

Published: 08/03/2018

Tags: Poverty, Risk Attitudes, Farmers,

Size: 1.31MB

Status of Implementation of the Technical Curriculum of the National Policy on Education in Senior Secondary Schools in Imo State.

By Ogbata, Anthony O.

The main purpose of this study was to assess the level of
implementation of the technical curriculum in Senior Secondary
schools in Imo state, as well as problems associated with it.
~lso, an attempt .was made to ascertain what measures the
government has so far taken to tackle t!?e:{e problems. A study
sample of *79 respondents, 67 principals and 112 technical
teachers was selected from 67 out of 171 senior Secondary schools
within the Loeal Government rea as studied in the state. The #
questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection,
Two questionnaires,were developed to provide answers to five
research questions, which were formulated to guide the study.
The mean, percentages and spearman rank order c4rrelation were
used to analyse the data collected and to test the hypothesis
generated.

Published: 05/03/1995

Tags: Imo State, Implementation, curriculum,

Size: 1.45MB

Strategies for Achieving Environmental Education Through School Geography Curriculum

By Nwagu, Eric K. N.

This paper explores the commonalities in the contents and objectives of the programmes of geographical and environmental education and suggests their integration for purpose of conservation of time.

Published: 06/03/2008

Tags: Environmental Education, Geography

Size: 1.28MB

ASSESSMENT OF EFFECT OF WOMEN.

By Eze Ukamaka Teresa

This paper is concerned with the assessment of the effect of women.

Published: 07/03/2018

Tags: Assessment, Effect, Women

Size: 657.87KB

MOTIVATIONAL INITIATIVES FOR CITIZENS’ PARTICIPATION IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN ANAMBRA AND IMO STATES OF NIGERIA

By Eze, Caroline Ngozi

The main purpose of this study was to ascertain the extent to which motivational initiatives
promote citizens’ participation in community development activities in Anambra and Imo States
of Nigeria. Six research questions and six null hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The
study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was 2, 357
respondents made up of members of registered Community Based Organizations (CBOs) in
Anambra and Imo States. A sample of 853 respondents was drawn from the population using
multi-stage proportionate sampling technique. Data collection instrument was self-structured
questionnaire titled, ‘Questionnaire on Motivational Initiatives for Citizens’ Participation in
Community Development Activities(QMICPCDA). The instrument was face validated by three
experts, two in Community Development unit of Department of Adult Education & Extra-Mural
Studies and one in Measurement and Evaluation Unit of Department of Science Education both
from University of Nigeria, Nsukka. An overall reliability index of 0.91 was obtained using the
Cronbach Coefficient Alpha. The null hypotheses were tested using t-test at 0.05 level of
significant. Weighted mean and Standard Deviation were used in analyzing the collected data.
Copies of the instrument were administered to the respondents through direct delivery technique.
Data collected from respondents were analyzed using frequency counts, mean ratings were used
for other six research questions. Result of findings indicated that to a high extent,
decentralization of power in communities, good leadership, identification of needs, respect for
people’s culture, adequate funding and need selection has assisted citizens’ participation in
communities in Anambra and Imo States. The findings further revealed that significant
differences were not found in decentralization of power, good leadership and need selection in
the communities of Anambra and Imo States. However, significant difference was found in the
mean ratings of respondents from the two states regarding the extent to which identification of
needs, adequate funding and respect for peoples’ culture has assisted citizens’ participation in
the communities in Anambra and Imo States. Based on the findings of the study,
recommendations were made that government and community leaders should encourage
decentralization of power that is, power should be transferred from higher to local level to
empower communities to work together, define and resolve their problems.

Published: 07/03/2018

Tags: MOTIVATIONAL INITIATIVES, CITIZENS’ PARTICIPATION, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

Size: 1.07MB

THE PROBLEM ON PRIVATIZATION OF FEDERAL PARASTATALS IN NIGERIA, A STUDY OF NIGERIAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS LIMITED (NITEL) AND ITS SUBSIDIARY, NIGERIA MOBILE

By Orlu, Dagogo Cornelius

The research work is aimed at studying the problems of privatization of Federal Parastatals with particular reference to NITEL and its subsidiary M- Tel. Many African countries including Nigeria embarked upon the establishment of Public Enterprises, managed and controlled by the government of each country. However, the problems of insufficient enterprise autonomy, defective capital structures resulting in heavy dependence on the national treasury for operational purposes, and economic depression of the nation, called for privatization of these public enterprises as a measure of reform to avoid total collapse of the system and grounding of the economy. Hence Privatization is a tool or reform for economic management of modern industrial economy.The objective of the study is to examine the reasons and basis for privatization, the effects, the types and problems of privatization of federal parastatals in Nigeria. The population of the study was made up of disengaged and retained staff of both NITEL and M-Tel in Rivers and Enugu States respectively. The sample size was determined using Yamani’s formular and Chi-square for testing of hypotheses. The survey research method was adopted in eliciting data from respondents for this study. The major findings are that, privatization exercises in Nigeria are prone to self inflicted complications, lack of transparency due to corruption that has remained the omnipresent obstacle that erodes every exercise in Nigeria. In meeting the above findings, the recommendations proposed for privatization exercise in Nigeria are; The privatization exercise should ensure the evolution and development of a near perfect policy, economic reformation and restructuring of Nigeria’s political economy. Finally, the federal government should have a proper labour policy to resolve terminal benefits matters in collective bargaining.

Published: 04/03/2010

Tags: Federal Parastatals, Privatization, NITEL and M-Tel

Size: 808.12KB

ACCESSIBILITY OF CREDIT FACILITY FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS BY SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES: EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA

By Eneh, Sylvia Nnenna

This study tries to look at the accessibility of credit facility from financial institutions by
small and Medium Scale Enterprises: Evidence from Nigeria. Small and Medium Scale
Enterprises have been faced with poor funding when developing nations like ours are
considered. This however distorts the outstanding function of SMEs as the engine and
pivot for the economic growth and national development. No wonder Nigeria has
continued to experience high level of emergence of new enterprises that would only exist
for two to three years and fizzle out. This study has a broad objective of determining the
degree of accessibility of credit facility by SMEs from the financial institution in Nigeria
with such variables like government policies, collaterals, tax incentives etc. The study
adopted the analytical survey method to gather information on the variables. The
population was made up of all the financial controllers in the 360 manufacturing
enterprises in the three states under study. We in turn used judgmental sampling technique
to select the financial controllers in these manufacturing enterprises. Data were collected
by means of questionnaires with response option graduated into a five- likert scale
designed to capture information on the variables that affect SMEs. The linear regression
analysis was used to test hypotheses one, three and four. One sampled t-test was used to
test hypothesis two while a multiple regression analysis was used to test the multiple
effects of three independent variables on credit accessibility. The result obtained using the
test statistics shows a positive relationship between government policies, access to credit
as the greatest problems facing SMEs, tax incentives, availability of collaterals as regards
the accessibility of credit facility by SMEs. The research questions proved that
international financial assistance abounds for SMEs. The study also showed that the level
of the operation of SMEs has not improved when compared with other developed nations.
SMEs in Nigeria are faced with numerous challenges and such has affected their
performances. We therefore recommend that attention and support be given to the subsector
so as to enhance their performance as the engine of growth and catalyst for socioeconomic
transformation in Nigeria. The study has provided opportunities for further
research into other factors that could affect SMEs credit accessibility, in order to ascertain
if such factors actually affect them in equal measures or not.

Published: 07/03/2018

Tags: CREDIT FACILITY, FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS, SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES,

Size: 0.98MB

Project Management Techniques of Planning and Control: A Study of the Rehabilitation of 33km Ezzamgbo-Effium/Ngbo Court-Okwor Market Road in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

By Ewelum, Nnaemeka Celestine

This research work was carried out to determine the benefit of using
project management techniques of planning and control in executing
projects. Effort was made to show how these techniques could maintain a
set profit margin as well as ensure early completion of work.
A total of sixty-one structured questionnaires were used to statistically
test the three hypotheses put forward for this study. The statistical
calculations proved that the use of project management technique of
planning and control ensure that the set profit margin will be realized and
also that there will be early completion of project under these techniques.
Project managers that employed the use of cost control technique and
systematically compares planned work and actual work done stands the
chance of reaping the benefit offered by these techniques of project
management. Bar chart as a tool for effective planning will ensure
optimal utilization of resources, thus saving cost that will boost the profit
margin. Planning in concert with control ensure survival and profitability
of the company under study.
ow ever, the researcher recommend that there is need to validate these
benefits of project management techniques by applying these concepts to
other civil engineering projects in order to compare the result obtained.
Profit data from other civil engineering firms could be used to
vii
substantiate the impact of these techniques to the set profit margin as well
as duration of contract.

Published: 07/03/2018

Tags: Project Management Techniques, Planning and Control

Size: 1.43MB

ACCESSIBILITY OF CREDIT FACILITY FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS BY SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES: EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA.

By Eneh, Sylvia Nnenna

This study tries to look at the accessibility of credit facility from financial institutions by small and Medium Scale Enterprises: Evidence from Nigeria. Small and Medium Scale Enterprises have been faced with poor funding when developing nations like ours are considered. This however distorts the outstanding function of SMEs as the engine and pivot for the economic growth and national development. No wonder Nigeria has continued to experience high level of emergence of new enterprises that would only exist for two to three years and fizzle out. This study has a broad objective of determining the degree of accessibility of credit facility by SMEs from the financial institution in Nigeria with such variables like government policies, collaterals, tax incentives etc. The study adopted the analytical survey method to gather information on the variables.

Published: 07/03/2018

Tags: CREDIT FACILITY, FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS, SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES,

Size: 0.98MB

Effect of Poverty on Risk Attitudes of Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria

By Nzenwa, Goodness C.

The study investigated the Effects of Poverty on the Risk Attitudes of
Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. Nigeria has remained one of the poorest
countries in the world and Benue State in particular was ranked the eight poorest
of the thirty-six states of the Federation. The dominance of the oil sector and the
consequent neglect of agricultural sector is one of the major precursors of
poverty in Nigeria. Small-scale farmers who operate in an environment
characterized by risk and uncertainty produce the bulk of Nigeria's food and fibre.
Presently, the Nigerian agriculture is characterized by low productivity, low level
of technological adoption, and use of inefficient production techniques. The
present poor state of the Nigerian agriculture is related to farmers1 attitudes
towards risks in the production and socioeconomic environment.
Based on the above problems the specific objectives of the study
were to: determine the extent of poverty among farmers in Benue State; identify
the various risk situations faced and risk aversion strategies employed by
farmers with differing poverty levels; assess the risk attitudes of farmers; and
determine the effect of poverty and socioeconomic variables on risk attitudes of
the farmers.
A multistage random sampling technique was used for selecting the
respondents. One hundred and twenty (120) farm households were used for the
study. The data were collected during the 200312004 farming season. The data
were analyzed using the Foster Greer Thorbercke poverty measures, descriptive
statistics, Likert scale, safety-first model and multiple regression analysis.
.Results of the study showed that the households on the average
contained about 7.6 persons, with annual per capita income of 4432,491 and had
a total land holding of 4.8 hectares. The household head was about 44 years and
had spent about 5.5 years in school. Using the international poverty line of US$1
per day per person, the result revealed that 78.3% of the respondents were poor
and that the depth of poverty, that is the mean distance of the income of the poor
from the poverty line was 42.5% which is approximately 8119,800 below the
poverty line (0546,519 per annum). Majority of the respondents lived in thatched
mud houses (51.7%), fetched water from unsafe sources such as wells and
vii
rivers (96.7%), had no toilet facilities (49.2%), and no access to electricity (85%).
The degree of poverty was found to be related to farmers' socioeconomic
characteristics.
The study identified the following types of risk situations faced by farmers:
changes in crop yieldllivestock production (16.7%), cropllivestock prices (8.3%),
technology (4.2%), cost of inputs (9.2%), credit availability (1 1.7%), labour
scarcitylavailability (9.2%), weather (1 5%) etc. Analysis showed that risk
situations faced by farmers were independent of their poverty levels. The risk
management strategies used by the farmers included among others: combination
of different cropsllivestock (14.2%), combination of crop and livestock enterprises
(8.3%), replanting of crops (7.5%), use of .improved varieties (10.8%), use of
pesticideslherbicides (9.2%), spreading of saleslharvest (6.7%), engagement in
non farm income activities (10.8%) etc. Result showed that the risk management
strategies employed were independent of farmers' poverty levels.
The result of the assessment of farmers' attitudes toward price risk
showed that 86.7% were risk averse, 11.7% were risk seeking and 1.7% were
risk neutral using scale 1 classification, whereas all farmers were classified as
risk averse under scale 2. Using the safety first model to assess respondents
attitude towards yield risk, it was found that 71.7% were high risk averse, 25.8%
were intermediate risk averse, 1.7% were low risk averse and only 0.8% was risk
preferring. Regression analysis showed that age, household size, educational
level, extension contact, membership in a solidarity group and degrees of poverty
were significant determinants of risk attitudes.
.Based on the findings of the study there is need to consider socio-
economic and poverty variables of farmers when designing new farm
technologies and other agricultural policies in Benue state. Policies to improve
the literacy level of the people, and access to agricultural inputs were
recommended. Also the use of social protection practices such as income
insurance, price-support schemes, credit insurance, etc, which may be helpful
strategies in mitigating the effects of poverty on risk attitudes of farmers were
recommended.

Published: 07/03/2005

Tags: Poverty, Risk, Farmers.

Size: 1.31MB

Project Management Techniques of Planning and Control: A Study of the Rehabilitation of 33km Ezzamgbo-Effium/Ngbo Court-Okwor Market Road in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

By Ewelum, Nnaemeka Celestine

This research work was carried out to determine the benefit of using
project management techniques of planning and control in executing
projects. Effort was made to show how these techniques could maintain a
set profit margin as well as ensure early completion of work.
A total of sixty-one structured questionnaires were used to statistically
test the three hypotheses put forward for this study. The statistical
calculations proved that the use of project management technique of
planning and control ensure that the set profit margin will be realized and
also that there will be early completion of project under these techniques.
Project managers that employed the use of cost control technique and
systematically compares planned work and actual work done stands the
chance of reaping the benefit offered by these techniques of project
management. Bar chart as a tool for effective planning will ensure
optimal utilization of resources, thus saving cost that will boost the profit
margin. Planning in concert with control ensure survival and profitability
of the company under study.
ow ever, the researcher recommend that there is need to validate these
benefits of project management techniques by applying these concepts to
other civil engineering projects in order to compare the result obtained.
Profit data from other civil engineering firms could be used to
vii
substantiate the impact of these techniques to the set profit margin as well
as duration of contract.

Published: 11/03/2001

Tags: Project, Benefit, Profit, Work.

Size: 1.43MB

EFFECTIVENESS OF TAXATION AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR CONTROL OF MONEY IN CIRCULATION

By Eze Judith Chinwendu

This research work is been designed to untold the effect of Taxation on the Economy of Nigeria. The aim and objective is to find out if taxation constitutes significant impart as an instrument for control of money in circulation such as the effect on the rapid rise in price on Revenue, Expenditure and credit; the extent to which the tax system may be effective in preventing or combating an inflation; And how taxation can be used to breach the vicious circles of poverty, to find out if taxation can be used to industrialize a developing economy like Nigeria. The research instrument used for data collection was questionnaire which contained 15 items. The data collected were analyzed through the use of percentage. From the findings, it was discovered that taxation can help in regulating the level of money in circulation and can be used to combated inflation and also breach the wide gap between the rich and the poor. Based on the finding, recommendations were made which the researcher hope would help to understand that taxation can be used as an instrument of control of money in circulation.

Published: 09/03/2012

Tags: TAXATION, ECONOMY, NIGERIA, REVENUE.

Size: 588.67KB

THE EFFECT OF HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING ON THE REPORTED PROFIT OF A COMPANY: AN EVALUATION OF CURRENT COST ACCOUNTING AS AN ALTERNATIVE REPORTING METHOD

By Egbe Ndubuisi

This study evaluates the effect of historical cost accounting on the reported profit of a company: An evaluation of current cost accounting as an alternative reporting method. In a high – inflationary and distorted economy like Nigeria with high uncertainties, the conventional historical cost method of profit reporting has misled many companies into liquidation since it has been found inadequate in accounting for the uncertainties. The persistent nature of this phenomenon has called for a fair and suitable reporting method of profits in times like this. The profits retained by the company are affected by costs and appropriations of income. A higher cost will leave little income for appropriation and to be retained in the company. The amount of profit will depend on the reported method in operation. The historical cost method makes low depreciation to be charged while leaving high profit for tax and dividends payments. In the light of the above, the objectives of the study were to determine the nature of relationship between historical cost methods and reported profits of manufacturing companies in Nigeria, ascertain the extent to which current cost method affects the overstated profits made by manufacturing companies in Nigeria and to determine how current cost accounting can be used to remedy the inherent deficiencies in the historical cost methods. An ex post facto research design was adopted in this study. The population of the study comprises forty-eight ( 48) manufacturing companies in Nigeria under 24 industrial classifications. Financial statements of these companies are published annually for public consumption. But due to time lag, ten(10) manufacturing companies quoted in the first tier securities market were randomly selected . Secondary sources of data were used in the study. The data were obtained from the statistical bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria and Annual Reports of the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Depreciation charge served as the independent variables while Profits of the firm served as the dependent variables and were used to measure the profitability, capital adequacy ratio and improvement of shareholders` equity in the selected sampled manufacturing companies. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was employed to test the hypotheses one while Chi-Square were employed to test the hypotheses two and three. These were done at the alpha level of 5% with the aid of the SPSS 17.0 statistical software. The results of the study discovered that there is a positive significant relationship between historical cost method and the reported profits of companies in Nigeria , Current cost methods does not significantly affects the overstated profits made by these companies and the study recommended that: there should appropriate decision for current cost accounting method to be adopted so as to improve their capital maintenance level, and there should be further research on the causes of further research on the effect on historical cost accounting on the reported profits of companies in Nigeria.

Published: 11/03/2014

Tags: Accounting, Profits, Nigeria

Size: 793.25KB

INFLUENCE OF INFLATION ON REPORTED PROFIT FOR DECISION MAKING IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA

By Chukwuemeka, Martina O.

The study is on Influence of inflation and reported profit: implication on decision-making. The
study was set to achieve the following objectives:, to determine the extent to which lending decision in
Nigeria banks were affected by inflation between 2006 – 2011, to ascertain the extent to which inflation
has impacted on the reported profits of commercial banks in Nigeria between 2006 – 2011, to examine the
extent to which reported profits under inflationary period affect investment decision of Nigeria banks
between 2006 – 2011, to find out other factors that influence decisions on reported profit apart from
inflation. The research design adopted in this study is ex-post factor research design which is characterized
as events that have taken place in the past. The target population of the study is all the banks quoted in
Nigeria stock exchange. The sample size is the first two new generation banks (FBN and UBA Plc).
Secondary data were sourced from Annual Reports of the banks under study. The data will be presented
using sample table frequency and the formulated hypotheses will be tested using linear regression
technique. The study discovered that there is no significant positive relationship between lending
decision and inflation on Nigerian banks and it is revealed that it could not be established that
inflation has adversely affected reported profits on Nigerian banks within 2006 to 2011 fiscal
year. Also it was found that investment decisions within the reported profits of Nigerian banks
have no direct relationship with inflation within the period under review and finally that
inflation on other decision factors (Gearing and Solvency) has no significant relationship on
reported profit on Nigerian banks. Also the decision of organization obeys the trends and
situation of the economy either in lending or reported profits, investment decisions, gearing and
solvency. Thus in the presence of all these factors inflation and reported profit have negative
influence on decision-making.

Published: 02/03/2018

Tags: INFLUENCE, INFLATION, FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS, DECISION MAKING

Size: 923.33KB