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STRATEGY FOR ENSURING FOOD SECURITY IN TARABA STATE, NIGERIA

By Abdulmuthallib Umaru Isa

The study identified strategies for ensuring food security in Taraba State. Specifically, the study was designed to identify the determinants of food security; examine the production patterns of food by farmers, identify the factors responsible for food insecurity: and determine the strategies of ensuring food security. The study was carried out in Taraba State of Nigeria in the year 2011. The population of the study comprises all heads of households in Taraba State. A multi stage sampling technique was used in the selection of respondents. Two agricultural zones were selected using a simple random technique. These were Zing and Bali zones and they were selected using simple random sampling techniques and the process gave rise to the selection of four communities/cells per zone bringing the total number of communities/cells sampled to eight (8). From each sampled cell, a list of farmers was obtained from the farmers’ association and from the list of farmers’ households. Fifteen (15) heads of households were sampled using simple random selection techniques. The total number of respondents for the study summed up to one hundred and twenty (120). A set of interview schedule and questionnaire were used for data collection out of which 117 were found analysable. Frequency, percentage scores, mean scores, and standard deviations were used to analysed the data collected. Results from the study showed that majority (79.5%) of the respondents were males. The age limit of respondents shows that 56% were between the range of 20-29 years and the mean age was 32 years. The educational level of the respondents reveals that the farmers have enjoyed one form of education or the other with about 53.0% having OND/NCE as their highest educational qualification. Further results show that 65.8% of the respondents were single while 31.6% were married. The mean household size of farmers was 7 persons. The mean years of farming experience of the farmers was 8.4 years. The majority (59.0%) of the farmers had 1-5 years of farming experience. Majority (62.4%) of the farmers engage in trading and their main source of information was through extension agents with 47.9%. Majority (84.6%) of the farmers grew maize grains and some crops like rice, yam, guinea corn, and cassava. The monthly income of the respondents revealed that majority (58.8%) have an estimated monthly income of below N20,000. The food security analysis of the farmers revealed that the availability of food items for the respondents were as follows: maize (X = 3.09) cassava flour (X = 3.09), and rice (X = 2.90) depicting availability of the respondents to a large extent while food items from proteins were perceived to be available to a great extent. The means scores show that most of these food items are available Taraba State. On the accessibility of food in Taraba State, majority (76.9%) of the respondents accessed their food items from both farm and market while 18% of the respondents got their food items from farms only. Most (57.3%) of the respondents purchased their food items with money. The prices of the items were moderate (63.2%). The access to food by the respondents as a determinant of food security is not a problem in the entire State. The study also identified some barriers to food access in the state. It revealed that religion (59.8%), culture (64.1%), poor government policies (64.1%), geographical location (60.1%), inadequate market information (61.7%), all have more than half of the respondents agreeing to them as various barriers to their food access. In the utilization of food, carbohydrate food items were not eaten in a higher proportion during the last one day of the interview, while in the case of proteins such as beans, fish, eggs, and milk, they were eaten by the respondents on a 12 – 24 hours basis. The study also showed that the farming pattern which is mostly being practiced among respondents is mixed farming (93.2%) and mixed cropping (82.0%). This could be one of the reasons for high availability of many food items across the various respondents in the state. It is therefore recommended that subsidies should be provided on agricultural inputs by the state government, local government, and other private organizations. Also, opportunities should be provided for farmers to participate in planning and decision making in agricultural programmes and policies in the state. The study identified strategies for ensuring food security in Taraba State. Specifically, the study was designed to identify the determinants of food security; examine the production patterns of food by farmers, identify the factors responsible for food insecurity: and determine the strategies of ensuring food security. The study was carried out in Taraba State of Nigeria in the year 2011. The population of the study comprises all heads of households in Taraba State. A multi stage sampling technique was used in the selection of respondents. Two agricultural zones were selected using a simple random technique. These were Zing and Bali zones and they were selected using simple random sampling techniques and the process gave rise to the selection of four communities/cells per zone bringing the total number of communities/cells sampled to eight (8). From each sampled cell, a list of farmers was obtained from the farmers’ association and from the list of farmers’ households. Fifteen (15) heads of households were sampled using simple random selection techniques. The total number of respondents for the study summed up to one hundred and twenty (120). A set of interview schedule and questionnaire were used for data collection out of which 117 were found analysable. Frequency, percentage scores, mean scores, and standard deviations were used to analysed the data collected. Results from the study showed that majority (79.5%) of the respondents were males. The age limit of respondents shows that 56% were between the range of 20-29 years and the mean age was 32 years. The educational level of the respondents reveals that the farmers have enjoyed one form of education or the other with about 53.0% having OND/NCE as their highest educational qualification. Further results show that 65.8% of the respondents were single while 31.6% were married. The mean household size of farmers was 7 persons. The mean years of farming experience of the farmers was 8.4 years. The majority (59.0%) of the farmers had 1-5 years of farming experience. Majority (62.4%) of the farmers engage in trading and their main source of information was through extension agents with 47.9%. Majority (84.6%) of the farmers grew maize grains and some crops like rice, yam, guinea corn, and cassava. The monthly income of the respondents revealed that majority (58.8%) have an estimated monthly income of below N20,000. The food security analysis of the farmers revealed that the availability of food items for the respondents were as follows: maize (X = 3.09) cassava flour (X = 3.09), and rice (X = 2.90) depicting availability of the respondents to a large extent while food items from proteins were perceived to be available to a great extent. The means scores show that most of these food items are available Taraba State. On the accessibility of food in Taraba State, majority (76.9%) of the respondents accessed their food items from both farm and market while 18% of the respondents got their food items from farms only. Most (57.3%) of the respondents purchased their food items with money. The prices of the items were moderate (63.2%). The access to food by the respondents as a determinant of food security is not a problem in the entire State. The study also identified some barriers to food access in the state. It revealed that religion (59.8%), culture (64.1%), poor government policies (64.1%), geographical location (60.1%), inadequate market information (61.7%), all have more than half of the respondents agreeing to them as various barriers to their food access. In the utilization of food, carbohydrate food items were not eaten in a higher proportion during the last one day of the interview, while in the case of proteins such as beans, fish, eggs, and milk, they were eaten by the respondents on a 12 – 24 hours basis. The study also showed that the farming pattern which is mostly being practiced among respondents is mixed farming (93.2%) and mixed cropping (82.0%). This could be one of the reasons for high availability of many food items across the various respondents in the state. It is therefore recommended that subsidies should be provided on agricultural inputs by the state government, local government, and other private organizations. Also, opportunities should be provided for farmers to participate in planning and decision making in agricultural programmes and policies in the state.

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 505.65KB

MARKET INTEGRATION AND PRICING EFFICIENCY OF SOYABEANS IN BENUE AND ENUGU STATES, NIGERIA

By Ani, Dorothy Patience

The study analysed market integration and pricing efficiency of soyabeans in Benue and Enugu States, Nigeria. Low household demand for soyabeans makes its production and marketing less popular amongst farmers and marketers which leads to marketing inefficiency. A two-stage sampling technique was used to select 207 respondents. Secondary data comprising monthly retail prices (urban and rural) of soyabeans from 1999 to 2013 was also collected BNARDA and ENADEP. Descriptive statistics, regression, Herfindal Hirschman Index, Gini Coeffiient, Johansen Co-integration, Spatial price model, t-test and correlation analysis were the analytical techniques used. It was found that soyabeans marketing was dominated by married (80%), literate (91.3%) males (63.3%), with a mean annual income of N474,370. The factors that determine the volume of soyabeans marketed include price of soyabeans (-1.515), transfer and handling costs (0.345), education (0.157) and quantity of loan (0.035). Although, soyabeans market was characterized by many buyers and sellers with no barriers to entry and exit, the high value of HHI got for wholesalers and retailers (2,017.18 and 1,081.97) indicated high concentration of soyabeans in the hands of few marketers. This was further supported by high inequalities in the distribution of sales among wholesalers and retailers respectively as evident in the values (0.84 and 0.81) of gini coefficients. Whereas few marketers (6.8%) had negative marketing margins, their mean was 20.40%. Average net margin for Benue and Enugu soyabeans marketers were calculated as N405.79 and N786.26, respectively which represented about 6.24% and 10% of the cost price.The study analysed market integration and pricing efficiency of soyabeans in Benue and Enugu States, Nigeria. Low household demand for soyabeans makes its production and marketing less popular amongst farmers and marketers which leads to marketing inefficiency. A two-stage sampling technique was used to select 207 respondents. Secondary data comprising monthly retail prices (urban and rural) of soyabeans from 1999 to 2013 was also collected BNARDA and ENADEP. Descriptive statistics, regression, Herfindal Hirschman Index, Gini Coeffiient, Johansen Co-integration, Spatial price model, t-test and correlation analysis were the analytical techniques used. It was found that soyabeans marketing was dominated by married (80%), literate (91.3%) males (63.3%), with a mean annual income of N474,370. The factors that determine the volume of soyabeans marketed include price of soyabeans (-1.515), transfer and handling costs (0.345), education (0.157) and quantity of loan (0.035). Although, soyabeans market was characterized by many buyers and sellers with no barriers to entry and exit, the high value of HHI got for wholesalers and retailers (2,017.18 and 1,081.97) indicated high concentration of soyabeans in the hands of few marketers. This was further supported by high inequalities in the distribution of sales among wholesalers and retailers respectively as evident in the values (0.84 and 0.81) of gini coefficients. Whereas few marketers (6.8%) had negative marketing margins, their mean was 20.40%. Average net margin for Benue and Enugu soyabeans marketers were calculated as N405.79 and N786.26, respectively which represented about 6.24% and 10% of the cost price.

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 16.88MB

ECONOMICS OF FISH MARKETING IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

By Umoinyang, Mfon E.

The study investigated the economics of fish marketing in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using primary data. Purposive and multistage random sampling technique was used to collect the data from 105 respondents using well-structured and pre-tested questionnaire. These data were analysed using descriptive statistics, concentration ratio, price spread, net profit margins, marketing margins analyses and multinomial logit (MNL) models. Tests of significant differences and effects were carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test techniques. Research results showed that average age for the fish marketers were 38years for producers, 42years for wholesalers and 46years for retailers, and also that majority of them were married. The results further showed that majority of the fish producers and retailers had West African Senior School Certificate while most wholesalers had First School Leaving Certificate. Also, the all marketers had average household size of 5 members with 18years marketing experience for the producers, and 15years for the wholesalers and retailers, respectively. Furthermore, the study found that the marketers made use of referrals, price discount and home delivery to attract customers. The results showed that the market was under weak oligopoly at concentration ratio of 47%. This implies that the activities of the largest four fish marketers affected the price and demand for fish in the market. Further results showed that fish marketing was profitable with channel 2 having the highest net margin of N141,095 per annum per processing firm compared to channel 1 (N127,850) and channel 3 (N137,030) while channel 1 had the highest marketing efficiency of 342% relative to channels 2 and 3 with marketing efficiencies of 144% and 97%, respectively. The results indicated that these differences in marketing efficiency among the channels were significant at P

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 197.59KB

EFFECTS OF CAPITAL FLIGHT ON AGRICULTURAL GROWTH IN NIGERIA (1970-2013)

By Usman, Francis Robert

Capital flight, a term used to refer to the leakages of financial resources from an economy pose a serious problem in Sub Saharan economies as it impacted negatively on capital scarce countries such as Nigeria. This study empirically examined the impact of capital fight on agricultural growth in Nigeria using ordinary least square technique for the period 1970 -2013. The data generated were analyzed using Unit root test, co integration test, regression analysis and F statistic. The study found negative and insignificant relationship(P>0.05) between total capital flight and agricultural growth; meaning that capital flight had no direct impact on agricultural growth or the impact on agricultural growth was shadowed by the other macroeconomic variables in the system. Also, the stock of gross external debt (EXD) variable showed positive and statistically significant relationship (P

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 480.00KB

EVALUATION OF NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS (NWFPs) TO FARM HOUSEHOLD’S INCOME AND FOOD SECURITY IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

By Onyia, Chukwuemeka Chiebonam

The study analyzed the contributions of plant and animal species of Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFPs) to farm household’s income and food security. Three agricultural zones, Nsukka zone, Enugu Ezike zone and Udi zone, were purposively selected for the study. One hundred and twenty (120) respondents were selected through multistage sampling technique. Descriptive statistics, and Probit model were used for the analysis. The results indicated that majority (63.33 %) were males, with a mean age of about 56 years. Most (53.3%) of the respondents were farmers. The average household size was about 5 persons. The respondent’s mean years spent in school was about 7 years (at least completed primary school) and belonged majorly (50.83%) to the medium wealth category. The most commonly collected plant species of NWFPs were bitter kola (Garcina kola), breadfruit (Treculia africana), bush mango (Irvingia gabonenesis and wombulu), kola nut (Cola nitida), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), Icheku (Dalium guinese), African star apple (Chrysophylum albidium), Avocado pear (Persea americana), African bush mango (Dacryodes edulis) and Oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) while the most commonly collected animal species of NWFPs were bee products (Apis mellifera linneaeus 1758), flying termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) and fish (Ictalurus punctatus). Wealth category (p < 0.01) and occupation (p

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 163.92KB

EVALUATION OF PARTICIPATORY POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH WATER DELIVERY SUPPORT OF LOCAL EMPOWERMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROJECT (LEEMP) IN RURAL SOUTHEAST NIGERIA

By Onyenweze Lawrence Nnabuike

This study was conducted to evaluate Participatory Poverty Reduction by Utilization of Water Delivery of Local Empowerment and Environmental Management Project (LEEMP) in Southeast Nigeria as a contribution towards finding water panacea to poverty associated with Livestock Fattening (poultry and fishery), especially during dry season in water stress communities. Also, it was meant to create awareness for Community Driven Development (CDD) Participation. Primary data were obtained from water benefitting communities in LEEMP delivery support. Data were analyzed using regression analysis, marginal analysis model and chi-square test. Result showed that the farmers were composed of 43% females and 57% males. About 31% of the farmer had tertiary educational; 29% of the them had secondary school education; 27% had only primary education while 13% had no formal education. Most of the farmers were within 36-49 years. Large scale poultry farmers (16%) and fish farmers (55%) used on the average 81% CDD water delivery volume and generated 72% livestock income. The small scale poultry farmers (60%) and fish farmers (31%) used on the average 6% of the water volume and generated 10% of the livestock income. The daily timeliness per unit of LEEMP water delivery was 42 minutes on the average. LEEMP reduced poverty through water utilization by 67%. The amount of poultry credit demanded significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the product size (farm output size). Credit for fishery activities was significantly (p < 0.05) low. Other factors that significantly (p < 0.05) influenced Poultry credit were the number of children, leadership position and religion. The volume of water used and the man-days of LEEMP water use significantly (p < 0.05) increased income from poultry. Household size and age significantly (p < 0.05) influenced income from fishery. The 6% score on water volume used by small scale farmers as against 81% for Large scale farmers indicated differential participation by the two categories of livestock farmers. The study recommends opening up virile CDD credit line for fishery and supply of improved stocks to support poultry and fishery production. The study also recommends supportive mobilization of participation through the use of agricultural extension education for the educationally less privileged farmers as well as rotating the CDD leadership of benefitting micro-project communities, at least bi-ennially. Besides, doors should be opened for greater number of water stress communities to benefit from LEEMP/CSDP water delivery support, with greater community contributions made in kind rather than cash.This study was conducted to evaluate Participatory Poverty Reduction by Utilization of Water Delivery of Local Empowerment and Environmental Management Project (LEEMP) in Southeast Nigeria as a contribution towards finding water panacea to poverty associated with Livestock Fattening (poultry and fishery), especially during dry season in water stress communities. Also, it was meant to create awareness for Community Driven Development (CDD) Participation. Primary data were obtained from water benefitting communities in LEEMP delivery support. Data were analyzed using regression analysis, marginal analysis model and chi-square test. Result showed that the farmers were composed of 43% females and 57% males. About 31% of the farmer had tertiary educational; 29% of the them had secondary school education; 27% had only primary education while 13% had no formal education. Most of the farmers were within 36-49 years. Large scale poultry farmers (16%) and fish farmers (55%) used on the average 81% CDD water delivery volume and generated 72% livestock income. The small scale poultry farmers (60%) and fish farmers (31%) used on the average 6% of the water volume and generated 10% of the livestock income. The daily timeliness per unit of LEEMP water delivery was 42 minutes on the average. LEEMP reduced poverty through water utilization by 67%. The amount of poultry credit demanded significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the product size (farm output size). Credit for fishery activities was significantly (p < 0.05) low. Other factors that significantly (p < 0.05) influenced Poultry credit were the number of children, leadership position and religion. The volume of water used and the man-days of LEEMP water use significantly (p < 0.05) increased income from poultry. Household size and age significantly (p < 0.05) influenced income from fishery. The 6% score on water volume used by small scale farmers as against 81% for Large scale farmers indicated differential participation by the two categories of livestock farmers. The study recommends opening up virile CDD credit line for fishery and supply of improved stocks to support poultry and fishery production. The study also recommends supportive mobilization of participation through the use of agricultural extension education for the educationally less privileged farmers as well as rotating the CDD leadership of benefitting micro-project communities, at least bi-ennially. Besides, doors should be opened for greater number of water stress communities to benefit from LEEMP/CSDP water delivery support, with greater community contributions made in kind rather than cash

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 181.16KB

EFFECTS OF MICRO CREDIT ON THE LIVELIHOOD OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

By Omeje, Emmanuel Ejiofor

Micro-credit has been identified as a sustainable and effective poverty reduction strategy that can be employed to reallocate resources to the rural active poor. The livelihood of rural dwellers is usually characterized by low potentials. It is however believed that their access to micro – credit may improve their livelihood outcomes such as income, well-being, reduced vulnerability, food security, access to social amenities, economic expansion and employment. Also, it brings additional perspective to the national challenge of increasing agricultural production through sustainable micro-credit schemes offered to the rural households. Paucity of information on sources of micro-credit accessed by rural households in Enugu State and the effects on their livelihood outcomes necessitated this research. The broad objective of the study was therefore to examine the effects of micro-credit on the livelihood of rural dwellers in Enugu State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: (i) describe the livelihood and socio-economic characteristics of the rural households, (ii) describe the sources of micro-credit available and accessible to the rural households, (iii) establish relationship between the socio-economic and livelihood characteristics of the rural households and their access to micro-credit categories, (iv) examine the volume of micro-credit received and utilized for improvement of the rural households’ livelihood outcomes and (v) examine the constraints that hinder rural households’ access to micro-credit facilities in Enugu State. The study was carried out in Enugu State, Nigeria. Sixty respondents were selected from each of the three agricultural development zones in the state making a total of 180 respondents. Primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Data generated were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multinomial logit model and factor analysis. It was found out that a greater percentage (31.7%) of the respondents were between 45 and 50 years of age while their computed means was 57 years. Male dominated the rural household heads (68%). Greater percentage of 58.4% of the household heads were married while 8.3%, 25% and 8.3% were single, widowed and divorced respectively. Thirty-six (36%) had secondary education, 28% had primary, 19% had tertiary while 10% had no formal education. About 40% of the respondents earned below N101, 000 per annum. Majority of the respondents (763.7%) were engaged in farming, trading 13.3% and services 10%. Micro credit was not available to about 30% of the rural households while 70% had access to various kinds of micro credit. Eighty (80%) of the accessed micro credit was short term, 16.7% medium term and 3.3% long term. Age, group membership and farm size positively influenced access to the combined informal and formal micro credit categories while income level and savings negatively influenced access to the categories. Gender, marital status, household size, group membership and farm size positively influenced access to informal micro credit category while savings negatively influenced access to the category. About 70% of the respondents accessed different categories of micro credit. About 58% of them invested the entire amount borrowed but 42% invested only part of the funds and diverted the rest. Among the borrowers, 81% perceived some improvements on their livelihoods and socio-economic outcomes after they invested in economic ventures but 19% did not agree to that. Major constraints to micro credit access among the rural households include inadequate information, lack of skills and infrastructure; lack of cooperative membership and policy, poverty and illiteracy, and socio-personal. It was therefore recommended that: there was need to understand that the major source of livelihoods among the rural households is farming and thus, every rural livelihood programme should first address their farming welfare and; proactive regulatory micro credit acts capable of reaching out to the very active poor be enacted to ensure that government’s microcredit schemes are not hijacked by economic saboteurs. Micro-credit has been identified as a sustainable and effective poverty reduction strategy that can be employed to reallocate resources to the rural active poor. The livelihood of rural dwellers is usually characterized by low potentials. It is however believed that their access to micro – credit may improve their livelihood outcomes such as income, well-being, reduced vulnerability, food security, access to social amenities, economic expansion and employment. Also, it brings additional perspective to the national challenge of increasing agricultural production through sustainable micro-credit schemes offered to the rural households. Paucity of information on sources of micro-credit accessed by rural households in Enugu State and the effects on their livelihood outcomes necessitated this research. The broad objective of the study was therefore to examine the effects of micro-credit on the livelihood of rural dwellers in Enugu State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: (i) describe the livelihood and socio-economic characteristics of the rural households, (ii) describe the sources of micro-credit available and accessible to the rural households, (iii) establish relationship between the socio-economic and livelihood characteristics of the rural households and their access to micro-credit categories, (iv) examine the volume of micro-credit received and utilized for improvement of the rural households’ livelihood outcomes and (v) examine the constraints that hinder rural households’ access to micro-credit facilities in Enugu State. The study was carried out in Enugu State, Nigeria. Sixty respondents were selected from each of the three agricultural development zones in the state making a total of 180 respondents. Primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Data generated were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multinomial logit model and factor analysis. It was found out that a greater percentage (31.7%) of the respondents were between 45 and 50 years of age while their computed means was 57 years. Male dominated the rural household heads (68%). Greater percentage of 58.4% of the household heads were married while 8.3%, 25% and 8.3% were single, widowed and divorced respectively. Thirty-six (36%) had secondary education, 28% had primary, 19% had tertiary while 10% had no formal education. About 40% of the respondents earned below N101, 000 per annum. Majority of the respondents (763.7%) were engaged in farming, trading 13.3% and services 10%. Micro credit was not available to about 30% of the rural households while 70% had access to various kinds of micro credit. Eighty (80%) of the accessed micro credit was short term, 16.7% medium term and 3.3% long term. Age, group membership and farm size positively influenced access to the combined informal and formal micro credit categories while income level and savings negatively influenced access to the categories. Gender, marital status, household size, group membership and farm size positively influenced access to informal micro credit category while savings negatively influenced access to the category. About 70% of the respondents accessed different categories of micro credit. About 58% of them invested the entire amount borrowed but 42% invested only part of the funds and diverted the rest. Among the borrowers, 81% perceived some improvements on their livelihoods and socio-economic outcomes after they invested in economic ventures but 19% did not agree to that. Major constraints to micro credit access among the rural households include inadequate information, lack of skills and infrastructure; lack of cooperative membership and policy, poverty and illiteracy, and socio-personal. It was therefore recommended that: there was need to understand that the major source of livelihoods among the rural households is farming and thus, every rural livelihood programme should first address their farming welfare and; proactive regulatory micro credit acts capable of reaching out to the very active poor be enacted to ensure that government’s microcredit schemes are not hijacked by economic saboteurs.

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 179.98KB

ANALYSIS OF FACTOR-PRODUCT RELATIONSHIP IN PISCICULTURE VALUE CHAIN IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA.

By Ogunmefun, Samueloluwatobi

The broad objective of the study was to analyze factor-product relationship in pisciculture value chain in Lagos state, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: (i) determine the socio-economic characteristics of the pisciculture farmers and examine influence on their output, (ii) identify the value chain steps in pisciculture enterprise, (iii) determine the factor-product relationship and estimate the technical efficiency in the value chain, (iv) estimate the costs and returns of pisciculture value chain and (v) identify the various constraints facing the pisciculture value chain. The study adopted the survey design. It utilized mainly primary data. A structured close-ended questionnaire was used to collect information from the 120 fish farmers in the area. Data generated were analyzed using the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), budgetary analysis, rate of return; test of difference in mean and value chain analysis. Average output of fish per production cycle was 14,000kg, while an average farm size (land) was 1.97ha per farmer. Average scores for farming experience, household size and years of schooling were 11.7years, five persons and 14.4 years respectively. The farmers were young as indicated by mean age of 43years. The result showed that all farmers (100%) culture fingerlings, juveniles and market size fishes while only few carryout hatching of eggs (40%) and culture fries (50%) in pisciculture enterprise in the state. Mean scores for pond size (X ̅=2.22m2) and feed (X ̅=3.12N/ha) were also recorded. Six factors namely, farm size, labour, feed, fertilizer, stocking capacity and depreciation value with coefficients of 0.02, 0.28, 0.03, 0.04, 0.40 and 0.20 respectively exerted significant (p3.8), lack of credit (X ̅>3.6), high cost of inputs (X ̅>3.4) and poor technical know-how (X ̅>3.4). Value chain exerted no significant effect on The broad objective of the study was to analyze factor-product relationship in pisciculture value chain in Lagos state, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: (i) determine the socio-economic characteristics of the pisciculture farmers and examine influence on their output, (ii) identify the value chain steps in pisciculture enterprise, (iii) determine the factor-product relationship and estimate the technical efficiency in the value chain, (iv) estimate the costs and returns of pisciculture value chain and (v) identify the various constraints facing the pisciculture value chain. The study adopted the survey design. It utilized mainly primary data. A structured close-ended questionnaire was used to collect information from the 120 fish farmers in the area. Data generated were analyzed using the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), budgetary analysis, rate of return; test of difference in mean and value chain analysis. Average output of fish per production cycle was 14,000kg, while an average farm size (land) was 1.97ha per farmer. Average scores for farming experience, household size and years of schooling were 11.7years, five persons and 14.4 years respectively. The farmers were young as indicated by mean age of 43years. The result showed that all farmers (100%) culture fingerlings, juveniles and market size fishes while only few carryout hatching of eggs (40%) and culture fries (50%) in pisciculture enterprise in the state. Mean scores for pond size (X ̅=2.22m2) and feed (X ̅=3.12N/ha) were also recorded. Six factors namely, farm size, labour, feed, fertilizer, stocking capacity and depreciation value with coefficients of 0.02, 0.28, 0.03, 0.04, 0.40 and 0.20 respectively exerted significant (p3.8), lack of credit (X ̅>3.6), high cost of inputs (X ̅>3.4) and poor technical know-how (X ̅>3.4). Value chain exerted no significant effect on

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 876.52KB

BANANA AND PLANTAIN MARKETING IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

By Obetta, Angela Ebere

The study was designed to analyze the marketing of banana and plantain in Enugu State. The specific objectives were to: describe the socio-economic characteristics of banana and plantain marketers; identify the marketing channels for the crops, examine the structure of the marketing system for both crops, estimate their marketing margins at both wholesale and retail levels, estimate the rate of price transmission and market integration among banana and plantain markets, and identify the constraints facing the marketing of both crops. The study adopted survey research design. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to compose a sample of 160 respondents (30 wholesalers and 50 retailers for banana, and 30 wholesalers and 50 retailers for plantain). Data for the study were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Time series data on retail prices of banana and plantain from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme (ENADEP). Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Gini coefficient, marketing margin analysis, Johansen co-integration test, Vector error correction model, and descriptive statistics. The result showed that majority of the respondents (87.50%) were females with average age of 35 years, 76.20% of them were married while 41.20% attained primary education. The mean scores for household size and marketing experience were seven and 13 years respectively. Also, 78.30% of the wholesalers obtained their products in heaps directly from producers while 21.70% bought from rural assemblers. Most of the retailers (78.00%) obtained their products in bunches from wholesalers while 28.00% bought from producers. Furthermore, the results of the Gini coefficient for banana and plantain retailers and wholesalers showed low levels of inequitable distribution of income amongst them. However, inequalities existed more at retail level than at the wholesale level. The mean marketing margin for plantain (21.62%) and banana (13.68%) retailers showed that there was a significant difference between them, while the marketing margins for plantain (11.65%) and banana (10.58%) wholesalers did not differ significantly. The analysis of price transmission and market integration showed that the Error Correction coefficient (-0.22 and -0.25) measured by the error correction mechanism (ECM) for the rural and urban prices of banana had low rate of price transmission, while the ECM result (-0.12 and -0.30) for the rural and urban prices of plantain indicated also a low rate of price transmission; though, showing the presence of market integration. Also, low capital/initial investment, finance, high cost of transportation and heavy imposition of tax/levies are significant constraints to plantain and banana marketing in the study area. The study therefore recommended that government should set up fiscal and monetary policies that will stabilize price for consumable products like banana and plantain, and that government should reduce the high inequality that exists among retailers by making available adequate credit to market participants at appropriate interest rates. Finally, government should formulate and implement policies targeted at improving infrastructures such as roads and providing market information outfit that disseminates information timely to marketers for improved marketing of banana and plantain.The study was designed to analyze the marketing of banana and plantain in Enugu State. The specific objectives were to: describe the socio-economic characteristics of banana and plantain marketers; identify the marketing channels for the crops, examine the structure of the marketing system for both crops, estimate their marketing margins at both wholesale and retail levels, estimate the rate of price transmission and market integration among banana and plantain markets, and identify the constraints facing the marketing of both crops. The study adopted survey research design. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to compose a sample of 160 respondents (30 wholesalers and 50 retailers for banana, and 30 wholesalers and 50 retailers for plantain). Data for the study were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Time series data on retail prices of banana and plantain from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme (ENADEP). Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Gini coefficient, marketing margin analysis, Johansen co-integration test, Vector error correction model, and descriptive statistics. The result showed that majority of the respondents (87.50%) were females with average age of 35 years, 76.20% of them were married while 41.20% attained primary education. The mean scores for household size and marketing experience were seven and 13 years respectively. Also, 78.30% of the wholesalers obtained their products in heaps directly from producers while 21.70% bought from rural assemblers. Most of the retailers (78.00%) obtained their products in bunches from wholesalers while 28.00% bought from producers. Furthermore, the results of the Gini coefficient for banana and plantain retailers and wholesalers showed low levels of inequitable distribution of income amongst them. However, inequalities existed more at retail level than at the wholesale level. The mean marketing margin for plantain (21.62%) and banana (13.68%) retailers showed that there was a significant difference between them, while the marketing margins for plantain (11.65%) and banana (10.58%) wholesalers did not differ significantly. The analysis of price transmission and market integration showed that the Error Correction coefficient (-0.22 and -0.25) measured by the error correction mechanism (ECM) for the rural and urban prices of banana had low rate of price transmission, while the ECM result (-0.12 and -0.30) for the rural and urban prices of plantain indicated also a low rate of price transmission; though, showing the presence of market integration. Also, low capital/initial investment, finance, high cost of transportation and heavy imposition of tax/levies are significant constraints to plantain and banana marketing in the study area. The study therefore recommended that government should set up fiscal and monetary policies that will stabilize price for consumable products like banana and plantain, and that government should reduce the high inequality that exists among retailers by making available adequate credit to market participants at appropriate interest rates. Finally, government should formulate and implement policies targeted at improving infrastructures such as roads and providing market information outfit that disseminates information timely to marketers for improved marketing of banana and plantain.

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 303.80KB

INCOME, SAVINGS AND INVESTMENT PATTERNS OF SMALL-SCALE AGRO-BASED ENTREPRENEURS IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

By Nsionu, Chidimma Perpetua

The study examined income, savings and investment patterns of small-scale agro-based entrepreneurs in Anambra State. The study utilized primary data to achieve this objective. The data were collected through multi-stage random sampling technique from 160 respondents. These data were analyzed with descriptive statistics including 4-point Likert rating scale, and multiple regressions. Tests of significant effects and differences were carried out with t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques. Research results indicated that the average age of the small-scale agro-based entrepreneurs were 40years, while majority (33.8%) of them fell within the age range of 31-40 years. Also, majority (57.5%) of the small-scale agro-based entrepreneurs were males, while 43.8% of them were married. Household size of six to ten persons was the highest at 41.3% with an average of 9 persons per household, while twenty five percent of the agro-based entrepreneurs had completed their primary school education. Furthermore, majority (26.9%) of the entrepreneurs were engaged in groundnut processing, while the average experience of the entrepreneurs was 9 years and majority (38.1%) of them had 6 – 10 years of experience. Further results showed that the average monthly income of the small-scale agro-based entrepreneurs was N12,031.25 while their average monthly savings was N4,550.00. Majority (58.3%) of the small-scale agro-based entrepreneurs saved with esusu. Further results showed that majority (46.3%) of the entrepreneurs invested within N21,000 - N30,000 in their businesses while 46.3% of them also sourced their investment capital through personal savings with only 2.5% of them receiving loans from bank to finance their investments. There were no significant (p>0.1) differences in investment pattern of the agro-based entrepreneurs across the agricultural zones. Furthermore, the results showed that the socio-economic characteristics were significant (p

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 330.08KB

ECONOMICS OF FADAMA RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA

By Ocheoha, Kenechukwu Nnenna

The study investigated the economics of fadama resource management practices in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja through the National Fadama Development Project. Proportionate and random sampling techniques were utilized to select 80 farmers that constituted the respondents for the study. Data for the study were collected by the researcher with the help of two well trained research assistants. The data collected were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. From the data analysed, the study found out that majority (56%) of the farmers fall within 36-50 years age bracket while the average age of the farmers is 51 years. Majority (71%) of the farmers were married. About 77% of the farmers had formal education ranging from primary school to tertiary education while the remaining 23% of the farmers had no formal education. The average years of experience of the farmers in the area is about 35years with majority (65%) of the farmers being males while 35% were females. The average farm household size in the study area is 8 persons. Majority (60%) of the farmers owned the lands they used for farm practices while 40% of the farmers acquire their farm lands through lease and purchase. Out of the 16 identified soil management practices, only 7 were utilized while the remaining 9 were not utilized for soil management by the farmers. For water management practices, only 3 out of the 9 identified management practices were utilized while the remaining 6 were not utilized. Out of the 7 identified vegetation management practices, only 2 were utilized by the farmers while the remaining 5 were not utilized. The results of the partial budgeting shows that the Net-benefits of organic/inorganic manuring, irrigation, digging well and construction of barrier for erosion control were N348,163.00, N345,330.00, N68,336.00, N63.091.00 respectively. The use of manuring for soil management has the highest Net-benefit of N348,163.00 relative to other resource management practices. The profitability indices for the fadama resource management practices were 5.16 for manuring, 6.46 for irrigation, 4.45 for digging well for farm operations and 5.10 for construction of erosion barriers. Irrigation practice has the highest profitability index of 6.46. The result of the regression analysis shows that the linear functional form had the best fit, based on the values of R2 (0.95), the levels and number of significant explanatory variables and their signs. The F-value of (247.089) indicated that the overall equation was significant at (p

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 51.50KB

INFLUENCE OF GENDER ON SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF FOREST RESOURCES IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

By Ezeali, Christie Beatrice O. (mrs)

Forest, which is a major source of resources in Nigeria, is currently facing accelerated degradation and depletion. The growing demand for ecosystem services from forests has led to over-exploitation of the resources, resulting in the extinction of some valuable species. This has continued to impact negatively on the capacity of the forests to mitigate climate change, conserve biodiversity, safeguard wildlife, and protect land and watershed. Approaches to forest management in Nigeria have not involved women in their desired perspective, irrespective of their dominant role in collection of forest produce. The influence of gender relationships on access to forests and forest resource management and sustainability has remained a concern to scholars and practitioners. This concern informed the need for this study. The broad objective of this study was to examine the effects of gender on sustainable management of forest resources in Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to: identify and examine the participation of male and female farmers in the ownership and conservation of forest resources; identify and describe the various forest management practices and to examine the factors influencing the decision of men and women in the adoption of improved forest resource conservation measures. Others include; examine, the level of adoption of forest resource conservation strategies between the male and female farmers; analyze gender distribution of benefits from forest resource exploitation, analyze perceived importance of forest conservation factors among male and female farmers and examine the major constraints militating against forest resource conservation and management. Relevant data for the study were generated mainly through the administration of structured questionnaire to farmers, randomly selected from 6 LGAs. A total of 240 respondents comprising 120 male and 120 female farmers was drawn from the 410,435 farm families in the state. Information collected include socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, environmental and institutional factors, gender access to forest resource benefits and forest resource conservation factors. Data generated were analyzed using percentages, frequencies, likert rating scale and Tobit regression model.The major findings were that: use of improved forest management practices was almost non-existent as against the traditional management practices that were common; female farmers in the study area adopted more improved forest conservation measures than their male counterparts. Tobit regression analysis showed that the coefficient of gender, land ownership, and dependence on forest for income were negative and significantly (p < 0.05) affected the adoption of improved forest resource conservation practices of the farmers, while credit access and gender discrimination in forest resource exploitation were positive and significant (p < 0.05). The analysis also indicated that forest resource management and conservation is driven by household size, land ownership, credit access, gender discrimination and dependence on forest for income and energy. The study, among others, recommended the pursuit of forestry management plan with emphasis on gender mainstreaming in forest conservation and management; improved extension outreach to forest dependent communities; pursuance of community based training programmes on forest management and conservation, with emphasis on those resources that are facing the risk of depletion/extinction; and the orientation of village heads on their role as custodians of natural resources in their communities.Forest, which is a major source of resources in Nigeria, is currently facing accelerated degradation and depletion. The growing demand for ecosystem services from forests has led to over-exploitation of the resources, resulting in the extinction of some valuable species. This has continued to impact negatively on the capacity of the forests to mitigate climate change, conserve biodiversity, safeguard wildlife, and protect land and watershed. Approaches to forest management in Nigeria have not involved women in their desired perspective, irrespective of their dominant role in collection of forest produce. The influence of gender relationships on access to forests and forest resource management and sustainability has remained a concern to scholars and practitioners. This concern informed the need for this study. The broad objective of this study was to examine the effects of gender on sustainable management of forest resources in Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to: identify and examine the participation of male and female farmers in the ownership and conservation of forest resources; identify and describe the various forest management practices and to examine the factors influencing the decision of men and women in the adoption of improved forest resource conservation measures. Others include; examine, the level of adoption of forest resource conservation strategies between the male and female farmers; analyze gender distribution of benefits from forest resource exploitation, analyze perceived importance of forest conservation factors among male and female farmers and examine the major constraints militating against forest resource conservation and management. Relevant data for the study were generated mainly through the administration of structured questionnaire to farmers, randomly selected from 6 LGAs. A total of 240 respondents comprising 120 male and 120 female farmers was drawn from the 410,435 farm families in the state. Information collected include socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, environmental and institutional factors, gender access to forest resource benefits and forest resource conservation factors. Data generated were analyzed using percentages, frequencies, likert rating scale and Tobit regression model.The major findings were that: use of improved forest management practices was almost non-existent as against the traditional management practices that were common; female farmers in the study area adopted more improved forest conservation measures than their male counterparts. Tobit regression analysis showed that the coefficient of gender, land ownership, and dependence on forest for income were negative and significantly (p < 0.05) affected the adoption of improved forest resource conservation practices of the farmers, while credit access and gender discrimination in forest resource exploitation were positive and significant (p < 0.05). The analysis also indicated that forest resource management and conservation is driven by household size, land ownership, credit access, gender discrimination and dependence on forest for income and energy. The study, among others, recommended the pursuit of forestry management plan with emphasis on gender mainstreaming in forest conservation and management; improved extension outreach to forest dependent communities; pursuance of community based training programmes on forest management and conservation, with emphasis on those resources that are facing the risk of depletion/extinction; and the orientation of village heads on their role as custodians of natural resources in their communities.

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 259.68KB

EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENTS ON AGRICULTURAL TRADE BETWEEN SMALL AND LARGE ECOWAS ECONOMIES AND THE EU

By Nwali, Collins Sunday

Smart Simulation Partial Equilibrium Methodology was employed in this study to determine Effects of Economic Partnership Agreements on Agricultural trade between small and large ECOWAS economies and the EU. Specifically, the study looked at the patterns of imports of sample of two ECOWAS countries the Gambia and Nigeria; the potential trade effects on the selected countries embarking on free trade under economic partnership agreement scenario; the potential revenue effects on the selected countries under the same platform; the potential welfare effects on the selected countries under the same platform; the sensitive products based on source and volume of import criteria. WITS provided access to international trade and protection related data and offered built-in-analytical tools for the study. Results of the analysis on patterns of import of the selected ECOWAS countries showed that the Gambia’s highest ($62158.328 million) proportion of imports came from ROW, followed by imports from the EU ($ 13071.561 million) and least ($1372.053 million) imports from ECOWAS region. However, it was observed that the highest ($28493.34 million) product group imported by the Gambia was product group 10 (cereals) at 45.840% from ROW. The results on patterns of agricultural imports of Nigeria showed that Nigeria’s highest ($1817981.912 million) imports on agricultural products came from ROW; followed by imports from EU ($982718.781 million) and least ($45635.089 million) imports from ECOWAS region. It was further observed that product group 10(cereals) was the highest ($699,878.321million) product group Nigeria imports which came from ROW at 38.50%. Result on Potential Trade Effect of EPAs between economies of ECOWAS countries studied and the EU, showed that the EU beneficiary countries (ECOWAS) were seen to gain $35926.855 million in “Trade Creation” and $15081.5191 million in “Trade Diversion”, while Total Trade Effect amounts to $20845.0309 million in Product groups studied as obtained from SMART Simulation Partial Equilibrium 2014. Result on Potential Revenue Effect of the two sample ECOWAS countries going into EPAs, showed total likely revenue losses (-$17223.665 million) for the two sampled countries on the product groups studied, with Nigeria recording higher ( -$16666.638 million) loss and Gambia recording least ( -$557.027). Result on Potential welfare effect of EPAs between the economies of ECOWAS countries studied and EU showed likely welfare gain ($2326.905 million) for the consumers in all the agricultural products studied. With Nigeria recording higher welfare gain ($2238.793million) than the Gambia ($88.112 million) in all the product groups studied. Result on sensitive products based on source and volume import criteria, showed that product group 3, 4 and 15 were identified to contain the potential sensitive products for the ECOWAS countries studied and should be exempted from EPAs as identified by the study. Base on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made: The trade effect showed that ECOWAS countries are likely to record greater trade creation effect than trade diversion effect in favour ECOWAS countries. The on-going Economic partnership Agreements (EPAs) negotiations between ECOWAS and the EU need to be concluded and implemented based on this ground but measures should be taken to guide the infant industries to protect them from fazing off from production due to cheaper goods flooding ECOWAS markets from EU market.There is need for fiscal reforms to replace EPAs induced tariff revenue losses. The fiscal reforms should entail shifting revenue from trade to non-trade tax sources and improving the efficiency of fiscal revenue collecting policies. Examples of non-tariff instruments that may assume greater importance in revenue generation include value-added tax (VAT) and excise taxes charged on imports from the EU. If ECOWAS countries can adapt this measure, EPAs should be signed since the lost revenue can be reclaimed via these means. Agricultural product groups 3, 4 and 15 should be the likely sensitive products for the ECOWAS countries and should be exempted from EPAs as identified in this study.Smart Simulation Partial Equilibrium Methodology was employed in this study to determine Effects of Economic Partnership Agreements on Agricultural trade between small and large ECOWAS economies and the EU. Specifically, the study looked at the patterns of imports of sample of two ECOWAS countries the Gambia and Nigeria; the potential trade effects on the selected countries embarking on free trade under economic partnership agreement scenario; the potential revenue effects on the selected countries under the same platform; the potential welfare effects on the selected countries under the same platform; the sensitive products based on source and volume of import criteria. WITS provided access to international trade and protection related data and offered built-in-analytical tools for the study. Results of the analysis on patterns of import of the selected ECOWAS countries showed that the Gambia’s highest ($62158.328 million) proportion of imports came from ROW, followed by imports from the EU ($ 13071.561 million) and least ($1372.053 million) imports from ECOWAS region. However, it was observed that the highest ($28493.34 million) product group imported by the Gambia was product group 10 (cereals) at 45.840% from ROW. The results on patterns of agricultural imports of Nigeria showed that Nigeria’s highest ($1817981.912 million) imports on agricultural products came from ROW; followed by imports from EU ($982718.781 million) and least ($45635.089 million) imports from ECOWAS region. It was further observed that product group 10(cereals) was the highest ($699,878.321million) product group Nigeria imports which came from ROW at 38.50%. Result on Potential Trade Effect of EPAs between economies of ECOWAS countries studied and the EU, showed that the EU beneficiary countries (ECOWAS) were seen to gain $35926.855 million in “Trade Creation” and $15081.5191 million in “Trade Diversion”, while Total Trade Effect amounts to $20845.0309 million in Product groups studied as obtained from SMART Simulation Partial Equilibrium 2014. Result on Potential Revenue Effect of the two sample ECOWAS countries going into EPAs, showed total likely revenue losses (-$17223.665 million) for the two sampled countries on the product groups studied, with Nigeria recording higher ( -$16666.638 million) loss and Gambia recording least ( -$557.027). Result on Potential welfare effect of EPAs between the economies of ECOWAS countries studied and EU showed likely welfare gain ($2326.905 million) for the consumers in all the agricultural products studied. With Nigeria recording higher welfare gain ($2238.793million) than the Gambia ($88.112 million) in all the product groups studied. Result on sensitive products based on source and volume import criteria, showed that product group 3, 4 and 15 were identified to contain the potential sensitive products for the ECOWAS countries studied and should be exempted from EPAs as identified by the study. Base on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made: The trade effect showed that ECOWAS countries are likely to record greater trade creation effect than trade diversion effect in favour ECOWAS countries. The on-going Economic partnership Agreements (EPAs) negotiations between ECOWAS and the EU need to be concluded and implemented based on this ground but measures should be taken to guide the infant industries to protect them from fazing off from production due to cheaper goods flooding ECOWAS markets from EU market.There is need for fiscal reforms to replace EPAs induced tariff revenue losses. The fiscal reforms should entail shifting revenue from trade to non-trade tax sources and improving the efficiency of fiscal revenue collecting policies. Examples of non-tariff instruments that may assume greater importance in revenue generation include value-added tax (VAT) and excise taxes charged on imports from the EU. If ECOWAS countries can adapt this measure, EPAs should be signed since the lost revenue can be reclaimed via these means. Agricultural product groups 3, 4 and 15 should be the likely sensitive products for the ECOWAS countries and should be exempted from EPAs as identified in this study.

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 1.25MB

CREDIT ACCESS AND THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL SCALE AGRO-BASED ENTERPRISES IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA

By Essien, Ubon Asuquo

The study was designed to analyze credit access and performance of small scale agro-based enterprises in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in selecting 264 and 96 agro-based enterprises that accessed informal and formal credit respectively, through the use of structured questionnaire and oral interview. A total of 360 respondents were selected and used for the study. Socio-economic characteristics of the enterprises were described using descriptive statistical tools such as percentages, means and frequencies. The logit model was used to examine enterprise characteristics that had significant influence on informal and formal credit access by small scale agro-based enterprises. The Heckman model was used to examine the factors affecting informal and formal credit amount accessed. The Poisson regression model was employed to examine the factors affecting frequency of informal or formal credit access by the enterprises. Current ratio and return on capital were employed to examine the performance of enterprises that borrowed from informal and formal credit markets in the area. Separate treatment of Informal and Formal Credit served to identify the similarities and differences between the credit source concerning the determinants of credit access, amount of credit accessed, frequency of access, credit default and financial performance of the enterprises. The results showed that 60.13% of small scale agro-based enterprises had access to the informal credit market, whereas only 21.86% had access to formal credit market. Enterprise age (p

Published: 10/03/2018

Size: 1.75MB

EFFECTS OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT ON CUSTOMER RETENTION BY AGRIBUSINESS FIRMS IN ABA METROPOLIS OF ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

By Chiemela, Chinedum . Jachinma

The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of customer relationship management (CRM) on customer retention by agribusinesses in Aba Metropolis of Abia State. To achieve the aim of this study, fourteen agribusiness firms were randomly selected and from each firm, two staff and five customers were randomly selected. A total of 98 respondents were therefore used for the study. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected using a well structured sets of questionnaire designed for the respondents. The data were analyzed quantitatively using descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations) and binary logit regression analyses. The results of the analyses showed that CRM strategies play major role in customer retention, and there are effective CRM strategies agribusiness firms use that are acknowledged by customers that has encouraged their retention in the various firms. More so, the results obtained showed that certain extents of these strategies of CRM were helpful in customer retention; however certain challenges facing these agribusiness firms were identified. Some socioeconomic characteristics of the customers were found as factors that could affect customer retention (p

Published: 10/03/2018

Tags: Customer Retention, Customer Relationship Management, Agribusiness Firms, Aba Metropolis

Size: 349.13KB